Fiorenza Micheli is Chair of the Ocean Department, co-director of Stanford’s Center for Ocean Solutions, and a marine ecologist at the Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford University, where she is the David and Lucile Packard Professor of Marine Science. Micheli’s research focuses on the processes shaping marine communities and coastal social-ecological systems, and incorporating this understanding in marine management and conservation. She investigates climatic impacts on marine ecosystems, particularly the impacts of hypoxia and ocean acidification on marine species, communities and fisheries, marine predators’ ecology and trophic cascades, the dynamics and sustainability of small-scale fisheries, and the design and function of Marine Protected Areas. Her current research takes her to Mexico, Italy, and Palau, in addition to California. She is a Pew Fellow in Marine Conservation, a fellow of the California Academy of Sciences, research advisor to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Seafood Watch and the Benioff Ocean Initiative, and senior fellow at Stanford’s Woods Institute for the Environment.

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Chair, Oceans Department, SDSS (2022 - 2025)
  • Co-director, Hopkins Marine Station (2020 - 2022)
  • Co-director, Center for Ocean Solutions (2017 - Present)
  • Senior Fellow, Woods Institute for the Environment (2014 - Present)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

My research focuses on the processes and interactions shaping coastal marine communities and incorporating this understanding in the management and conservation of marine ecosystems. A primary focus of my research program has been in how disturbance and interactions between species underlie the organization, spatial variation, and temporal change in marine communities. In addition to addressing these basic ecological questions, my research seeks to apply community ecology to increase our understanding of human impacts on the marine environment and to design conservation and restoration strategies. Examples include quantifying the joint effects of fishing and climate change on marine ecosystems and incorporating our understanding of diversity patterns, species interactions, habitat-species linkages, and patterns of human use of natural resources in the design and evaluation of marine reserve networks and marine zoning. I am currently co-directing the Stanford Center for Ocean Solutions, with Jim Leape.

To date, I have authored or co-authored over 200 peer-reviewed publications. I have advised over 20 postdocs, over 20 PhD students and nearly 100 undergraduate students at Stanford University. Currently my group includes four postdoctoral researchers and six PhD students conducting research in California, Baja California, Palau, The Chagos and Italy, and additional fellows and interns at COS. I have given over 300 presentations at conferences, symposia and at academic institutions, including ~150 invited presentations and ten lectures as the keynote speaker in international conferences. I have obtained grants from the US National Science Foundation, Environmental Protection Agency, NOAA, National Geographic Society, and private foundations, including funding for three large multi-institutional and interdisciplinary projects from the NSF – Coupled Natural-Human Systems program. I am a fellow of the California Academy of Science and the Aldo Leopold Leadership Program, past president of the Western Society of Naturalists, a Pew Fellow in Marine Conservation.

2023-24 Courses

Stanford Advisees

Graduate and Fellowship Programs

  • Biology (School of Humanities and Sciences) (Phd Program)

All Publications

  • Shortened food chain length in a fished versus unfished coral reef. Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America Young, H. S., McCauley, F. O., Micheli, F., Dunbar, R. B., McCauley, D. J. 2024: e3002


    Direct exploitation through fishing is driving dramatic declines of wildlife populations in ocean environments, particularly for predatory and large-bodied taxa. Despite wide recognition of this pattern and well-established consequences of such trophic downgrading on ecosystem function, there have been few empirical studies examining the effects of fishing on whole system trophic architecture. Understanding these kinds of structural impacts is especially important in coral reef ecosystems-often heavily fished and facing multiple stressors. Given the often high dietary flexibility and numerous functional redundancies in diverse ecosystems such as coral reefs, it is important to establish whether web architecture is strongly impacted by fishing pressure or whether it might be resilient, at least to moderate-intensity pressure. To examine this question, we used a combination of bulk and compound-specific stable isotope analyses measured across a range of predatory and low-trophic-level consumers between two coral reef ecosystems that differed with respect to fishing pressure but otherwise remained largely similar. We found that even in a high-diversity system with relatively modest fishing pressure, there were strong reductions in the trophic position (TP) of the three highest TP consumers examined in the fished system but no effects on the TP of lower-level consumers. We saw no evidence that this shortening of the affected food webs was being driven by changes in basal resource consumption, for example, through changes in the spatial location of foraging by consumers. Instead, this likely reflected internal changes in food web architecture, suggesting that even in diverse systems and with relatively modest pressure, human harvest causes significant compressions in food chain length. This observed shortening of these food webs may have many important emergent ecological consequences for the functioning of ecosystems impacted by fishing or hunting. Such important structural shifts may be widespread but unnoticed by traditional surveys. This insight may also be useful for applied ecosystem managers grappling with choices about the relative importance of protection for remote and pristine areas and the value of strict no-take areas to protect not just the raw constituents of systems affected by fishing and hunting but also the health and functionality of whole systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eap.3002

    View details for PubMedID 38840322

  • The Kelp Forest Challenge: A collaborative global movement to protect and restore 4 million hectares of kelp forests (Oct, 10.1007/s10811-023-03103-y, 2023) JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYCOLOGY Eger, A., Aguirre, J., Altamirano, M., Arafeh-Dalmau, N., Arroyo, N., Bauer-Civiello, A. M., Beas-Luna, R., Bekkby, T., Bellgrove, A., Bennett, S., Bernal, B., Blain, C. O., Boada, J., Branigan, S., Bursic, J., Cevallos, B., Choi, C., Connell, S. D., Cornwall, C., Earp, H., Eddy, N., Ennis, L., Falace, A., Ferreira, A., Filbee-Dexter, K., Forbes, H., Francis, P., Franco, J. N., Geisler, K., Giraldo-Ospina, A., Gonzalez, A. V., Hingorani, S., Hohman, R., Ivesa, L., Kaleb, S., Keane, J. P., Koch, S. I., Krumhansl, K., Ladah, L., Lafont, D. J., Layton, C., Le, D., Lee, L., Ling, S. D., Lonhart, S. I., Malpica-Cruz, L., Mangialajo, L., McConnell, A., McHugh, T., Micheli, F., Miller, K., Monserrat, M., Montes-Herrera, J., Moreno, B., Neufeld, C. J., Orchard, S., Peabody, B., Peleg, O., Pessarrodona, A., Pocklington, J. B., Reeves, S. E., Ricart, A. M., Ross, F., Schanz, F., Schreider, M., Sedarat, M., Smith, S. M., Starko, S., Strain, E. A., Tamburello, L., Timmer, B., Toft, J. E., Uribe, R. A., van den Burg, S. K., Vasquez, J. A., Veenhof, R. J., Wernberg, T., Wood, G., Zepeda-Dominguez, J., Verges, A. 2024
  • Salmon shark seasonal site fidelity demonstrates the influence of scale on identifying potential high-use areas and vulnerabilities MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Arnoldi, N. S., Carlisle, A. B., Andrzejaczek, S., Castleton, M. R., Micheli, F., Schallert, R. J., White, T. D., Block, B. A. 2024; 735: 125-140

    View details for DOI 10.3354/meps14565

    View details for Web of Science ID 001214316400004

  • Growth of juvenile red abalone (<i>Haliotis rufescens</i>) co-cultivated with two densities of warty sea cucumber (<i>Apostichopus parvimensis</i>) NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF MARINE AND FRESHWATER RESEARCH Bauer, J., Beas-Luna, R., Searcy-Bernal, R., Micheli, F., Vazquez-Vera, L., Boch, C., Carpizo-Ituarte, E., Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Montano-Moctezuma, G., Lorda, J. 2024
  • Self-governance mediates small-scale fishing strategies, vulnerability and adaptive response GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE-HUMAN AND POLICY DIMENSIONS Frawley, T. H., Gonzalez-Mon, B., Nenadovic, M., Gladstone, F., Nomura, K., Zepeda-Dominguez, J., Rodriguez-Van Dyck, S., Ferrer, E. M., Torre, J., Micheli, F., Leslie, H. M., Basurto, X. 2024; 84
  • Social-ecological vulnerability to environmental extremes and adaptation pathways in small-scale fisheries of the southern California Current FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Micheli, F., Saenz-Arroyo, A., Aalto, E., Beas-Luna, R., Boch, C. A., Cardenas, J., De Leo, G. A., Diaz, E., Espinoza-Montes, A., Finkbeiner, E., Freiwald, J., Fulton, S., Hernandez, A., Lejbowicz, A., Low, N. N., Martinez, R., Mccay, B., Monismith, S., Precoma-de la Mora, M., Romero, A., Smith, A., Torre, J., Vazquez-Vera, L., Woodson, C. 2024; 11
  • Functional changes across marine habitats due to ocean acidification. Global change biology Teixidó, N., Carlot, J., Alliouane, S., Ballesteros, E., De Vittor, C., Gambi, M. C., Gattuso, J. P., Kroeker, K., Micheli, F., Mirasole, A., Parravacini, V., Villéger, S. 2024; 30 (1): e17105


    Global environmental change drives diversity loss and shifts in community structure. A key challenge is to better understand the impacts on ecosystem function and to connect species and trait diversity of assemblages with ecosystem properties that are in turn linked to ecosystem functioning. Here we quantify shifts in species composition and trait diversity associated with ocean acidification (OA) by using field measurements at marine CO2 vent systems spanning four reef habitats across different depths in a temperate coastal ecosystem. We find that both species and trait diversity decreased, and that ecosystem properties (understood as the interplay between species, traits, and ecosystem function) shifted with acidification. Furthermore, shifts in trait categories such as autotrophs, filter feeders, herbivores, and habitat-forming species were habitat-specific, indicating that OA may produce divergent responses across habitats and depths. Combined, these findings reveal the importance of connecting species and trait diversity of marine benthic habitats with key ecosystem properties to anticipate the impacts of global environmental change. Our results also generate new insights on the predicted general and habitat-specific ecological consequences of OA.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/gcb.17105

    View details for PubMedID 38273554

  • Functional changes across marine habitats due to ocean acidification GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Teixido, N., Carlot, J., Alliouane, S., Ballesteros, E., De Vittor, C., Gambi, M., Gattuso, J., Kroeker, K., Micheli, F., Mirasole, A., Parravacini, V., Villeger, S. 2024; 30 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1111/gcb.17105

    View details for Web of Science ID 001139045000001

  • Seascape genomics of the pink abalone (Haliotis corrugata): An insight into a cross-border species in the northeast Pacific coast. The Journal of heredity Mares-Mayagoitia, J. A., Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Micheli, F., Cruz-Hernandez, P., de-Anda-Montanez, J. A., Hyde, J., Hernandez-Saavedra, N. Y., Mejia-Ruiz, P., De Jesus-Bonilla, V. S., Vargas-Peralta, C. E., Valenzuela-Quinonez, F. 2023


    Seascape genomics gives insight into the geographic and environmental factors shaping local adaptations. It improves the understanding of the potential effects of climate change, which is relevant to provide the basis for the international management of fishery resources. The pink abalone (Haliotis corrugata) is distributed from California, USA to Baja California Sur, Mexico, exposed to a latitudinal environmental gradient in the California Current System. Management of the pink abalone contrasts between Mexico and the USA; Mexico has an active fishery organized in four administrative areas, while the United States has kept the fishery in permanent closure since 1996. However, the impact of environmental factors on genetic variation along the species distribution remains unknown, and understanding this relationship is crucial for effective spatial management strategies. This study aims to investigate the neutral and adaptive genomic structure of H. corrugata. A total of 203 samples from 13 locations were processed using ddRADseq, and covering the species' distribution. Overall, 2,231 neutral, nine potentially adaptive and three Genomic-Environmental Association (GEA) loci were detected. The neutral structure identified two groups: 1) California, USA, and 2) Baja California Peninsula, Mexico. In addition, the adaptive structure analysis also detected two groups with genetic divergence observed at Punta Eugenia. Notably, the seawater temperature significantly correlated with the northern group (temperate) and the southern (warmer) group. This study is a valuable foundation for future research and conservation initiatives, emphasizing the importance of considering neutral and adaptive genetic factors when developing management strategies for marine species.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jhered/esad083

    View details for PubMedID 38158823

  • Dynamic interplay: disentangling the temporal variability of fish effects on coral recruitment. Scientific reports McDevitt-Irwin, J. M., McCauley, D. J., Brumbaugh, D. R., Elmer, F., Ferretti, F., White, T. D., Wible, J. G., Micheli, F. 2023; 13 (1): 20971


    Ecosystems around the world are continuously undergoing recovery from anthropogenic disturbances like climate change, overexploitation, and habitat destruction. Coral reefs are a prime example of a threatened ecosystem and coral recruitment is a critical component of reef recovery from disturbances. Reef fishes structure this recruitment by directly consuming macroalgae and coral recruits or by indirectly altering the substrate to facilitate coral settlement (e.g., grazing scars). However, how these direct and indirect mechanisms vary through time remains largely unknown. Here, we quantified coral recruitment on settlement tiles with divots that mimic grazing scars and caging treatments to exclude or allow fish feeding over 3 years at Palmyra Atoll in the Pacific Ocean. We found that the positive and negative effects of fishes on coral recruitment varies through time. After 3 years, both grazing scars and fish grazing no longer predicted coral recruitment, suggesting that the role of fishes decreases over time. Our results emphasize that reef fish populations are important in promoting initial coral recovery after disturbances. However, over time, factors like the environment may become more important. Future work should continue to explore how the strength and direction of top-down control by consumers varies through time across multiple ecosystems.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-023-47758-6

    View details for PubMedID 38017077

    View details for PubMedCentralID 2886133

  • Integrating climate adaptation and transboundary management: Guidelines for designing climate-smart marine protected areas ONE EARTH Arafeh-Dalmau, N., Munguia-Vega, A., Micheli, F., Vilalta-Navas, A., Villasenor-Derbez, J., Precoma-de la Mora, M., Schoeman, D. S., Medellin-Ortiz, A., Cavanaugh, K. C., Sosa-Nishizaki, O., Burnham, T. U., Knight, C. J., Woodson, C., Abas, M., Abadia-Cardoso, A., Aburto-Oropeza, O., Esgro, M. W., Espinosa-Andrade, N., Beas-Luna, R., Cardenas, N., Carr, M. H., Dale, K. E., Cisneros-Soberanis, F., Flores-Morales, A., Fulton, S., Garcia-Rodriguez, E., Giron-Nava, A., Gleason, M. G., Green, A. L., Hernandez-Velasco, A., Ibarra-Macias, B., Johnson, A. F., Lorda, J., Malpica-Cruz, L., Montano-Moctezuma, G., Olguin-Jacobson, C., Pares-Sierra, A., Raimondi, P. T., Ramirez-Ortiz, G., Ramirez-Valdez, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Saarman, E., Saldana-Ruiz, L., Smith, A., Soldatini, C., Suarez, A., Torres-Moye, G., Walther, M., Watson, E., Worden, S., Possingham, H. P. 2023; 6 (11): 1523-1541
  • The Kelp Forest Challenge: A collaborative global movement to protect and restore 4 million hectares of kelp forests JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYCOLOGY Eger, A., Aguirre, J., Altamirano, M., Arafeh-Dalmau, N., Arroyo, N., Bauer-Civiello, A. M., Beas-Luna, R., Bekkby, T., Bennett, S., Bernal, B., Blain, C. O., Boada, J., Branigan, S., Bursic, J., Cevallos, B., Choi, C., Connell, S. D., Edward, C., Earp, H., Eddy, N., Matthius, A., Ennis, L., Falace, A., Ferreira, A., Filbee-Dexter, K., Forbes, H., Francis, P., Franco, J. N., Geisler, K., Giraldo-Ospina, A., Gonzalez, A. V., Hingorani, S., Hohman, R., Ivesa, L., Kaleb, S., Keane, J. P., Koch, S. I., Krumhansl, K., Ladah, L., Lafont, D. J., Layton, C., Le, D., Lee, L., Ling, S. D., Lonhart, S. I., Malpica-Cruz, L., Mangialajo, L., McConnell, A., McHugh, T., Micheli, F., Miller, K., Monserrat, M., Montes-Herrera, J., Moreno, B., Neufeld, C. J., Orchard, S., Peabody, B., Peleg, O., Pessarrodona, A., Pocklington, J. B., Reeves, S. E., Ricart, A. M., Ross, F., Schanz, F., Schreider, M., Sedarat, M., Smith, S. M., Starko, S., Strain, E. A., Tamburello, L., Timmer, B., Toft, J. E., Uribe, R. A., van den Burg, S. K., Vasquez, J. A., Veenhof, R. J., Wernberg, T., Wood, G., Zepeda-Dominguez, J., Verges, A. 2023
  • Exploring climate-induced sex-based differences in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems to mitigate biodiversity loss. Nature communications Gissi, E., Schiebinger, L., Hadly, E. A., Crowder, L. B., Santoleri, R., Micheli, F. 2023; 14 (1): 4787

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-023-40316-8

    View details for PubMedID 37587108

    View details for PubMedCentralID 5326506

  • Oxygen availability and body mass modulate ectotherm responses to ocean warming. Nature communications Duncan, M. I., Micheli, F., Boag, T. H., Marquez, J. A., Deres, H., Deutsch, C. A., Sperling, E. A. 2023; 14 (1): 3811


    In an ocean that is rapidly warming and losing oxygen, accurate forecasting of species' responses must consider how this environmental change affects fundamental aspects of their physiology. Here, we develop an absolute metabolic index (ΦA) that quantifies how ocean temperature, dissolved oxygen and organismal mass interact to constrain the total oxygen budget an organism can use to fuel sustainable levels of aerobic metabolism. We calibrate species-specific parameters of ΦA with physiological measurements for red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and purple urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). ΦA models highlight that the temperature where oxygen supply is greatest shifts cooler when water loses oxygen or organisms grow larger, providing a mechanistic explanation for observed thermal preference patterns. Viable habitat forecasts are disproportionally deleterious for red abalone, revealing how species-specific physiologies modulate the intensity of a common climate signal, captured in the newly developed ΦA framework.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-023-39438-w

    View details for PubMedID 37369654

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10300008

  • Vulnerability of blue foods to human-induced environmental change NATURE SUSTAINABILITY Cao, L., Halpern, B. S., Troell, M., Short, R., Zeng, C., Jiang, Z., Liu, Y., Zou, C., Liu, C., Liu, S., Liu, X., Cheung, W. L., Cottrell, R. S., DeClerck, F., Gelcich, S., Gephart, J. A., Godo-Solo, D., Kaull, J., Micheli, F., Naylor, R. L., Payne, H. J., Selig, E. R., Sumaila, U., Tigchelaar, M. 2023
  • Consumers decrease variability across space and turnover through time during coral reef succession. Oecologia McDevitt-Irwin, J. M., McCauley, D. J., Brumbaugh, D. R., Elmer, F., Ferretti, F., Joyce, F. H., White, T. D., Wible, J. G., Micheli, F. 2023


    Consumers play an integral role in mediating ecological succession-the change in community composition over time. As consumer populations are facing rapid decline in ecosystems around the world, understanding of their ecological role is becoming increasingly urgent. Increased understanding of how changes in consumer populations may influence community variability across space and turnover through time during succession is particularly important for coral reefs, which are among the most threatened ecosystems globally, and where fishes play vital roles in structuring benthic succession. Here, we examine how consumers influence coral reef succession by deploying 180 paired settlement tiles, caged (to exclude fishes larger than approximately 15cm) and uncaged, within Palmyra Atoll, a remote marine wildlife refuge with previously documented high fish abundance, and monitored benthic community development one and three years after deployment. We found that excluding large fishes lead to lower alpha diversity and divergent community states across space (i.e.,, high beta diversity among caged tiles), suggesting that benthic fish feeding maintains local diversity but tends to homogenize community composition with dominance by crustose coralline algae. In addition, when fish were experimentally excluded, the developing benthic community exhibited a greater change in species composition over time (i.e., high temporal beta diversity), indicating that fish feeding tends to canalize community successional trajectories. Finally, the caged and uncaged tiles became more similar over time, suggesting that fish feeding plays a more important role during early succession. Our results demonstrate that the loss of large fishes, for example from overfishing, may result in benthic communities that are more variable across space and time. Increased variability could have important implications for ecosystem function and coral reef resilience in the face of escalating global stressors.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00442-023-05404-y

    View details for PubMedID 37344733

  • Sex analysis in marine biological systems: insights and opportunities FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Gissi, E., Schiebinger, L., Santoleri, R., Micheli, F. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.1002/fee.2652

    View details for Web of Science ID 001005320800001

  • Multi-taxa marine isoscapes provide insight into large-scale trophic dynamics in the North Pacific PROGRESS IN OCEANOGRAPHY Arnoldi, N. S., Litvin, S. Y., Madigan, D. J., Micheli, F., Carlisle, A. 2023; 213
  • Four ways blue foods can help achieve food system ambitions across nations. Nature Crona, B. I., Wassenius, E., Jonell, M., Koehn, J. Z., Short, R., Tigchelaar, M., Daw, T. M., Golden, C. D., Gephart, J. A., Allison, E. H., Bush, S. R., Cao, L., Cheung, W. W., DeClerck, F., Fanzo, J., Gelcich, S., Kishore, A., Halpern, B. S., Hicks, C. C., Leape, J. P., Little, D. C., Micheli, F., Naylor, R. L., Phillips, M., Selig, E. R., Springmann, M., Sumaila, U. R., Troell, M., Thilsted, S. H., Wabnitz, C. C. 2023


    Blue foods, sourced in aquatic environments, are important for the economies, livelihoods, nutritional security and cultures of people in many nations. They are often nutrient rich1, generate lower emissions and impacts on land and water than many terrestrial meats2, and contribute to thehealth3, wellbeing and livelihoods of many rural communities4. The Blue Food Assessment recently evaluated nutritional, environmental, economic and justice dimensions of blue foods globally. Here we integrate these findings and translate them into four policy objectives to help realize the contributions that blue foods can make to national food systems around the world: ensuring supplies of critical nutrients, providing healthy alternatives to terrestrial meat, reducing dietary environmental footprints and safeguarding blue food contributions to nutrition, just economies and livelihoods under a changing climate. To account for how context-specific environmental, socio-economic and cultural aspects affect this contribution, we assess the relevance of each policy objective for individual countries, and examine associated co-benefits and trade-offs at national and international scales. We find that in many African and South American nations, facilitating consumption of culturally relevant blue food, especially among nutritionally vulnerable population segments, could address vitamin B12 and omega-3 deficiencies. Meanwhile, in many global North nations, cardiovascular disease rates and large greenhouse gas footprints from ruminant meat intake could be lowered through moderate consumption of seafood withlowenvironmentalimpact. The analytical framework we provide also identifies countries with high future risk, for whom climate adaptation of blue food systems will be particularly important. Overall the framework helps decisionmakers toassess the blue food policy objectives most relevant to their geographies, and tocompare and contrast the benefits and trade-offs associated with pursuing these objectives.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-023-05737-x

    View details for PubMedID 36813964

  • Exploring multiple stressor effects with Ecopath, Ecosim, and Ecospace: Research designs, modeling techniques, and future directions. The Science of the total environment Stock, A., Murray, C. C., Gregr, E., Steenbeek, J., Woodburn, E., Micheli, F., Christensen, V., Chan, K. M. 2023: 161719


    Understanding the cumulative effects of multiple stressors is a research priority in environmental science. Ecological models are a key component of tackling this challenge because they can simulate interactions between the components of an ecosystem. Here, we ask, how has the popular modeling platform Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) been used to model human impacts related to climate change, land and sea use, pollution, and invasive species? We conducted a literature review encompassing 166 studies covering stressors other than fishing mostly in aquatic ecosystems. The most modeled stressors were physical climate change (60 studies), species introductions (22), habitat loss (21), and eutrophication (20), using a range of modeling techniques. Despite this comprehensive coverage, we identified four gaps that must be filled to harness the potential of EwE for studying multiple stressor effects. First, only 12% of studies investigated three or more stressors, with most studies focusing on single stressors. Furthermore, many studies modeled only one of many pathways through which each stressor is known to affect ecosystems. Second, various methods have been applied to define environmental response functions representing the effects of single stressors on species groups. These functions can have a large effect on the simulated ecological changes, but best practices for deriving them are yet to emerge. Third, human dimensions of environmental change - except for fisheries - were rarely considered. Fourth, only 3% of studies used statistical research designs that allow attribution of simulated ecosystem changes to stressors' direct effects and interactions, such as factorial (computational) experiments. None made full use of the statistical possibilities that arise when simulations can be repeated many times with controlled changes to the inputs. We argue that all four gaps are feasibly filled by integrating ecological modeling with advances in other subfields of environmental science and in computational statistics.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.161719

    View details for PubMedID 36693571

  • Comparing spatial patterns of marine vessels between vessel-tracking data and satellite imagery FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Nakayama, S., Dong, W., Correro, R. G., Selig, E. R., Wabnitz, C. C., Hastie, T. J., Leape, J., Yeung, S., Micheli, F. 2023; 9
  • Marine protected areas' positive effect on fish biomass persists across the steep climatic gradient of the Mediterranean Sea JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY Frid, O., Malamud, S., Di Franco, A., Guidetti, P., Azzurro, E., Claudet, J., Micheli, F., Yahel, R., Sala, E., Belmaker, J. 2023
  • Priorities for synthesis research in ecology and environmental science ECOSPHERE Halpern, B. S., Boettiger, C., Dietze, M. C., Gephart, J. A., Gonzalez, P., Grimm, N. B., Groffman, P. M., Gurevitch, J., Hobbie, S. E., Komatsu, K. J., Kroeker, K. J., Lahr, H. J., Lodge, D. M., Lortie, C. J., Lowndes, J. S., Micheli, F., Possingham, H. P., Ruckelshaus, M. H., Scarborough, C., Wood, C. L., Wu, G. C., Aoyama, L., Arroyo, E. E., Bahlai, C. A., Beller, E. E., Blake, R. E., Bork, K. S., Branch, T. A., Brown, N. M., Brun, J., Bruna, E. M., Buckley, L. B., Burnett, J. L., Castorani, M. N., Cheng, S. H., Cohen, S. C., Couture, J. L., Crowder, L. B., Dee, L. E., Dias, A. S., Diaz-Maroto, I. J., Downs, M. R., Dudney, J. C., Ellis, E. C., Emery, K. A., Eurich, J. G., Ferriss, B. E., Fredston, A., Furukawa, H., Gagne, S. A., Garlick, S. R., Garroway, C. J., Gaynor, K. M., Gonzalez, A. L., Grames, E. M., Guy-Haim, T., Hackett, E., Hallett, L. M., Harms, T. K., Haulsee, D. E., Haynes, K. J., Hazen, E. L., Jarvis, R. M., Jones, K., Kandlikar, G. S., Kincaid, D. W., Knope, M. L., Koirala, A., Kolasa, J., Kominoski, J. S., Koricheva, J., Lancaster, L. T., Lawlor, J. A., Lowman, H. E., Muller-Karger, F. E., Norman, K. A., Nourn, N., O'Hara, C. C., Ou, S. X., Padilla-Gamino, J. L., Pappalardo, P., Peek, R. A., Pelletier, D., Plont, S., Ponisio, L. C., Portales-Reyes, C., Provete, D. B., Raes, E. J., Ramirez-Reyes, C., Ramos, I., Record, S., Richardson, A. J., Salguero-Gomez, R., Satterthwaite, E., Schmidt, C., Schwartz, A. J., See, C. R., Shea, B. D., Smith, R. S., Sokol, E. R., Solomon, C. T., Spanbauer, T., Stefanoudis, P., Sterner, B. W., Sudbrack, V., Tonkin, J. D., Townes, A. R., Valle, M., Walter, J. A., Wheeler, K., Wieder, W. R., Williams, D. R., Winter, M., Winterova, B., Woodall, L. C., Wymore, A. S., Youngflesh, C. 2023; 14 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ecs2.4342

    View details for Web of Science ID 000928051800001

  • Shortfalls in the protection of persistent bull kelp forests in the USA BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Arafeh-Dalmau, N., Olguin-Jacobson, C., Bell, T. W., Micheli, F., Cavanaugh, K. C. 2023; 283
  • Data-poor ecological risk assessment of multiple stressors Ecological Informatics Grewelle, R. E., Mansfield, E., Micheli, F., De Leo, G. 2023
  • Linking multiple stressor science to policy opportunities through network modeling MARINE POLICY Wedding, L. M., Green, S. J., Reiter, S., Arrigo, K. R., Hazen, L., Ruckelshaus, M., van der Grient, J. A., Bailey, R. M., Cameron, M. A., Leape, J., Levi, M., Merkl, A., Mills, M. M., Monismith, S., Ouellette, N. T., van Dijken, G., Micheli, F. 2022; 146
  • Aquaculture over-optimism? FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Sumaila, U., Pierruci, A., Oyinlola, M. A., Cannas, R., Froese, R., Glaser, S., Jacquet, J., Kaiser, B. A., Issifu, I., Micheli, F., Naylor, R., Pauly, D. 2022; 9
  • Using a social-ecological systems perspective to identify context specific actions to build resilience in small scale fisheries in Mexico FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Valdez-Rojas, C., Beas-Luna, R., Lorda, J., Zepeda-Dominguez, J. A., Montano-Moctezuma, G., Medellin-Ortiz, A., Torre, J., Micheli, F. 2022; 9
  • OceanOptimism: Balancing the narrative about the future of the ocean (vol 9, 886027, 2022) FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Borja, A., Elliott, M., Basurko, O. C., Muerza, A., Micheli, F., Zimmermann, F., Knowlton, N. 2022; 9
  • Trophic ecology of an abundant kelp forest echinoderm, the bat star Patiria miniata MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Cryan, D. M., Low, N. N., Litvin, S. Y., Osenberg, C. W., Micheli, F. 2022; 696: 57-68

    View details for DOI 10.3354/meps14127

    View details for Web of Science ID 000854198500005

  • #OceanOptimism: Balancing the Narrative About the Future of the Ocean FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Borja, A., Elliott, M., Basurko, O. C., Muerza, A., Micheli, F., Zimmermann, F., Knowlton, N. 2022; 9
  • Variability in grazing on juvenile giant kelp throughout an upwelling season MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Ng, C. A., Micheli, F. 2022; 693: 83-93

    View details for DOI 10.3354/meps14083

    View details for Web of Science ID 000851378000006

  • Influence of Kelp Forest Biomass on Nearshore Currents JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS Monismith, S. G., Alnajjar, M. W., Woodson, C., Boch, C. A., Hernandez, A., Vazquez-Vera, L., Bell, T. W., Micheli, F. 2022; 127 (7)
  • The vital roles of blue foods in the global food system GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY-AGRICULTURE POLICY ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENT Tigchelaar, M., Leape, J., Micheli, F., Allison, E. H., Basurto, X., Bennett, A., Bush, S. R., Cao, L., Cheung, W. L., Crona, B., DeClerck, F., Fanzo, J., Gelcich, S., Gephart, J. A., Golden, C. D., Halpern, B. S., Hicks, C. C., Jonell, M., Kishore, A., Koehn, J., Little, D. C., Naylor, R. L., Phillips, M. J., Selig, E. R., Short, R. E., Sumaila, U., Thilsted, S. H., Troell, M., Wabnitz, C. C. 2022; 33
  • Greater resilience of reef fish assemblages in a no-take reserve compared to multi-use areas of the Gulf of California PROGRESS IN OCEANOGRAPHY Ramirez-Ortiz, G., Balart, E. F., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Huato-Soberanis, L., Cortes-Fuentes, C., Micheli, F. 2022; 204
  • A Scientific Synthesis of Marine Protected Areas in the United States: Status and Recommendations FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Sullivan-Stack, J., Aburto-Oropeza, O., Brooks, C. M., Cabral, R. B., Caselle, J. E., Chan, F., Duffy, J., Dunn, D. C., Friedlander, A. M., Fulton-Bennett, H. K., Gaines, S. D., Gerber, L. R., Hines, E., Leslie, H. M., Lester, S. E., MacCarthy, J. C., Maxwell, S. M., Mayorga, J., McCauley, D. J., Micheli, F., Moffitt, R., Nickols, K. J., Palumbi, S. R., Pearsall, D. R., Pike, E. P., Pikitch, E. K., Sancho, G., Spalding, A. K., Suman, D. O., Sykora-Bodie, S. T., Grorud-Colvert, K. 2022; 9
  • Resilient consumers accelerate the plant decomposition in a naturally acidified seagrass ecosystem. Global change biology Lee, J., Gambi, M. C., Kroeker, K. J., Munari, M., Peay, K., Micheli, F. 2022


    Anthropogenic stressors are predicted to alter biodiversity and ecosystem functioning worldwide. However, scaling up from species to ecosystem responses poses a challenge, as species and functional groups can exhibit different capacities to adapt, acclimate, and compensate under changing environments. We used a naturally acidified seagrass ecosystem (the endemic Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica) as a model system to examine how ocean acidification (OA) modifies the community structure and functioning of plant detritivores, which play vital roles in the coastal nutrient cycling and food web dynamics. In seagrass beds associated with volcanic CO2 vents (Ischia, Italy), we quantified the effects of OA on seagrass decomposition by deploying litterbags in three distinct pH zones (i.e., ambient, low, extreme low pH), which differed in the mean and variability of seawater pH. We replicated the study in two discrete vents for 117days (litterbags sampled on day 5, 10, 28, 55, and 117). Acidification reduced seagrass detritivore richness and diversity through the loss of less abundant, pH-sensitive species but increased the abundance of the dominant detritivore (amphipod Gammarella fucicola). Such compensatory shifts in species abundance caused more than a three-fold increase in the total detritivore abundance in lower pH zones. These community changes were associated with increased consumption (52-112%) and decay of seagrass detritus (up to 67% faster decomposition rate for the slow-decaying, refractory detrital pool) under acidification. Seagrass detritus deployed in acidified zones showed increased N content and decreased C:N ratio, indicating that altered microbial activities under OA may have affected the decay process. The findings suggest that OA could restructure consumer assemblages and modify plant decomposition in blue carbon ecosystems, which may have important implications for carbon sequestration, nutrient recycling, and trophic transfer. Our study highlights the importance of within-community response variability and compensatory processes in modulating ecosystem functions under extreme global change scenarios.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/gcb.16265

    View details for PubMedID 35583009

  • Modelling the effect of habitat and fishing heterogeneity on the performance of a Total Allowable Catch-regulated fishery ICES JOURNAL OF MARINE SCIENCE Pourtois, J. D., Provost, M. M., Micheli, F., De Leo, G. A. 2022
  • Life history mediates the association between parasite abundance and geographic features. The Journal of animal ecology Williams, M. A., Faiad, S., Claar, D. C., French, B., Leslie, K. L., Oven, E., Guerra, A. S., Micheli, F., Zgliczynski, B. J., Haupt, A. J., Sandin, S. A., Wood, C. L. 2022


    Though parasites are ubiquitous in marine ecosystems, predicting the abundance of parasites present within marine ecosystems has proven challenging due to the unknown effects of multiple interacting environmental gradients and stressors. Furthermore, parasites often are considered as a uniform group within ecosystems despite their significant diversity. We aim to determine the potential importance of multiple predictors of parasite abundance in coral reef ecosystems, including reef area, island area, human population density, chlorophyll-a, host diversity, coral cover, host abundance, and island isolation. Using a model selection approach within a database of more than 1200 individual fish hosts and their parasites from 11 islands within the Pacific Line Islands archipelago, we reveal that geographic gradients, including island area and island isolation, emerged as the best predictors of parasite abundance. Life history moderated the relationship; parasites with complex life cycles increased in abundance with increasing island isolation, while parasites with direct life cycles decreased with increasing isolation. Direct life cycle parasites increased in abundance with increasing island area, though complex life cycle parasite abundance was not associated with island area. This novel analysis of a unique dataset indicates that parasite abundance in marine systems cannot be predicted precisely without accounting for the independent and interactive effects of each parasite's life history and environmental conditions.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/1365-2656.13693

    View details for PubMedID 35332535

  • Local practices and production confer resilience to rural Pacific food systems during the COVID-19 pandemic. Marine policy Ferguson, C. E., Tuxson, T., Mangubhai, S., Jupiter, S., Govan, H., Bonito, V., Alefaio, S., Anjiga, M., Booth, J., Boslogo, T., Boso, D., Brenier, A., Caginitoba, A., Ciriyawa, A., Fahai'ono, J. B., Fox, M., George, A., Eriksson, H., Hughes, A., Joseph, E., Kadannged, S., Kubunavanua, E., Loni, S., Meo, S., Micheli, F., Nagombi, E., Omaro, R., Ride, A., Sapul, A., Singeo, A., Stone, K., Tabunakawai-Vakalalabure, M., Tuivuna, M., Vieux, C., Vitukawalu, V. B., Waide, M. 1800; 137: 104954


    Resilience of food systems is key to ensuring food security through crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic presents an unprecedented shock that reveals varying levels of resilience of increasingly interconnected food systems across the globe. We contribute to the ongoing debate about whether increased connectivity reduces or enhances resilience in the context of rural Pacific food systems, while examining how communities have adapted to the global shocks associated with the pandemic to ensure food security. We conducted 609 interviews across 199 coastal villages from May to October 2020 in Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Tuvalu to understand community-level impacts and adaptations during the first 5-10 months of the COVID-19 crisis. We found that local food production practices and food sharing conferred resilience, and that imported foods could aid or inhibit resilience. Communities in countries more reliant on imports were almost twice as likely to report food insecurity compared to those least reliant. However, in places dealing with a concurrent cyclone, local food systems were impaired, and imported foods proved critical. Our findings suggest that policy in the Pacific should bolster sustainable local food production and practices. Pacific states should avoid becoming overly reliant on food imports, while having measures in place to support food security after disasters, supplementing locally produced and preserved foods with imported foods when necessary. Developing policies that promote resilient food systems can help prepare communities for future shocks, including those anticipated with climate change.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.marpol.2022.104954

    View details for PubMedID 35035031

  • Rapid recovery of depleted abalone in Isla Natividad, Baja California, Mexico ECOSPHERE Smith, A., Aguilar, J., Boch, C., De Leo, G., Hernandez-Velasco, A., Houck, S., Martinez, R., Monismith, S., Torre, J., Woodson, C., Micheli, F. 2022; 13 (3)

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ecs2.4002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000776290300021

  • Data about marine area-based management tools to assess their contribution to the UN sustainable development goals. Data in brief Gissi, E., Maes, F., Kyriazi, Z., Ruiz-Frau, A., Santos, C. F., Neumann, B., Quintela, A., Alves, F. L., Borg, S., Chen, W., Fernandes, M. d., Hadjimichael, M., Manea, E., Marques, M., Platjouw, F. M., Portman, M. E., Sousa, L. P., Bolognini, L., Flannery, W., Grati, F., Pita, C., Vaidianu, N., Stojanov, R., van Tatenhove, J., Micheli, F., Hornidge, A., Unger, S. 1800; 40: 107704


    The dataset presented in this article contains information about marine Area-Based Management Tools (ABMTs) used to assess their contribution to the United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. Following the scope of the analysis, ABMTs were identified by scrutinizing international and regional legal sources related to ocean management in the fields of marine conservation, fisheries, deep sea bed mining, underwater natural and cultural heritage, environmental conservation, and marine spatial planning. Legal sources were screened to depict the following characteristics of individual ABMTs: i) management objectives; ii) authorities responsible for delivering such objectives; iii) the system of management and planning entailed in the ABMT including the zoning type; and iv) the specific spatial scope and domain each ABMT refer to in vertical depth and horizontal domain. Data were generated through an internal expert elicitation. Experts, initially trained in the data analysis and related protocol, contributed to the data production because of their specific knowledge and experience in ocean management. This dataset represents a unique source of information for advancing research about monitoring and assessment of the achievement of sustainable development goals that encompasses different types of ABMTs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.dib.2021.107704

    View details for PubMedID 34977293

  • Contributions of marine area-based management tools to the UN sustainable development goals JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION Gissi, E., Maes, F., Kyriazi, Z., Ruiz-Frau, A., Santos, C., Neumann, B., Quintela, A., Alves, F. L., Borg, S., Chen, W., Fernandes, M., Hadjimichael, M., Manea, E., Marques, M., Platjouw, F., Portman, M. E., Sousa, L. P., Bolognini, L., Flannery, W., Grati, F., Pita, C., Vaidianu, N., Stojanov, R., van Tatenhove, J., Micheli, F., Hornidge, A., Unger, S. 2022; 330
  • Emergent research and priorities for shark and ray conservation ENDANGERED SPECIES RESEARCH Jorgensen, S. J., Micheli, F., White, T. D., Van Houtan, K. S., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Andrzejaczek, S., Arnoldi, N. S., Baum, J. K., Block, B., Britten, G. L., Butner, C., Caballero, S., Cardenosa, D., Chapple, T. K., Clarke, S., Cortes, E., Dulvy, N. K., Fowler, S., Gallagher, A. J., Gilman, E., Godley, B. J., Graham, R. T., Hammerschlag, N., Harry, A., Heithaus, M. R., Hutchinson, M., Huveneers, C., Lowe, C. G., Lucifora, L. O., MacKeracher, T., Mangel, J. C., Martins, A., McCauley, D. J., McClenachan, L., Mull, C., Natanson, L. J., Pauly, D., Pazmino, D. A., Pistevos, J. A., Queiroz, N., Roff, G., Shea, B. D., Simpfendorfer, C. A., Sims, D. W., Ward-Paige, C., Worm, B., Ferretti, F. 2022; 47: 171-203

    View details for DOI 10.3354/esr01169

    View details for Web of Science ID 000790066600013

  • An integrated assessment of the Good Environmental Status of Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas. Journal of environmental management Fraschetti, S., Fabbrizzi, E., Tamburello, L., Uyarra, M. C., Micheli, F., Sala, E., Pipitone, C., Badalamenti, F., Bevilacqua, S., Boada, J., Cebrian, E., Ceccherelli, G., Chiantore, M., D'Anna, G., Di Franco, A., Farina, S., Giakoumi, S., Gissi, E., Guala, I., Guidetti, P., Katsanevakis, S., Manea, E., Montefalcone, M., Sini, M., Asnaghi, V., Calo, A., Di Lorenzo, M., Garrabou, J., Musco, L., Oprandi, A., Rilov, G., Borja, A. 1800; 305: 114370


    Local, regional and global targets have been set to halt marine biodiversity loss. Europe has set its own policy targets to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) of marine ecosystems by implementing the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) across member states. We combined an extensive dataset across five Mediterranean ecoregions including 26 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), their reference unprotected areas, and a no-trawl case study. Our aim was to assess if MPAs reach GES, if their effects are local or can be detected at ecoregion level or up to a Mediterranean scale, and which are the ecosystem components driving GES achievement. This was undertaken by using the analytical tool NEAT (Nested Environmental status Assessment Tool), which allows an integrated assessment of the status of marine systems. We adopted an ecosystem approach by integrating data from several ecosystem components: the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, macroalgae, sea urchins and fish. Thresholds to define the GES were set by dedicated workshops and literature review. In the Western Mediterranean, most MPAs are in good/high status, with P. oceanica and fish driving this result within MPAs. However, GES is achieved only at a local level, and the Mediterranean Sea, as a whole, results in a moderate environmental status. Macroalgal forests are overall in bad condition, confirming their status at risk. The results are significantly affected by the assumption that discrete observations over small spatial scales are representative of the total extension investigated. This calls for large-scale, dedicated assessments to realistically detect environmental status changes under different conditions. Understanding MPAs effectiveness in reaching GES is crucial to assess their role as sentinel observatories of marine systems. MPAs and trawling bans can locally contribute to the attainment of GES and to the fulfillment of the MSFD objectives. Building confidence in setting thresholds between GES and non-GES, investing in long-term monitoring, increasing the spatial extent of sampling areas, rethinking and broadening the scope of complementary tools of protection (e.g., Natura 2000 Sites), are indicated as solutions to ameliorate the status of the basin.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.114370

    View details for PubMedID 34968935

  • Ecological dependencies make remote reef fish communities most vulnerable to coral loss. Nature communications Strona, G., Beck, P. S., Cabeza, M., Fattorini, S., Guilhaumon, F., Micheli, F., Montano, S., Ovaskainen, O., Planes, S., Veech, J. A., Parravicini, V. 1800; 12 (1): 7282


    Ecosystems face both local hazards, such as over-exploitation, and global hazards, such as climate change. Since the impact of local hazards attenuates with distance from humans, local extinction risk should decrease with remoteness, making faraway areas safe havens for biodiversity. However, isolation and reduced anthropogenic disturbance may increase ecological specialization in remote communities, and hence their vulnerability to secondary effects of diversity loss propagating through networks of interacting species. We show this to be true for reef fish communities across the globe. An increase in fish-coral dependency with the distance of coral reefs from human settlements, paired with the far-reaching impacts of global hazards, increases the risk of fish species loss, counteracting the benefits of remoteness. Hotspots of fish risk from fish-coral dependency are distinct from those caused by direct human impacts, increasingthe number of risk hotspots by ~30% globally. These findings might apply to other ecosystems on Earth and depict a world where no place, no matter how remote, is safe for biodiversity, calling for a reconsideration of global conservation priorities.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-021-27440-z

    View details for PubMedID 34907163

  • Integrating Biophysical, Socio-Economic and Governance Principles Into Marine Reserve Design and Management in Mexico: From Theory to Practice FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE de la Mora, M., Bennett, N. J., Fulton, S., Munguia-Vega, A., Lasch-Thaler, C., Walther-Mendoza, M., Zepeda-Dominguez, J., Finkbeiner, E., Green, A. L., Suarez, A., Weaver, A., Figueroa Carranza, A. R., Vega Velazquez, A., Zepeda, C., Montes, C., Fuentes Montalvo, D., Micheli, F., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Chollett, I., Lopez-Ercilla, I., Torres Origel, J., Vazquez-Vera, L., Garcia-Rivas, M., Mancha-Cisneros, M., Espinosa-Romero, M., Martin Ruiz, M., Arafeh-Dalmau, N., Gonzalez-Cuellar, O. T., Huchim, O., Rodriguez Van Dyck, S. 2021; 8
  • Who wins or loses matters: Strongly interacting consumers drive seagrass resistance under ocean acidification. The Science of the total environment Lee, J., Hughes, B. B., Kroeker, K. J., Owens, A., Wong, C., Micheli, F. 2021: 151594


    Global stressors are increasingly altering ecosystem resistance, resilience, and functioning by reorganizing vital species interactions. However, our predictive understanding of these changes is hindered by failures to consider species-specific functional roles and stress responses within communities. Stressor-driven loss or reduced performance of strongly interacting species may generate abrupt shifts in ecosystem states and functions. Yet, empirical support for this prediction is scarce, especially in marine climate change research. Using a marine assemblage comprising a habitat-forming seagrass (Phyllospadix torreyi), its algal competitor, and three consumer species (algal grazers) with potentially different functional roles and pH tolerance, we investigated how ocean acidification (OA) may, directly and indirectly, alter community resistance. In the field and laboratory, hermit crabs (Pagurus granosimanus and P. hirsutiusculus) and snails (Tegula funebralis) displayed distinct microhabitat use, with hermit crabs more frequently grazing in the area of high algal colonization (i.e., surfgrass canopy). In mesocosms, this behavioral difference led to hermit crabs exerting ~2 times greater per capita impact on algal epiphyte biomass than snails. Exposure to OA variably affected the grazers: snails showed reduced feeding and growth under extreme pH (7.3 and 7.5), whereas hermit crabs (P. granosimanus) maintained a similar grazing rate under all pH levels (pH 7.3, 7.5, 7.7, and 7.95). Epiphyte biomass increased more rapidly under extreme OA (pH 7.3 and 7.5), but natural densities of snails and hermit crabs prevented algal overgrowth irrespective of pH treatments. Finally, grazers and acidification additively increased surfgrass productivity and delayed the shoot senescence. Hence, although OA impaired the function of the most abundant consumers (snails), strongly interacting and pH-tolerant species (hermit crabs) largely maintained the top-down pressure to facilitate seagrass dominance. Our study highlights significant within-community variation in species functional and response traits and shows that this variation has important ecosystem consequences under anthropogenic stressors.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151594

    View details for PubMedID 34826463

  • Harnessing the diversity of small-scale actors is key to the future of aquatic food systems (vol 2, pg 733, 2021) NATURE FOOD Short, R. E., Gelcich, S., Little, D. C., Micheli, F., Allison, E. H., Basurto, X., Belton, B., Brugere, C., Bush, S. R., Cao, L., Crona, B., Cohen, P. J., Defeo, O., Edwards, P., Ferguson, C. E., Franz, N., Golden, C. D., Halpern, B. S., Hazen, L., Hicks, C., Johnson, D., Kaminski, A. M., Mangubhai, S., Naylor, R. L., Reantaso, M., Sumaila, U., Thilsted, S. H., Tigchelaar, M., Wabnitz, C. C., Zhang, W. 2021
  • Author Correction: Harnessing the diversity of small-scale actors is key to the future of aquatic food systems. Nature food Short, R. E., Gelcich, S., Little, D. C., Micheli, F., Allison, E. H., Basurto, X., Belton, B., Brugere, C., Bush, S. R., Cao, L., Crona, B., Cohen, P. J., Defeo, O., Edwards, P., Ferguson, C. E., Franz, N., Golden, C. D., Halpern, B. S., Hazen, L., Hicks, C., Johnson, D., Kaminski, A. M., Mangubhai, S., Naylor, R. L., Reantaso, M., Sumaila, U. R., Thilsted, S. H., Tigchelaar, M., Wabnitz, C. C., Zhang, W. 2021; 2 (10): 828

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s43016-021-00396-5

    View details for PubMedID 37117989

  • Harnessing the diversity of small-scale actors is key to the future of aquatic food systems NATURE FOOD Short, R. E., Gelcich, S., Little, D. C., Micheli, F., Allison, E. H., Basurto, X., Belton, B., Brugere, C., Bush, S. R., Cao, L., Crona, B., Cohen, P. J., Defeo, O., Edwards, P., Ferguson, C. E., Franz, N., Golden, C. D., Halpern, B. S., Hazen, L., Hicks, C., Johnson, D., Kaminski, A. M., Mangubhai, S., Naylor, R. L., Reantaso, M., Sumaila, U., Thilsted, S. H., Tigchelaar, M., Wabnitz, C. C., Zhang, W. 2021
  • Compound climate risks threaten aquatic food system benefits NATURE FOOD Tigchelaar, M., Cheung, W. L., Mohammed, E., Phillips, M. J., Payne, H. J., Selig, E. R., Wabnitz, C. C., Oyinlola, M. A., Frolicher, T. L., Gephart, J. A., Golden, C. D., Allison, E. H., Bennett, A., Cao, L., Fanzo, J., Halpern, B. S., Lam, V. Y., Micheli, F., Naylor, R. L., Sumaila, U., Tagliabue, A., Troell, M. 2021
  • Compound climate risks threaten aquatic food system benefits. Nature food Tigchelaar, M., Cheung, W. W., Mohammed, E. Y., Phillips, M. J., Payne, H. J., Selig, E. R., Wabnitz, C. C., Oyinlola, M. A., Frölicher, T. L., Gephart, J. A., Golden, C. D., Allison, E. H., Bennett, A., Cao, L., Fanzo, J., Halpern, B. S., Lam, V. W., Micheli, F., Naylor, R. L., Sumaila, U. R., Tagliabue, A., Troell, M. 2021; 2 (9): 673-682


    Aquatic foods from marine and freshwater systems are critical to the nutrition, health, livelihoods, economies and cultures of billions of people worldwide, but climate-related hazards may compromise their ability to provide these benefits. Here, we estimate national-level aquatic food system climate risk using an integrative food systems approach that connects climate hazards impacting marine and freshwater capture fisheries and aquaculture to their contributions to sustainable food system outcomes. We show that without mitigation, climate hazards pose high risks to nutritional, social, economic and environmental outcomes worldwide-especially for wild-capture fisheries in Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and Small Island Developing States. For countries projected to experience compound climate risks, reducing societal vulnerabilities can lower climate risk by margins similar to meeting Paris Agreement mitigation targets. System-level interventions addressing dimensions such as governance, gender equity and poverty are needed to enhance aquatic and terrestrial food system resilience and provide investments with large co-benefits towards meeting the Sustainable Development Goals.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s43016-021-00368-9

    View details for PubMedID 37117477

    View details for PubMedCentralID 5960322

  • Harnessing the diversity of small-scale actors is key to the future of aquatic food systems. Nature food Short, R. E., Gelcich, S., Little, D. C., Micheli, F., Allison, E. H., Basurto, X., Belton, B., Brugere, C., Bush, S. R., Cao, L., Crona, B., Cohen, P. J., Defeo, O., Edwards, P., Ferguson, C. E., Franz, N., Golden, C. D., Halpern, B. S., Hazen, L., Hicks, C., Johnson, D., Kaminski, A. M., Mangubhai, S., Naylor, R. L., Reantaso, M., Sumaila, U. R., Thilsted, S. H., Tigchelaar, M., Wabnitz, C. C., Zhang, W. 2021; 2 (9): 733-741


    Small-scale fisheries and aquaculture (SSFA) provide livelihoods for over 100 million people and sustenance for ~1 billion people, particularly in the Global South. Aquatic foods are distributed through diverse supply chains, with the potential to be highly adaptable to stresses and shocks, but face a growing range of threats and adaptive challenges. Contemporary governance assumes homogeneity in SSFA despite the diverse nature of this sector. Here we use SSFA actor profiles to capture the key dimensions and dynamism of SSFA diversity, reviewing contemporary threats and exploring opportunities for the SSFA sector. The heuristic framework can inform adaptive governance actions supporting the diversity and vital roles of SSFA in food systems, and in the health and livelihoods of nutritionally vulnerable people-supporting their viability through appropriate policies whilst fostering equitable and sustainable food systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s43016-021-00363-0

    View details for PubMedID 37117475

    View details for PubMedCentralID 6267158

  • Southward decrease in the protection of persistent giant kelp forests in the northeast Pacific COMMUNICATIONS EARTH & ENVIRONMENT Arafeh-Dalmau, N., Cavanaugh, K. C., Possingham, H. P., Munguia-Vega, A., Montano-Moctezuma, G., Bell, T. W., Cavanaugh, K., Micheli, F. 2021; 2 (1)
  • Variable coastal hypoxia exposure and drivers across the southern California Current. Scientific reports Low, N. H., Micheli, F., Aguilar, J. D., Arce, D. R., Boch, C. A., Bonilla, J. C., Bracamontes, M. A., De Leo, G., Diaz, E., Enriquez, E., Hernandez, A., Martinez, R., Mendoza, R., Miranda, C., Monismith, S., Ramade, M., Rogers-Bennett, L., Romero, A., Salinas, C., Smith, A. E., Torre, J., Villavicencio, G., Woodson, C. B. 2021; 11 (1): 10929


    Declining oxygen is one of the most drastic changes in the ocean, and this trend is expected to worsen under future climate change scenarios. Spatial variability in dissolved oxygen dynamics and hypoxia exposures can drive differences in vulnerabilities of coastal ecosystems and resources, but documentation of variability at regional scales is rare in open-coast systems. Using a regional collaborative network of dissolved oxygen and temperature sensors maintained by scientists and fishing cooperatives from California, USA, and Baja California, Mexico, we characterize spatial and temporal variability in dissolved oxygen and seawater temperature dynamics in kelp forest ecosystems across 13° of latitude in the productive California Current upwelling system. We find distinct latitudinal patterns of hypoxia exposure and evidence for upwelling and respiration as regional drivers of oxygen dynamics, as well as more localized effects. This regional and small-scale spatial variability in dissolved oxygen dynamics supports the use of adaptive management at local scales, and highlights the value of collaborative, large-scale coastal monitoring networks for informing effective adaptation strategies for coastal communities and fisheries in a changing climate.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-021-89928-4

    View details for PubMedID 34035327

  • Redefining risk in data-poor fisheries FISH AND FISHERIES Grewelle, R. E., Mansfield, E., Micheli, F., De Leo, G. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1111/faf.12561

    View details for Web of Science ID 000648025600001

  • Persistent gender bias in marine science and conservation calls for action to achieve equity BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Giakoumi, S., Pita, C., Coll, M., Fraschetti, S., Gissi, E., Katara, I., Lloret-Lloret, E., Rossi, F., Portman, M., Stelzenmueller, V., Micheli, F. 2021; 257
  • In Memoriam Charles Henry Peterson MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Lenihan, H. S., Grabowski, J., Micheli, F. 2021; 659: 2

    View details for DOI 10.3354/meps13649

    View details for Web of Science ID 000621354400001

  • Correction to: Coupled beta diversity patterns among coral reef benthic taxa. Oecologia McDevitt-Irwin, J. M., Kappel, C. n., Harborne, A. R., Mumby, P. J., Brumbaugh, D. R., Micheli, F. n. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00442-021-04886-y

    View details for PubMedID 33723689

  • WTO must ban harmful fisheries subsidies. Science (New York, N.Y.) Sumaila, U. R., Skerritt, D. J., Schuhbauer, A., Villasante, S., Cisneros-Montemayor, A. M., Sinan, H., Burnside, D., Abdallah, P. R., Abe, K., Addo, K. A., Adelsheim, J., Adewumi, I. J., Adeyemo, O. K., Adger, N., Adotey, J., Advani, S., Afrin, Z., Aheto, D., Akintola, S. L., Akpalu, W., Alam, L., Alava, J. J., Allison, E. H., Amon, D. J., Anderies, J. M., Anderson, C. M., Andrews, E., Angelini, R., Anna, Z., Antweiler, W., Arizi, E. K., Armitage, D., Arthur, R. I., Asare, N., Asche, F., Asiedu, B., Asuquo, F., Badmus, L., Bailey, M., Ban, N., Barbier, E. B., Barley, S., Barnes, C., Barrett, S., Basurto, X., Belhabib, D., Bennett, E., Bennett, N. J., Benzaken, D., Blasiak, R., Bohorquez, J. J., Bordehore, C., Bornarel, V., Boyd, D. R., Breitburg, D., Brooks, C., Brotz, L., Campbell, D., Cannon, S., Cao, L., Cardenas Campo, J. C., Carpenter, S., Carpenter, G., Carson, R. T., Carvalho, A. R., Castrejón, M., Caveen, A. J., Chabi, M. N., Chan, K. M., Chapin, F. S., Charles, T., Cheung, W., Christensen, V., Chuku, E. O., Church, T., Clark, C., Clarke, T. M., Cojocaru, A. L., Copeland, B., Crawford, B., Crépin, A. S., Crowder, L. B., Cury, P., Cutting, A. N., Daily, G. C., Da-Rocha, J. M., Das, A., de la Puente, S., de Zeeuw, A., Deikumah, S. K., Deith, M., Dewitte, B., Doubleday, N., Duarte, C. M., Dulvy, N. K., Eddy, T., Efford, M., Ehrlich, P. R., Elsler, L. G., Fakoya, K. A., Falaye, A. E., Fanzo, J., Fitzsimmons, C., Flaaten, O., Florko, K. R., Aviles, M. F., Folke, C., Forrest, A., Freeman, P., Freire, K. M., Froese, R., Frölicher, T. L., Gallagher, A., Garcon, V., Gasalla, M. A., Gephart, J. A., Gibbons, M., Gillespie, K., Giron-Nava, A., Gjerde, K., Glaser, S., Golden, C., Gordon, L., Govan, H., Gryba, R., Halpern, B. S., Hanich, Q., Hara, M., Harley, C. D., Harper, S., Harte, M., Helm, R., Hendrix, C., Hicks, C. C., Hood, L., Hoover, C., Hopewell, K., Horta E Costa, B. B., Houghton, J. D., Iitembu, J. A., Isaacs, M., Isahaku, S., Ishimura, G., Islam, M., Issifu, I., Jackson, J., Jacquet, J., Jensen, O. P., Ramon, J. J., Jin, X., Jonah, A., Jouffray, J. B., Juniper, S. K., Jusoh, S., Kadagi, I., Kaeriyama, M., Kaiser, M. J., Kaiser, B. A., Kakujaha-Matundu, O., Karuaihe, S. T., Karumba, M., Kemmerly, J. D., Khan, A. S., Kimani, P., Kleisner, K., Knowlton, N., Kotowicz, D., Kurien, J., Kwong, L. E., Lade, S., Laffoley, D., Lam, M. E., Lam, V. W., Lange, G. M., Latif, M. T., Le Billon, P., Le Brenne, V., Le Manach, F., Levin, S. A., Levin, L., Limburg, K. E., List, J., Lombard, A. T., Lopes, P. F., Lotze, H. K., Mallory, T. G., Mangar, R. S., Marszalec, D., Mattah, P., Mayorga, J., McAusland, C., McCauley, D. J., McLean, J., McMullen, K., Meere, F., Mejaes, A., Melnychuk, M., Mendo, J., Micheli, F., Millage, K., Miller, D., Mohamed, K. S., Mohammed, E., Mokhtar, M., Morgan, L., Muawanah, U., Munro, G. R., Murray, G., Mustafa, S., Nayak, P., Newell, D., Nguyen, T., Noack, F., Nor, A. M., Nunoo, F. K., Obura, D., Okey, T., Okyere, I., Onyango, P., Oostdijk, M., Orlov, P., Österblom, H., Owens, D., Owens, T., Oyinlola, M., Pacoureau, N., Pakhomov, E., Abrantes, J. P., Pascual, U., Paulmier, A., Pauly, D., Pèlèbè, R. O., Peñalosa, D., Pennino, M. G., Peterson, G., Pham, T. T., Pinkerton, E., Polasky, S., Polunin, N. V., Prah, E., Ramírez, J., Relano, V., Reygondeau, G., Robadue, D., Roberts, C., Rogers, A., Roumbedakis, K., Sala, E., Scheffer, M., Segerson, K., Seijo, J. C., Seto, K. C., Shogren, J. F., Silver, J. J., Singh, G., Soszynski, A., Splichalova, D. V., Spring, M., Stage, J., Stephenson, F., Stewart, B. D., Sultan, R., Suttle, C., Tagliabue, A., Tall, A., Talloni-Álvarez, N., Tavoni, A., Taylor, D. R., Teh, L. S., Teh, L. C., Thiebot, J. B., Thiele, T., Thilsted, S. H., Thumbadoo, R. V., Tigchelaar, M., Tol, R. S., Tortell, P., Troell, M., Uzmanoğlu, M. S., van Putten, I., van Santen, G., Villaseñor-Derbez, J. C., Wabnitz, C. C., Walsh, M., Walsh, J. P., Wambiji, N., Weber, E. U., Westley, F., Williams, S., Wisz, M. S., Worm, B., Xiao, L., Yagi, N., Yamazaki, S., Yang, H., Zeller, D. 2021; 374 (6567): 544


    [Figure: see text].

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.abm1680

    View details for PubMedID 34709891

  • Mediterranean rocky reefs in the Anthropocene: Present status and future concerns. Advances in marine biology Bevilacqua, S., Airoldi, L., Ballesteros, E., Benedetti-Cecchi, L., Boero, F., Bulleri, F., Cebrian, E., Cerrano, C., Claudet, J., Colloca, F., Coppari, M., Di Franco, A., Fraschetti, S., Garrabou, J., Guarnieri, G., Guerranti, C., Guidetti, P., Halpern, B. S., Katsanevakis, S., Mangano, M. C., Micheli, F., Milazzo, M., Pusceddu, A., Renzi, M., Rilov, G., Sara, G., Terlizzi, A. 2021; 89: 1-51


    Global change is striking harder and faster in the Mediterranean Sea than elsewhere, where high levels of human pressure and proneness to climate change interact in modifying the structure and disrupting regulative mechanisms of marine ecosystems. Rocky reefs are particularly exposed to such environmental changes with ongoing trends of degradation being impressive. Due to the variety of habitat types and associated marine biodiversity, rocky reefs are critical for the functioning of marine ecosystems, and their decline could profoundly affect the provision of essential goods and services which human populations in coastal areas rely upon. Here, we provide an up-to-date overview of the status of rocky reefs, trends in human-driven changes undermining their integrity, and current and upcoming management and conservation strategies, attempting a projection on what could be the future of this essential component of Mediterranean marine ecosystems.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/bs.amb.2021.08.001

    View details for PubMedID 34583814

  • Derivation of Red Tide Index and Density Using Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) Data REMOTE SENSING Lee, M., Park, K., Micheli, F. 2021; 13 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.3390/rs13020298

    View details for Web of Science ID 000611558500001

  • Coupled beta diversity patterns among coral reef benthic taxa. Oecologia McDevitt-Irwin, J. M., Kappel, C. n., Harborne, A. R., Mumby, P. J., Brumbaugh, D. R., Micheli, F. n. 2021


    Unraveling the processes that drive diversity patterns remains a central challenge for ecology, and an increased understanding is especially urgent to address and mitigate escalating diversity loss. Studies have primarily focused on singular taxonomic groups, but recent research has begun evaluating spatial diversity patterns across multiple taxonomic groups and suggests taxa may have congruence in their diversity patterns. Here, we use surveys of the coral reef benthic groups: scleractinian corals, macroalgae, sponges and gorgonians conducted in the Bahamian Archipelago across 27 sites to determine if there is congruence between taxonomic groups in their site-level diversity patterns (i.e. alpha diversity: number of species, and beta diversity: differences in species composition) while accounting for environmental predictors (i.e. depth, wave exposure, market gravity (i.e. human population size and distance to market), primary productivity, and grazing). Overall, we found that the beta diversities of these benthic groups were significant predictors of each other. The most consistent relationships existed with algae and coral, as their beta diversity was a significant predictor of every other taxa's beta diversity, potentially due to their strong biotic interactions and dominance on the reef. Conversely, we found no congruence patterns in the alpha diversity of the taxa. Market gravity and exposure showed the most prevalent correlation with both alpha and beta diversity for the taxa. Overall, our results suggest that coral reef benthic taxa can have spatial congruence in species composition, but not number of species, and that future research on biodiversity trends should consider that taxa may have non-independent patterns.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00442-020-04826-2

    View details for PubMedID 33394129

  • A review of a decade of lessons from one of the world's largest MPAs: conservation gains and key challenges MARINE BIOLOGY Hays, G. C., Koldewey, H. J., Andrzejaczek, S., Attrill, M. J., Barley, S., Bayley, D. I., Benkwitt, C. E., Block, B., Schallert, R. J., Carlisle, A. B., Carr, P., Chapple, T. K., Collins, C., Diaz, C., Dunn, N., Dunbar, R. B., Eager, D. S., Engel, J., Embling, C. B., Esteban, N., Ferretti, F., Foster, N. L., Freeman, R., Gollock, M., Graham, N. J., Harris, J. L., Head, C. I., Hosegood, P., Howell, K. L., Hussey, N. E., Jacoby, D. P., Jones, R., Pilly, S., Lange, I. D., Letessier, T. B., Levy, E., Lindhart, M., McDevitt-Irwin, J. M., Meekan, M., Meeuwig, J. J., Micheli, F., Mogg, A. M., Mortimer, J. A., Mucciarone, D. A., Nicoll, M. A., Nuno, A., Perry, C. T., Preston, S. G., Rattray, A. J., Robinson, E., Roche, R. C., Schiele, M., Sheehan, E. V., Sheppard, A., Sheppard, C., Smith, A. L., Soule, B., Spalding, M., Stevens, G. W., Steyaert, M., Stiffel, S., Taylor, B. M., Tickler, D., Trevail, A. M., Trueba, P., Turner, J., Votier, S., Wilson, B., Williams, G. J., Williamson, B. J., Williamson, M. J., Wood, H., Curnick, D. J. 2020; 167 (11)
  • Effects of marine noise pollution on Mediterranean fishes and invertebrates: A review. Marine pollution bulletin Di Franco, E., Pierson, P., Di Iorio, L., Calo, A., Cottalorda, J. M., Derijard, B., Di Franco, A., Galve, A., Guibbolini, M., Lebrun, J., Micheli, F., Priouzeau, F., Risso-de Faverney, C., Rossi, F., Sabourault, C., Spennato, G., Verrando, P., Guidetti, P. 2020; 159: 111450


    Marine noise pollution (MNP) can cause a multitude of impacts on many organisms, but information is often scattered and general outcomes difficult to assess. We have reviewed the literature on MNP impacts on Mediterranean fish and invertebrates. Both chronic and acute MNP produced by various human activities - e.g. maritime traffic, pile driving, air guns - were found to cause detectable effects on intra-specific communication, vital processes, physiology, behavioral patterns, health status and survival. These effects on individuals can extend to inducing population- and ecosystem-wide alterations, especially when MNP impacts functionally important species, such as keystone predators and habitat forming species. Curbing the threats of MNP in the Mediterranean Sea is a challenging task, but a variety of measures could be adopted to mitigate MNP impacts. Successful measures will require more accurate information on impacts and that effective management of MNP really becomes a priority in the policy makers' agenda.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111450

    View details for PubMedID 32892911

  • Comparison of Cloud-Filling Algorithms for Marine Satellite Data REMOTE SENSING Stock, A., Subramaniam, A., Van Dijken, G. L., Wedding, L. M., Arrigo, K. R., Mills, M. M., Cameron, M. A., Micheli, F. 2020; 12 (20)

    View details for DOI 10.3390/rs12203313

    View details for Web of Science ID 000585680200001

  • Geographic variation in responses of kelp forest communities of the California Current to recent climatic changes. Global change biology Beas-Luna, R., Micheli, F., Woodson, C. B., Carr, M., Malone, D., Torre, J., Boch, C., Caselle, J. E., Edwards, M., Freiwald, J., Hamilton, S. L., Hernandez, A., Konar, B., Kroeker, K. J., Lorda, J., Montano-Moctezuma, G., Torres-Moye, G. 2020


    The changing global climate is having profound effects on coastal marine ecosystems around the world. Structure, functioning, and resilience, however, can vary geographically, depending on species composition, local oceanographic forcing, and other pressures from human activities and use. Understanding ecological responses to environmental change and predicting changes in the structure and functioning of whole ecosystems require large-scale, long-term studies, yet most studies trade spatial extent for temporal duration. We address this shortfall by integrating multiple long-term kelp forest monitoring datasets to evaluate biogeographic patterns and rates of change of key functional groups (FG) along the west coast of North America. Analysis of data from 469 sites spanning Alaska, USA, to Baja California, Mexico, and 373 species (assigned to 18 FG) reveals regional variation in responses to both long-term (2006-2016) change and a recent marine heatwave (2014-2016) associated with two atmospheric and oceanographic anomalies, the "Blob" and extreme El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Canopy-forming kelps appeared most sensitive to warming throughout their range. Other FGs varied in their responses among trophic levels, ecoregions, and in their sensitivity to heatwaves. Changes in community structure were most evident within the southern and northern California ecoregions, while communities in the center of the range were more resilient. We report a poleward shift in abundance of some key FGs. These results reveal major, ongoing region-wide changes in productive coastal marine ecosystems in response to large-scale climate variability, and the potential loss of foundation species. In particular, our results suggest that coastal communities that are dependent on kelp forests will be more impacted in the southern portion of the California Current region, highlighting the urgency of implementing adaptive strategies to sustain livelihoods and ensure food security. The results also highlight the value of multiregional integration and coordination of monitoring programs for improving our understanding of marine ecosystems, with the goal of informing policy and resource management in the future.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/gcb.15273

    View details for PubMedID 32902090

  • A low-cost modular control system for multistressor experiments LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY-METHODS Low, N. N., Ng, C. A., Micheli, F. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lom3.10389

    View details for Web of Science ID 000565343100001

  • Downscaling global ocean climate models improves estimates of exposure regimes in coastal environments. Scientific reports Fagundes, M., Litvin, S. Y., Micheli, F., De Leo, G., Boch, C. A., Barry, J. P., Omidvar, S., Woodson, C. B. 2020; 10 (1): 14227


    Climate change is expected to warm, deoxygenate, and acidify ocean waters. Global climate models (GCMs) predict future conditions at large spatial scales, and these predictions are then often used to parameterize laboratory experiments designed to assess biological and ecological responses to future change. However, nearshore ecosystems are affected by a range of physical processes such as tides, local winds, and surface and internal waves, causing local variability in conditions that often exceeds global climate models. Predictions of future climatic conditions at local scales, the most relevant to ecological responses, are largely lacking. To fill this critical gap, we developed a 2D implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to downscale global climate predictions across all Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios to smaller spatial scales, in this case the scale of a temperate reef in the northeastern Pacific. To assess the potential biological impacts of local climate variability, we then used the results from different climate scenarios to estimate how climate change may affect the survival, growth, and fertilization of a representative marine benthic invertebrate, the red abalone Haliotis rufescens, to a highly varying multi-stressor environment. We found that high frequency variability in temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH increases as pCO2 increases in the atmosphere. Extreme temperature and pH conditions are generally not expected until RCP 4.5 or greater, while frequent exposure to low DO is already occurring. In the nearshore environment simulation, strong RCP scenarios can affect red abalone growth as well as reduce fertilization during extreme conditions when compared to global scale simulations.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-71169-6

    View details for PubMedID 32848179

  • Field stations as sentinels of change FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Micheli, F., Carlton, J., Pearse, J., Selgrath, J., Elahi, R., Watanabe, J., Mach, M., McDevitt-Irwin, J., Pearse, V., Burnett, N., Baxter, C. 2020; 18 (6): 320–21

    View details for DOI 10.1002/fee.2231

    View details for Web of Science ID 000554674700004

  • Modelled effects of prawn aquaculture on poverty alleviation and schistosomiasis control. Nature sustainability Hoover, C. M., Sokolow, S. H., Kemp, J., Sanchirico, J. N., Lund, A. J., Jones, I. J., Higginson, T., Riveau, G., Savaya, A., Coyle, S., Wood, C. L., Micheli, F., Casagrandi, R., Mari, L., Gatto, M., Rinaldo, A., Perez-Saez, J., Rohr, J. R., Sagi, A., Remais, J. V., De Leo, G. A. 2020; 2 (7): 611-620


    Recent evidence suggests that snail predators may aid efforts to control the human parasitic disease schistosomiasis by eating aquatic snail species that serve as intermediate hosts of the parasite. Potential synergies between schistosomiasis control and aquaculture of giant prawns are evaluated using an integrated bio-economic-epidemiologic model. Combinations of stocking density and aquaculture cycle length that maximize cumulative, discounted profit are identified for two prawn species in sub-Saharan Africa: the endemic, non-domesticated Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, and the non-native, domesticated Macrobrachium rosenbergii. At profit maximizing densities, both M. rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii may substantially reduce intermediate host snail populations and aid schistosomiasis control efforts. Control strategies drawing on both prawn aquaculture to reduce intermediate host snail populations and mass drug administration to treat infected individuals are found to be superior to either strategy alone. Integrated aquaculture-based interventions can be a win-win strategy in terms of health and sustainable development in schistosomiasis endemic regions of the world.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41893-019-0301-7

    View details for PubMedID 33313425

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7731924

  • The Status of Coastal Benthic Ecosystems in the Mediterranean Sea: Evidence From Ecological Indicators FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Bevilacqua, S., Katsanevakis, S., Micheli, F., Sala, E., Rilov, G., Sara, G., Malak, D., Abdulla, A., Gerovasileiou, V., Gissi, E., Mazaris, A. D., Pipitone, C., Sini, M., Stelzenmueller, V., Terlizzi, A., Todorova, V., Fraschetti, S. 2020; 7
  • Abalone populations are most sensitive to environmental stress effects on adult individuals MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Aalto, E. A., Barry, J. P., Boch, C. A., Litvin, S. Y., Micheli, F., Woodson, C. B., De Leo, G. A. 2020; 643: 75–85

    View details for DOI 10.3354/meps13320

    View details for Web of Science ID 000545931200006

  • Models with environmental drivers offer a plausible mechanism for the rapid spread of infectious disease outbreaks in marine organisms. Scientific reports Aalto, E. A., Lafferty, K. D., Sokolow, S. H., Grewelle, R. E., Ben-Horin, T., Boch, C. A., Raimondi, P. T., Bograd, S. J., Hazen, E. L., Jacox, M. G., Micheli, F., De Leo, G. A. 2020; 10 (1): 5975


    The first signs of sea star wasting disease (SSWD) epidemic occurred in just few months in 2013 along the entire North American Pacific coast. Disease dynamics did not manifest as the typical travelling wave of reaction-diffusion epidemiological model, suggesting that other environmental factors might have played some role. To help explore how external factors might trigger disease, we built a coupled oceanographic-epidemiological model and contrasted three hypotheses on the influence of temperature on disease transmission and pathogenicity. Models that linked mortality to sea surface temperature gave patterns more consistent with observed data on sea star wasting disease, which suggests that environmental stress could explain why some marine diseases seem to spread so fast and have region-wide impacts on host populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-62118-4

    View details for PubMedID 32249775

  • Shark fin trade bans and sustainable shark fisheries CONSERVATION LETTERS Ferretti, F., Jacoby, D. P., Pfleger, M. O., White, T. D., Dent, F., Micheli, F., Rosenberg, A. A., Crowder, L. B., Block, B. A. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1111/conl.12708

    View details for Web of Science ID 000512962900001

  • Mediterranean marine protected areas have higher biodiversity via increased evenness, not abundance JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY Blowes, S. A., Chase, J. M., Di Franco, A., Frid, O., Gotelli, N. J., Guidetti, P., Knight, T. M., May, F., McGlinn, D. J., Micheli, F., Sala, E., Belmaker, J. 2020
  • Synergistic interactions among growing stressors increase risk to an Arctic ecosystem. Nature communications Arrigo, K. R., van Dijken, G. L., Cameron, M. A., van der Grient, J., Wedding, L. M., Hazen, L., Leape, J., Leonard, G., Merkl, A., Micheli, F., Mills, M. M., Monismith, S., Ouellette, N. T., Zivian, A., Levi, M., Bailey, R. M. 2020; 11 (1): 6255


    Oceans provide critical ecosystem services, but are subject to a growing number of external pressures, including overfishing, pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change. Current models typically treat stressors on species and ecosystems independently, though in reality, stressors often interact in ways that are not well understood. Here, we use a network interaction model (OSIRIS) to explicitly study stressor interactions in the Chukchi Sea (Arctic Ocean) due to its extensive climate-driven loss of sea ice and accelerated growth of other stressors, including shipping and oil exploration. The model includes numerous trophic levels ranging from phytoplankton to polar bears. We find that climate-related stressors have a larger impact on animal populations than do acute stressors like increased shipping and subsistence harvesting. In particular, organisms with a strong temperature-growth rate relationship show the greatest changes in biomass as interaction strength increased, but also exhibit the greatest variability. Neglecting interactions between stressors vastly underestimates the risk of population crashes. Our results indicate that models must account for stressor interactions to enable responsible management and decision-making.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-020-19899-z

    View details for PubMedID 33288746

  • Size-dependent vulnerability to herbivory in a coastal foundation species. Oecologia Ng, C. A., Micheli, F. n. 2020


    Ecologists have long wondered how plants and algae persist under constant herbivory, and studies have shown that factors like chemical defense and morphology can protect these species from consumption. However, grazers are also highly diverse and exert varying top-down control over primary producers depending on traits such as body size. Moreover, susceptibility of plants and algae to herbivory may vary across life stages and size classes, with juveniles potentially the most vulnerable. Here, we focus on diverse grazing communities within giant kelp forests and compared consumption on two size classes of juvenile giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) across four herbivore species ranging in size. We also integrated field and literature densities to estimate impacts on populations of juvenile kelp. We found that purple sea urchins, a species known for exerting strong control over adult M. pyrifera, had weak per capita impact on microscopic kelp, on par with a much smaller crustacean species. While urchin consumption increased with macroscopic juvenile kelp, it never surpassed the smaller brown turban snail, suggesting that feeding morphology, in addition to herbivore body size, is a predictor of consumption at these small size classes. The smaller herbivores also occurred in high densities in the field, increasing their predicted population-level impacts on juvenile kelp compared to urchins and perhaps other larger, but less abundant, herbivores. This study highlights the variation in species' roles within an herbivore guild and the importance of age-related changes in grazing vulnerability to better understand herbivore control on plant and algae population dynamics.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00442-020-04655-3

    View details for PubMedID 32306116

  • Marine heat waves threaten kelp forests. Science (New York, N.Y.) Arafeh-Dalmau, N., Schoeman, D. S., Montano-Moctezuma, G., Micheli, F., Rogers-Bennett, L., Olguin-Jacobson, C., Possingham, H. P. 2020; 367 (6478): 635

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aba5244

    View details for PubMedID 32029618

  • The effects of depth and diet on red abalone growth and survival in cage mariculture at San Jeronimo Island, Baja California, Mexico Bauer, J., Lorda, J., Beas-Luna, R., Malpica-Cruz, L., Lafarga-De la Cruz, F., Micheli, F., Searcy-Bernal, R., Rogers-Bennett, L., Bracamontes-Peralta, M. INST INVESTIGACIONES OCEANOLOGICAS, U A B C. 2020: 343–57
  • Reduced fish diversity despite increased fish biomass in a Gulf of California Marine Protected Area. PeerJ Ramírez-Ortiz, G. n., Reyes-Bonilla, H. n., Balart, E. F., Olivier, D. n., Huato-Soberanis, L. n., Micheli, F. n., Edgar, G. J. 2020; 8: e8885


    Multi-use marine protected areas (MUMPAs) are a commonly applied tool for marine conservation in developing countries, particularly where large no-take reserves are not socially or politically feasible. Although MUMPAs have produced benefits around the world, the persistence of moderate fishing pressure reduces the likelihood of achieving the primary objective of these areas, which is the conservation of ecosystems. In this study we used traditional and functional metrics to evaluate how fish assemblages changed through time in a MUMPA, including shifts in species responses and in ecological processes. We conducted visual censuses of fishes at Espíritu Santo Island, México (MUMPA; N = 320; 24°N, 110°W) from 2005 to 2017 to assess fish richness, size-distribution and density. Three functional indices were calculated using six traits (size, mobility, period of activity, aggregation, position in water column and diet): functional richness (volume occupied by species), dispersion (complementarity between species) and originality (inverse of functional redundancy). We compared fish diversity among three management zone types (sustainable fishing, traditional fishing and no-take zones), through a 13-year period, assessing which species increased or decreased in occurrence, density, and biomass, and how indices respond over time. Despite a general increase in biomass and stability in density and originality, we detected a reduction in fish biodiversity in the form of declines in species and functional richness, which could imply the risk of local extinction and decrease in certain ecosystem processes. In addition, changes in functional dispersion showed that some functions are losing representation through time. Although no single cause is apparent, such factors as competitive interactions, habitat loss and persistence of fishing pressure potentially explain these decreases. The rise in biomass was associated with a general increase in the average size, rather than increased biomass of commercial species, as the latter remained stable during the study period. Expansion of no-take areas, enforcement of fishing regulations, and surveillance in core zones, should be implemented to reverse the decline in particular species and to promote conservation of fish functional diversity in this MUMPA.

    View details for DOI 10.7717/peerj.8885

    View details for PubMedID 32296607

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7151750

  • Short- and long-term impacts of variable hypoxia exposures on kelp forest sea urchins. Scientific reports Low, N. H., Micheli, F. n. 2020; 10 (1): 2632


    Climate change is altering the intensity and variability of environmental stress that organisms and ecosystems experience, but effects of changing stress regimes are not well understood. We examined impacts of constant and variable sublethal hypoxia exposures on multiple biological processes in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a key grazer in California Current kelp forests, which experience high variability in physical conditions. We quantified metabolic rates, grazing, growth, calcification, spine regeneration, and gonad production under constant, 3-hour variable, and 6-hour variable exposures to sublethal hypoxia, and compared responses for each hypoxia regime to normoxic conditions. Sea urchins in constant hypoxia maintained baseline metabolic rates, but had lower grazing, gonad development, and calcification rates than those in ambient conditions. The sublethal impacts of variable hypoxia differed among biological processes. Spine regrowth was reduced under all hypoxia treatments, calcification rates under variable hypoxia were intermediate between normoxia and constant hypoxia, and gonad production correlated negatively with continuous time under hypoxia. Therefore, exposure variability can differentially modulate the impacts of sublethal hypoxia, and may impact sea urchin populations and ecosystems via reduced feeding and reproduction. Addressing realistic, multifaceted stressor exposures and multiple biological responses is crucial for understanding climate change impacts on species and ecosystems.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-59483-5

    View details for PubMedID 32060309

  • Tracking the response of industrial fishing fleets to large marine protected areas in the Pacific Ocean. Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology White, T. D., Ong, T. n., Ferretti, F. n., Block, B. A., McCauley, D. J., Micheli, F. n., De Leo, G. A. 2020


    Large marine protected areas (MPAs) of unprecedented size have recently been established across the global oceans, yet their ability to meet conservation objectives is debated. Key areas of debate include uncertainty over nations' abilities to enforce fishing bans across vast, remote regions and the intensity of human impacts before and after MPA implementation. We used a recently developed vessel tracking data set (produced using Automatic Identification System detections) to quantify the response of industrial fishing fleets to 5 of the largest MPAs established in the Pacific Ocean since 2013. After their implementation, all 5 MPAs successfully kept industrial fishing effort exceptionally low. Detected fishing effort was already low in 4 of the 5 large MPAs prior to MPA implementation, particularly relative to nearby regions that did not receive formal protection. Our results suggest that these large MPAs may present major conservation opportunities in relatively intact ecosystems with low immediate impact to industrial fisheries, but the large MPAs we considered often did not significantly reduce fishing effort because baseline fishing was typically low. It is yet to be determined how large MPAs may shape global ocean conservation in the future if the footprint of human influence continues to expand. Continued improvement in understanding of how large MPAs interact with industrial fisheries is a crucial step toward defining their role in global ocean management.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cobi.13584

    View details for PubMedID 33031635

  • COVID-19 reveals vulnerability of small-scale fisheries to global market systems. The Lancet. Planetary health Knight, C. J., Burnham, T. L., Mansfield, E. J., Crowder, L. B., Micheli, F. n. 2020; 4 (6): e219

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S2542-5196(20)30128-5

    View details for PubMedID 32559437

  • Short-term effects of hypoxia are more important than effects of ocean acidification on grazing interactions with juvenile giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). Scientific reports Ng, C. A., Micheli, F. n. 2020; 10 (1): 5403


    Species interactions are crucial for the persistence of ecosystems. Within vegetated habitats, early life stages of plants and algae must survive factors such as grazing to recover from disturbances. However, grazing impacts on early stages, especially under the context of a rapidly changing climate, are largely unknown. Here we examine interaction strengths between juvenile giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) and four common grazers under hypoxia and ocean acidification using short-term laboratory experiments and field data of grazer abundances to estimate population-level grazing impacts. We found that grazing is a significant source of mortality for juvenile kelp and, using field abundances, estimate grazers can remove on average 15.4% and a maximum of 73.9% of juveniles per m2 per day. Short-term exposure to low oxygen, not acidification, weakened interaction strengths across the four species and decreased estimated population-level impacts of grazing threefold, from 15.4% to 4.0% of juvenile kelp removed, on average, per m2 per day. This study highlights potentially high juvenile kelp mortality from grazing. We also show that the effects of hypoxia are stronger than the effects of acidification in weakening these grazing interactions over short timescales, with possible future consequences for the persistence of giant kelp and energy flow through these highly productive food webs.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-62294-3

    View details for PubMedID 32214142

  • Ocean acidification causes variable trait shifts in a coral species. Global change biology Teixidó, N. n., Caroselli, E. n., Alliouane, S. n., Ceccarelli, C. n., Comeau, S. n., Gattuso, J. P., Fici, P. n., Micheli, F. n., Mirasole, A. n., Monismith, S. G., Munari, M. n., Palumbi, S. R., Sheets, E. n., Urbini, L. n., De Vittor, C. n., Goffredo, S. n., Gambi, M. C. 2020


    High pCO2 habitats and their populations provide an unparalleled opportunity to assess how species may survive under future ocean acidification conditions, and help to reveal the traits that confer tolerance. Here we utilize a unique CO2 vent system to study the effects of exposure to elevated pCO2 on trait-shifts observed throughout natural populations of Astroides calycularis, an azooxanthellate scleractinian coral endemic to the Mediterranean. Unexpected shifts in skeletal and growth patterns were found. Colonies shifted to a skeletal phenotype characterized by encrusting morphology, smaller size, reduced coenosarc tissue, fewer polyps, and less porous and denser skeletons at low pH. Interestingly, while individual polyps calcified more and extended faster at low pH, whole colonies found at low pH site calcified and extended their skeleton at the same rate as did those at ambient pH sites. Transcriptomic data revealed strong genetic differentiation among local populations of this warm water species whose distribution range is currently expanding northward. We found excess differentiation in the CO2 vent population for genes central to calcification, including genes for calcium management (calmodulin, calcium-binding proteins), pH regulation (V-type proton ATPase), and inorganic carbon regulation (carbonic anhydrase). Combined, our results demonstrate how coral populations can persist in high pCO2 environments, making this system a powerful candidate for investigating acclimatization and local adaptation of organisms to global environmental change.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/gcb.15372

    View details for PubMedID 33002274

  • Abundance and distribution of the white shark in the Mediterranean Sea FISH AND FISHERIES Moro, S., Jona-Lasinio, G., Block, B., Micheli, F., De Leo, G., Serena, F., Bottaro, M., Scacco, U., Ferretti, F. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.1111/faf.12432

    View details for Web of Science ID 000504574900001

  • Recent pace of change in human impact on the world's ocean. Scientific reports Halpern, B. S., Frazier, M., Afflerbach, J., Lowndes, J. S., Micheli, F., O'Hara, C., Scarborough, C., Selkoe, K. A. 2019; 9 (1): 11609


    Humans interact with the oceans in diverse and profound ways. The scope, magnitude, footprint and ultimate cumulative impacts of human activities can threaten ocean ecosystems and have changed over time, resulting in new challenges and threats to marine ecosystems. A fundamental gap in understanding how humanity is affecting the oceans is our limited knowledge about the pace of change in cumulative impact on ocean ecosystems from expanding human activities - and the patterns, locations and drivers of most significant change. To help address this, we combined high resolution, annual data on the intensity of 14 human stressors and their impact on 21 marine ecosystems over 11 years (2003-2013) to assess pace of change in cumulative impacts on global oceans, where and how much that pace differs across the ocean, and which stressors and their impacts contribute most to those changes. We found that most of the ocean (59%) is experiencing significantly increasing cumulative impact, in particular due to climate change but also from fishing, land-based pollution and shipping. Nearly all countries saw increases in cumulative impacts in their coastal waters, as did all ecosystems, with coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves at most risk. Mitigation of stressors most contributing to increases in overall cumulative impacts is urgently needed to sustain healthy oceans.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-019-47201-9

    View details for PubMedID 31406130

  • Modelled effects of prawn aquaculture on poverty alleviation and schistosomiasis control NATURE SUSTAINABILITY Hoover, C. M., Sokolow, S. H., Kemp, J., Sanchirico, J. N., Lund, A. J., Jones, I. J., Higginson, T., Riveau, G., Savaya, A., Coyle, S., Wood, C. L., Micheli, F., Casagrandi, R., Mari, L., Gatto, M., Rinaldo, A., Perez-Saez, J., Rohr, J. R., Sagi, A., Remais, J., De Leo, G. A. 2019; 2 (7): 611–20
  • Chemistry of the consumption and excretion of the bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), a coral reef mega-consumer CORAL REEFS Goldberg, E., Raab, T. K., Desalles, P., Briggs, A. A., Dunbar, R. B., Millero, F. J., Woosley, R. J., Young, H. S., Micheli, F., Mccauley, D. J. 2019; 38 (2): 347–57
  • Quantifying coconut palm extent on Pacific islands using spectral and textural analysis of very high resolution imagery INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REMOTE SENSING Burnett, M. W., White, T. D., McCauley, D. J., De Leo, G. A., Micheli, F. 2019
  • Harnessing marine microclimates for climate change adaptation and marine conservation CONSERVATION LETTERS Woodson, C., Micheli, F., Boch, C., Al-Najjar, M., Espinoza, A., Hernandez, A., Vazquez-Vera, L., Saenz-Arroyo, A., Monismith, S. G., Torre, J. 2019; 12 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.1111/conl.12609

    View details for Web of Science ID 000465040500001

  • Catastrophic Mortality, Allee Effects, and Marine Protected Areas AMERICAN NATURALIST Aalto, E. A., Micheli, F., Boch, C. A., Montes, J., Woodson, C., De Leo, G. A. 2019; 193 (3): 391–408


    For many species, reproductive failure may occur if abundance drops below critical Allee thresholds for successful breeding, in some cases impeding recovery. At the same time, extreme environmental events can cause catastrophic collapse in otherwise healthy populations. Understanding what natural processes and management strategies may allow for persistence and recovery of natural populations is critical in the face of expected climate change scenarios of increased environmental variability. Using a spatially explicit continuous-size fishery model with stochastic dispersal parameterized for abalone-a harvested species with sedentary adults and a dispersing larval phase-we investigated whether the establishment of a system of marine protected areas (MPAs) can prevent population collapse, compared with nonspatial management when populations are affected by mass mortality from environmental shocks and subject to Allee effects. We found that MPA networks dramatically reduced the risk of collapse following catastrophic events (75%-90% mortality), while populations often continued to decline in the absence of spatial protection. Similar resilience could be achieved by closing the fishery immediately following mass mortalities but would necessitate long periods without catch and therefore economic income. For species with Allee effects, the use of protected areas can ensure persistence following mass mortality events while maintaining ecosystem services during the recovery period.

    View details for DOI 10.1086/701781

    View details for Web of Science ID 000459624900008

    View details for PubMedID 30794455

  • Incorporating change in marine spatial planning: A review ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & POLICY Gissi, E., Fraschetti, S., Micheli, F. 2019; 92: 191–200
  • From Fishing Fish to Fishing Data: The Role of Artisanal Fishers in Conservation and Resource Management in Mexico VIABILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF SMALL-SCALE FISHERIES IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN Fulton, S., Hernandez-Velasco, A., Suarez-Castillo, A., Fernandez-Rivera Melo, F., Rojo, M., Saenz-Arroyo, A., Hudson Weaver, A., Cudney-Bueno, R., Micheli, F., Torre, J., Salas, S., BarraganPaladines, M. J., Chuenpagdee, R. 2019; 19: 151–75
  • An interdisciplinary evaluation of community-based TURF-reserves. PloS one Villaseñor-Derbez, J. C., Aceves-Bueno, E. n., Fulton, S. n., Suarez, A. n., Hernández-Velasco, A. n., Torre, J. n., Micheli, F. n. 2019; 14 (8): e0221660


    Coastal marine ecosystems provide livelihoods for small-scale fishers and coastal communities around the world. Small-scale fisheries face great challenges since they are difficult to monitor, enforce, and manage, which may lead to overexploitation. Combining territorial use rights for fisheries (TURF) with no-take marine reserves to create TURF-reserves can improve the performance of small-scale fisheries by buffering fisheries from environmental variability and management errors, while ensuring that fishers reap the benefits of conservation investments. Since 2012, 18 old and new community-based Mexican TURF-reserves gained legal recognition thanks to a regulation passed in 2012; their effectiveness has not been formally evaluated. We combine causal inference techniques and the Social-Ecological Systems framework to provide a holistic evaluation of community-based TURF-reserves in three coastal communities in Mexico. We find that, overall, reserves have not yet achieved their stated goals of increasing the density of lobster and other benthic invertebrates, nor increasing lobster catches. A lack of clear ecological and socioeconomic effects likely results from a combination of factors. First, some of these reserves might be too young for the effects to show (reserves were 6-10 years old). Second, the reserves are not large enough to protect mobile species, like lobster. Third, variable and extreme oceanographic conditions have impacted harvested populations. Fourth, local fisheries are already well managed, and while reserves may protect populations within its boundaries, it is unlikely that reserves might have a detectable effect in catches. However, even small reserves are expected to provide benefits for sedentary invertebrates over longer time frames, with continued protection. These reserves may provide a foundation for establishing additional, larger marine reserves needed to effectively conserve mobile species.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0221660

    View details for PubMedID 31442289

  • Functional biodiversity loss along natural CO2 gradients NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Teixido, N., Gambi, M., Parravacini, V., Kroeker, K., Micheli, F., Villeger, S., Ballesteros, E. 2018; 9
  • The effects of intensive aquaculture on nutrient residence time and transport in a coastal embayment ENVIRONMENTAL FLUID MECHANICS Wang, B., Cao, L., Micheli, F., Naylor, R. L., Fringer, O. B. 2018; 18 (6): 1321–49
  • Author Correction: Ecological effects of full and partial protection in the crowded Mediterranean Sea: a regional meta-analysis. Scientific reports Giakoumi, S., Scianna, C., Plass-Johnson, J., Micheli, F., Grorud-Colvert, K., Thiriet, P., Claudet, J., Di Carlo, G., Di Franco, A., Gaines, S. D., Garcia-Charton, J. A., Lubchenco, J., Reimer, J., Sala, E., Guidetti, P. 2018; 8 (1): 17644


    A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.

    View details for PubMedID 30498213

  • Sea pens in the Mediterranean Sea: habitat suitability and opportunities for ecosystem recovery (vol 75, pg 1722, 2018) ICES JOURNAL OF MARINE SCIENCE Bastari, A., Pica, D., Ferretti, F., Micheli, F., Cerrano, C. 2018; 75 (6): 2289–91
  • Mapping ecological indicators of human impact with statistical and machine learning methods: Tests on the California coast ECOLOGICAL INFORMATICS Stock, A., Haupt, A. J., Mach, M. E., Micheli, F. 2018; 48: 37–47
  • Ocean Solutions to Address Climate Change and Its Effects on Marine Ecosystems FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Gattuso, J., Magnan, A. K., Bopp, L., Cheung, W. L., Duarte, C. M., Hinkel, J., Mcleod, E., Micheli, F., Oschlies, A., Williamson, P., Bille, R., Chalastani, V. I., Gates, R. D., Irisson, J., Middelburg, J. J., Poertner, H., Rau, G. H. 2018; 5
  • Leveraging vessel traffic data and a temporary fishing closure to inform marine management FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Elahi, R., Ferretti, F., Bastari, A., Cerrano, C., Colloca, F., Kowalik, J., Ruckelshaus, M., Struck, A., Micheli, F. 2018; 16 (8): 440–45

    View details for DOI 10.1002/fee.1936

    View details for Web of Science ID 000446011400004

  • Harnessing cross-border resources to confront climate change ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & POLICY Aburto-Oropeza, O., Johnson, A. F., Agha, M., Allen, E. B., Allen, M. F., Gonzalez, J., Arenas Moreno, D. M., Beas-Luna, R., Butterfield, S., Caetano, G., Caselle, J. E., Castaneda Gaytan, G., Castorani, M. N., Cat, L., Cavanaugh, K., Chambers, J. Q., Cooper, R. D., Arafeh-Dalmau, N., Dawson, T., de la Vega Perez, A., DiMento, J. C., Dominguez Guerrero, S., Edwards, M., Ennen, J. R., Estrada-Medina, H., Fierro-Estrada, N., Gadsden, H., Galina-Tessaro, P., Gibbons, P. M., Goode, E., Gorris, M. E., Harmon, T., Hecht, S., Heredia Fragoso, M., Hernandez-Solano, A., Hernandez-Cortes, D., Hernandez-Carmona, G., Hillard, S., Huey, R. B., Hufford, M. B., Jenerette, G., Jimenez-Osornio, J., Joana Lopez-Nava, K., Resendiz, R., Leslie, H. M., Lopez-Feldman, A., Luja, V. H., Mendez, N., Mautz, W. J., Medellin-Azuara, J., Melendez-Torres, C., Mendez dela Cruz, F. R., Micheli, F., Miles, D. B., Montagner, G., Montano-Moctezuma, G., Mueller, J., Oliva, P., Ortinez Alvarez, J., Ortiz-Partida, J., Palleiro-Nayar, J., Paramo Figueroa, V., Parnell, P., Raimondi, P., Ramirez-Valdez, A., Randerson, J. T., Reed, D. C., Riquelme, M., Romero Torres, T., Rosen, P. C., Ross-Ibarra, J., Sanchez-Cordero, V., Sandoval-Solis, S., Santos, J., Sawers, R., Sinervo, B., Sites, J. W., Sosa-Nishizaki, O., Stanton, T., Stapp, J. R., Stewart, J. E., Torre, J., Torres-Moye, G., Treseder, K. K., Valdez-Villavicencio, J., Valle Jimenez, F., Vaughn, M., Wetontn, L., Westphal, M. F., Woolrich-Pina, G., Yunez-Naude, A., Zertuche-Gonzalez, J. A., Taylo, J. 2018; 87: 128–32
  • Human impacts decouple a fundamental ecological relationship-The positive association between host diversity and parasite diversity GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Wood, C. L., Zgliczynski, B. J., Haupt, A. J., Guerra, A., Micheli, F., Sandin, S. A. 2018; 24 (8): 3666–79


    Human impacts on ecosystems can decouple the fundamental ecological relationships that create patterns of diversity in free-living species. Despite the abundance, ubiquity, and ecological importance of parasites, it is unknown whether the same decoupling effects occur for parasitic species. We investigated the influence of fishing on the relationship between host diversity and parasite diversity for parasites of coral reef fishes on three fished and three unfished islands in the central equatorial Pacific. Fishing was associated with a shallowing of the positive host-diversity-parasite-diversity relationship. This occurred primarily through negative impacts of fishing on the presence of complex life-cycle parasites, which created a biologically impoverished parasite fauna of directly transmitted parasites resilient to changes in host biodiversity. Parasite diversity appears to be decoupled from host diversity by fishing impacts in this coral reef ecosystem, which suggests that such decoupling might also occur for parasites in other ecosystems affected by environmental change.

    View details for PubMedID 29781155

  • Revisiting "Success" and "Failure" Marine Protected Areas: A Conservation Scientist Perspective FRONTIERS IN MARINE SCIENCE Giakoumi, S., McGowan, J., Mills, M., Beger, M., Bustamante, R. H., Charles, A., Christie, P., Fox, M., Garcia-Borboroglu, P., Gelcich, S., Guidetti, P., Mackelworth, P., Maina, J. M., McCook, L., Micheli, F., Morgan, L. E., Mumby, P. J., Reyes, L. M., White, A., Grorud-Colvert, K., Possingham, H. P. 2018; 5
  • Uncertainty analysis and robust areas of high and low modeled human impact on the global oceans. Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology Stock, A., Crowder, L. B., Halpern, B. S., Micheli, F. 2018


    Increasing anthropogenic pressure on marine ecosystems from fishing, pollution, climate change and other sources is a big concern in marine conservation. Scientists have thus developed spatial models to map cumulative human impacts on marine ecosystems. However, these models make many assumptions and incorporate data that suffer from substantial incompleteness and inaccuracies. Here, as opposed to using a single model, we used Monte Carlo simulations to identify which parts of the oceans are most and least impacted by anthropogenic stressors under seven simulated sources of uncertainty (factors), including errors in the input data and choices between alternative model assumptions. Most maps generated in the simulations agreed that high-impact areas were located in the Northeast Atlantic, the eastern Mediterranean, the Caribbean, the continental shelf off northern West Africa, offshore parts of the tropical Atlantic, the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar, parts of East and Southeast Asia, parts of the northwestern Pacific, and in many coastal waters; and that large low-impact areas were located off Antarctica, in the central Pacific, and in the southern Atlantic. Uncertainty in the broad-scale spatial distribution of modeled human impact was caused by the aggregate effects of several factors, rather than being attributable to a single dominant source. In spite of the identified uncertainty in human impact maps, they can - at broad spatial scales and in combination with other environmental and socioeconomic information - point to priority areas for research and management.

    View details for PubMedID 29797608

  • Linking home ranges to protected area size: The case study of the Mediterranean Sea BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Di Franco, A., Plass-Johnson, J. G., Di Lorenzo, M., Meola, B., Claudet, J., Gaines, S. D., Antonio Garcia-Charton, J., Giakoumi, S., Grorud-Colvert, K., Werner Hackradt, C., Micheli, F., Guidetti, P. 2018; 221: 175–81
  • Lethal and functional thresholds of hypoxia in two key benthic grazers MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Low, N. N., Micheli, F. 2018; 594: 165–73

    View details for DOI 10.3354/meps12558

    View details for Web of Science ID 000431203900012

  • Local oceanographic variability influences the performance of juvenile abalone under climate change SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Boch, C. A., Micheli, F., AlNajjar, M., Monismith, S. G., Beers, J. M., Bonilla, J. C., Espinoza, A. M., Vazquez-Vera, L., Woodson, C. B. 2018; 8: 5501


    Climate change is causing warming, deoxygenation, and acidification of the global ocean. However, manifestation of climate change may vary at local scales due to oceanographic conditions. Variation in stressors, such as high temperature and low oxygen, at local scales may lead to variable biological responses and spatial refuges from climate impacts. We conducted outplant experiments at two locations separated by ~2.5 km and two sites at each location separated by ~200 m in the nearshore of Isla Natividad, Mexico to assess how local ocean conditions (warming and hypoxia) may affect juvenile abalone performance. Here, we show that abalone growth and mortality mapped to variability in stress exposure across sites and locations. These insights indicate that management decisions aimed at maintaining and recovering valuable marine species in the face of climate change need to be informed by local variability in environmental conditions.

    View details for PubMedID 29615671

  • On the prevalence and dynamics of inverted trophic pyramids and otherwise top-heavy communities ECOLOGY LETTERS McCauley, D. J., Gellner, G., Martinez, N. D., Williams, R. J., Sandin, S. A., Micheli, F., Mumby, P. J., McCann, K. S. 2018; 21 (3): 439–54


    Classically, biomass partitioning across trophic levels was thought to add up to a pyramidal distribution. Numerous exceptions have, however, been noted including complete pyramidal inversions. Elevated levels of biomass top-heaviness (i.e. high consumer/resource biomass ratios) have been reported from Arctic tundra communities to Brazilian phytotelmata, and in species assemblages as diverse as those dominated by sharks and ants. We highlight two major pathways for creating top-heaviness, via: (1) endogenous channels that enhance energy transfer across trophic boundaries within a community and (2) exogenous pathways that transfer energy into communities from across spatial and temporal boundaries. Consumer-resource models and allometric trophic network models combined with niche models reveal the nature of core mechanisms for promoting top-heaviness. Outputs from these models suggest that top-heavy communities can be stable, but they also reveal sources of instability. Humans are both increasing and decreasing top-heaviness in nature with ecological consequences. Current and future research on the drivers of top-heaviness can help elucidate fundamental mechanisms that shape the architecture of ecological communities and govern energy flux within and between communities. Questions emerging from the study of top-heaviness also usefully draw attention to the incompleteness and inconsistency by which ecologists often establish definitional boundaries for communities.

    View details for PubMedID 29316114

  • Exploring trade-offs in climate change response in the context of Pacific Island fisheries MARINE POLICY Finkbeiner, E. M., Micheli, F., Bennett, N. J., Ayers, A. L., Le Cornu, E., Doerr, A. N. 2018; 88: 359–64
  • A user-friendly tool to evaluate the effectiveness of no-take marine reserves PLOS ONE Villasenor-Derbez, J., Faro, C., Wright, M., Martinez, J., Fitzgerald, S., Fulton, S., Mancha-Cisneros, M., McDonald, G., Micheli, F., Suarez, A., Torre, J., Costello, C. 2018; 13 (1): e0191821


    Marine reserves are implemented to achieve a variety of objectives, but are seldom rigorously evaluated to determine whether those objectives are met. In the rare cases when evaluations do take place, they typically focus on ecological indicators and ignore other relevant objectives such as socioeconomics and governance. And regardless of the objectives, the diversity of locations, monitoring protocols, and analysis approaches hinder the ability to compare results across case studies. Moreover, analysis and evaluation of reserves is generally conducted by outside researchers, not the reserve managers or users, plausibly thereby hindering effective local management and rapid response to change. We present a framework and tool, called "MAREA", to overcome these challenges. Its purpose is to evaluate the extent to which any given reserve has achieved its stated objectives. MAREA provides specific guidance on data collection and formatting, and then conducts rigorous causal inference analysis based on data input by the user, providing real-time outputs about the effectiveness of the reserve. MAREA's ease of use, standardization of state-of-the-art inference methods, and ability to analyze marine reserve effectiveness across ecological, socioeconomic, and governance objectives could dramatically further our understanding and support of effective marine reserve management.

    View details for PubMedID 29381762

  • A risk-based approach to cumulative effect assessments for marine management SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT Stelzenmueller, V., Coll, M., Mazaris, A. D., Giakoumi, S., Katsanevakis, S., Portman, M. E., Degen, R., Mackelworth, P., Gimpel, A., Albano, P. G., Almpanidou, V., Claudet, J., Essl, F., Evagelopoulos, T., Heymans, J. J., Genov, T., Kark, S., Micheli, F., Grazia Pennino, M., Rilov, G., Rumes, B., Steenbeek, J., Ojaveer, H. 2018; 612: 1132–40


    Marine ecosystems are increasingly threatened by the cumulative effects of multiple human pressures. Cumulative effect assessments (CEAs) are needed to inform environmental policy and guide ecosystem-based management. Yet, CEAs are inherently complex and seldom linked to real-world management processes. Therefore we propose entrenching CEAs in a risk management process, comprising the steps of risk identification, risk analysis and risk evaluation. We provide guidance to operationalize a risk-based approach to CEAs by describing for each step guiding principles and desired outcomes, scientific challenges and practical solutions. We reviewed the treatment of uncertainty in CEAs and the contribution of different tools and data sources to the implementation of a risk based approach to CEAs. We show that a risk-based approach to CEAs decreases complexity, allows for the transparent treatment of uncertainty and streamlines the uptake of scientific outcomes into the science-policy interface. Hence, its adoption can help bridging the gap between science and decision-making in ecosystem-based management.

    View details for PubMedID 28892857

  • Local response to global uncertainty: Insights from experimental economics in small-scale fisheries GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE-HUMAN AND POLICY DIMENSIONS Finkbeiner, E. M., Micheli, F., Saenz-Arroyo, A., Vazquez-Vera, L., Perafan, C. A., Cardenas, J. C. 2018; 48: 151–57
  • Sea pens in the Mediterranean Sea: diversity distribution and opportunities for ecosystem recovery ICES Journal of Marine Science Bastari, A., Pica, D., Ferretti, F., Micheli, F., Cerrano, C. 2018

    View details for DOI 10.1093/icesjms/fsy010

  • Functional biodiversity loss along natural CO2 gradients. Nature communications Teixido, N., Gambi, M. C., Parravacini, V., Kroeker, K., Micheli, F., Villeger, S., Ballesteros, E. 2018; 9 (1): 5149


    The effects of environmental change on biodiversity are still poorly understood. In particular, the consequences of shifts in species composition for marine ecosystem function are largely unknown. Here we assess the loss of functional diversity, i.e. the range of species biological traits, in benthic marine communities exposed to ocean acidification (OA) by using natural CO2 vent systems. We found that functional richness is greatly reduced with acidification, and that functional loss is more pronounced than the corresponding decrease in taxonomic diversity. In acidified conditions, most organisms accounted for a few functional entities (i.e. unique combination of functional traits), resulting in low functional redundancy. These results suggest that functional richness is not buffered by functional redundancy under OA, even in highly diverse assemblages, such as rocky benthic communities.

    View details for PubMedID 30531929

  • "Internal tide pools" prolong kelp forest hypoxic events LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY Leary, P. R., Woodson, C., Squibb, M. E., Denny, M. W., Monismith, S. G., Micheli, F. 2017; 62 (6): 2864–78

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lno.10716

    View details for Web of Science ID 000415930800035

  • Ecological effects of full and partial protection in the crowded Mediterranean Sea: a regional meta-analysis. Scientific reports Giakoumi, S., Scianna, C., Plass-Johnson, J., Micheli, F., Grorud-Colvert, K., Thiriet, P., Claudet, J., Di Carlo, G., Di Franco, A., Gaines, S. D., García-Charton, J. A., Lubchenco, J., Reimer, J., Sala, E., Guidetti, P. 2017; 7 (1): 8940


    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a cornerstone of marine conservation. Globally, the number and coverage of MPAs are increasing, but MPA implementation lags in many human-dominated regions. In areas with intense competition for space and resources, evaluation of the effects of MPAs is crucial to inform decisions. In the human-dominated Mediterranean Sea, fully protected areas occupy only 0.04% of its surface. We evaluated the impacts of full and partial protection on biomass and density of fish assemblages, some commercially important fishes, and sea urchins in 24 Mediterranean MPAs. We explored the relationships between the level of protection and MPA size, age, and enforcement. Results revealed significant positive effects of protection for fisheries target species and negative effects for urchins as their predators benefited from protection. Full protection provided stronger effects than partial protection. Benefits of full protection for fish biomass were only correlated with the level of MPA enforcement; fish density was higher in older, better enforced, and -interestingly- smaller MPAs. Our finding that even small, well-enforced, fully protected areas can have significant ecological effects is encouraging for "crowded" marine environments. However, more data are needed to evaluate sufficient MPA sizes for protecting populations of species with varying mobility levels.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-017-08850-w

    View details for PubMedID 28827603

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5566470

  • Calcifying algae maintain settlement cues to larval abalone following algal exposure to extreme ocean acidification. Scientific reports O'Leary, J. K., Barry, J. P., Gabrielson, P. W., Rogers-Bennett, L., Potts, D. C., Palumbi, S. R., Micheli, F. 2017; 7 (1): 5774


    Ocean acidification (OA) increasingly threatens marine systems, and is especially harmful to calcifying organisms. One important question is whether OA will alter species interactions. Crustose coralline algae (CCA) provide space and chemical cues for larval settlement. CCA have shown strongly negative responses to OA in previous studies, including disruption of settlement cues to corals. In California, CCA provide cues for seven species of harvested, threatened, and endangered abalone. We exposed four common CCA genera and a crustose calcifying red algae, Peyssonnelia (collectively CCRA) from California to three pCO2 levels ranging from 419-2,013 µatm for four months. We then evaluated abalone (Haliotis rufescens) settlement under ambient conditions among the CCRA and non-algal controls that had been previously exposed to the pCO2 treatments. Abalone settlement and metamorphosis increased from 11% in the absence of CCRA to 45-69% when CCRA were present, with minor variation among CCRA genera. Though all CCRA genera reduced growth during exposure to increased pCO2, abalone settlement was unaffected by prior CCRA exposure to increased pCO2. Thus, we find no impacts of OA exposure history on CCRA provision of settlement cues. Additionally, there appears to be functional redundancy in genera of CCRA providing cues to abalone, which may further buffer OA effects.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-017-05502-x

    View details for PubMedID 28720836

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5515930

  • Empiricism and Modeling for Marine Fisheries: Advancing an Interdisciplinary Science ECOSYSTEMS Essington, T. E., Ciannelli, L., Heppell, S. S., Levin, P. S., McClanahan, T. R., Micheli, F., Plaganyi, E. E., van Putten, I. E. 2017; 20 (2): 237-244
  • Assessment and management of cumulative impacts in California's network of marine protected areas OCEAN & COASTAL MANAGEMENT Mach, M. E., Wedding, L. M., Reiter, S. M., Micheli, F., Fujita, R. M., Martone, R. G. 2017; 137: 1-11
  • The Resilience of Marine Ecosystems to Climatic Disturbances BIOSCIENCE O'Leary, J. K., Micheli, F., Airoldi, L., Boch, C., De Leo, G., Elahi, R., Ferretti, F., Graham, N. A., Litvin, S. Y., Low, N. H., Lummis, S., Nickols, K. J., Wong, J. 2017; 67 (3): 208-220
  • Identifying potential consequences of natural perturbations and management decisions on a coastal fishery social-ecological system using qualitative loop analysis ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY Martone, R. G., Bodini, A., Micheli, F. 2017; 22 (1)
  • Space invaders; biological invasions in marine conservation planning DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS Giakoumi, S., Guilhaumon, F., Kark, S., Terlizzi, A., Claudet, J., Felline, S., Cerrano, C., Coll, M., Danovaro, R., Fraschetti, S., Koutsoubas, D., Ledoux, J., Mazor, T., Merigot, B., Micheli, F., Katsanevakis, S. 2016; 22 (12): 1220-1231

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ddi.12491

    View details for Web of Science ID 000387330800002

  • Global patterns of kelp forest change over the past half-century PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Krumhans, K. A., Okamoto, D. K., Rassweiler, A., Novak, M., Bolton, J. J., Cavanaugh, K. C., Connell, S. D., Johnson, C. R., Konar, B., Ling, S. D., Micheli, F., Norderhaug, K. M., Perez-Matus, A., Sousa-Pintol, I., Reed, D. C., Salomon, A. K., Shears, N. T., Wernberg, T., Anderson, R. J., Barrett, N. S., Buschmanns, A. H., Carr, M. H., Caselle, J. E., Derrien-Courtel, S., Edgar, G. J., Edwards, M., Estes, J. A., Goodwin, C., Kenner, M. C., Kushner, D. J., Moy, F. E., Nunn, J., Stenecka, R. S., Vsquezb, J., Watsonc, J., Witmand, J. D., Byrnese, J. E. 2016; 113 (48): 13785-13790
  • Global patterns of kelp forest change over the past half-century. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Krumhansl, K. A., Okamoto, D. K., Rassweiler, A., Novak, M., Bolton, J. J., Cavanaugh, K. C., Connell, S. D., Johnson, C. R., Konar, B., Ling, S. D., Micheli, F., Norderhaug, K. M., Pérez-Matus, A., Sousa-Pinto, I., Reed, D. C., Salomon, A. K., Shears, N. T., Wernberg, T., Anderson, R. J., Barrett, N. S., Buschmann, A. H., Carr, M. H., Caselle, J. E., Derrien-Courtel, S., Edgar, G. J., Edwards, M., Estes, J. A., Goodwin, C., Kenner, M. C., Kushner, D. J., Moy, F. E., Nunn, J., Steneck, R. S., Vásquez, J., Watson, J., Witman, J. D., Byrnes, J. E. 2016; 113 (48): 13785-13790


    Kelp forests (Order Laminariales) form key biogenic habitats in coastal regions of temperate and Arctic seas worldwide, providing ecosystem services valued in the range of billions of dollars annually. Although local evidence suggests that kelp forests are increasingly threatened by a variety of stressors, no comprehensive global analysis of change in kelp abundances currently exists. Here, we build and analyze a global database of kelp time series spanning the past half-century to assess regional and global trends in kelp abundances. We detected a high degree of geographic variation in trends, with regional variability in the direction and magnitude of change far exceeding a small global average decline (instantaneous rate of change = -0.018 y(-1)). Our analysis identified declines in 38% of ecoregions for which there are data (-0.015 to -0.18 y(-1)), increases in 27% of ecoregions (0.015 to 0.11 y(-1)), and no detectable change in 35% of ecoregions. These spatially variable trajectories reflected regional differences in the drivers of change, uncertainty in some regions owing to poor spatial and temporal data coverage, and the dynamic nature of kelp populations. We conclude that although global drivers could be affecting kelp forests at multiple scales, local stressors and regional variation in the effects of these drivers dominate kelp dynamics, in contrast to many other marine and terrestrial foundation species.

    View details for PubMedID 27849580

  • Effects of model assumptions and data quality on spatial cumulative human impact assessments GLOBAL ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY Stock, A., Micheli, F. 2016; 25 (11): 1321-1332

    View details for DOI 10.1111/geb.12493

    View details for Web of Science ID 000386382500005

  • Coralline algae in a naturally acidified ecosystem persist by maintaining control of skeletal mineralogy and size PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Kamenos, N. A., Perna, G., Gambi, M. C., Micheli, F., Kroeker, K. J. 2016; 283 (1840)


    To understand the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on marine calcifiers, the trade-offs among different sublethal responses within individual species and the emergent effects of these trade-offs must be determined in an ecosystem setting. Crustose coralline algae (CCA) provide a model to test the ecological consequences of such sublethal effects as they are important in ecosystem functioning, service provision, carbon cycling and use dissolved inorganic carbon to calcify and photosynthesize. Settlement tiles were placed in ambient pH, low pH and extremely low pH conditions for 14 months at a natural CO2 vent. The size, magnesium (Mg) content and molecular-scale skeletal disorder of CCA patches were assessed at 3.5, 6.5 and 14 months from tile deployment. Despite reductions in their abundance in low pH, the largest CCA from ambient and low pH zones were of similar sizes and had similar Mg content and skeletal disorder. This suggests that the most resilient CCA in low pH did not trade-off skeletal structure to maintain growth. CCA that settled in the extremely low pH, however, were significantly smaller and exhibited altered skeletal mineralogy (high Mg calcite to gypsum (hydrated calcium sulfate)), although at present it is unclear if these mineralogical changes offered any fitness benefits in extreme low pH. This field assessment of biological effects of OA provides endpoint information needed to generate an ecosystem relevant understanding of calcifying system persistence.

    View details for DOI 10.1098/rspb.2016.1159

    View details for Web of Science ID 000386490000003

    View details for PubMedID 27733544

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5069505

  • Use of high-resolution acoustic cameras to study reef shark behavioral ecology JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY McCauley, D. J., DeSalles, P. A., Young, H. S., Gardner, J. P., Micheli, F. 2016; 482: 128-133
  • Falling through the cracks: the fading history of a large iconic predator FISH AND FISHERIES Ferretti, F., Morey Verd, G., Seret, B., Sprem, J. S., Micheli, F. 2016; 17 (3): 875-889

    View details for DOI 10.1111/faf.12108

    View details for Web of Science ID 000382494600018

  • Between control and complexity: opportunities and challenges for marine mesocosms FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Sagarin, R. D., Adams, J., Blanchette, C. A., Brusca, R. C., Chorover, J., Cole, J. E., Micheli, F., Munguia-Vega, A., Rochman, C. M., Bonine, K., van Haren, J., Troch, P. A. 2016; 14 (7): 389-396

    View details for DOI 10.1002/fee.1313

    View details for Web of Science ID 000382527900018

  • Large marine protected areas (LMPAs) in the Mediterranean Sea: The opportunity of the Adriatic Sea MARINE POLICY Bastari, A., Micheli, F., Ferretti, F., Pusceddu, A., Cerrano, C. 2016; 68: 165-177
  • Combined impacts of natural and human disturbances on rocky shore communities OCEAN & COASTAL MANAGEMENT Micheli, F., Heiman, K. W., Kappel, C. V., Martone, R. G., Sethi, S. A., Osio, G. C., Fraschetti, S., Shelton, A. O., Tanner, J. M. 2016; 126: 42-50
  • Distribution and functional traits of polychaetes in a CO2 vent system: winners and losers among closely related species MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Gambi, M. C., Musco, L., Giangrande, A., Badalamenti, F., Micheli, F., Kroeker, K. J. 2016; 550: 121-134

    View details for DOI 10.3354/meps11727

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379811700009

  • Ecology of a Vulnerable Shorebird across a Gradient of Habitat Alteration: Bristle-Thighed Curlews (Numenius tahitiensis) (Ayes: Charadriiformes) on Palmyra Atoll PACIFIC SCIENCE Guerra, A. S., Micheli, F., Wood, C. L. 2016; 70 (2): 159-174

    View details for DOI 10.2984/70.2.3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000373647400003

  • Exploring the role of gender in common-pool resource extraction: evidence from laboratory and field experiments in fisheries APPLIED ECONOMICS LETTERS Revollo-Fernandez, D., Aguilar-Ibarra, A., Micheli, F., Saenz-Arroyo, A. 2016; 23 (13): 912-920
  • The good, the bad and the ugly of marine reserves for fishery yields PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES De Leo, G. A., Micheli, F. 2015; 370 (1681)

    View details for DOI 10.1098/rstb.2014.0276

    View details for PubMedID 26460129

  • Reconciling predator conservation with public safety FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Ferretti, F., Jorgensen, S., Chapple, T. K., De Leo, G., Micheli, F. 2015; 13 (8): 412-417

    View details for DOI 10.1890/150109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000362229100014

  • No-take marine reserves can enhance population persistence and support the fishery of abalone CANADIAN JOURNAL OF FISHERIES AND AQUATIC SCIENCES Rossetto, M., Micheli, F., Saenz-Arroyo, A., Espinoza Montes, J. A., Alessandro De Leo, G. 2015; 72 (10): 1503-1517
  • Towards a framework for assessment and management of cumulative human impacts on marine food webs CONSERVATION BIOLOGY Giakoumi, S., Halpern, B. S., Michel, L. N., Gobert, S., Sini, M., Boudouresque, C., Gambi, M., Katsanevakis, S., Lejeune, P., Montefalcone, M., Pergent, G., Pergent-Martini, C., Sanchez-Jerez, P., Velimirov, B., Vizzini, S., Abadie, A., Coll, M., Guidetti, P., Micheli, F., Possingham, H. P. 2015; 29 (4): 1228-1234


    Effective ecosystem-based management requires understanding ecosystem responses to multiple human threats, rather than focusing on single threats. To understand ecosystem responses to anthropogenic threats holistically, it is necessary to know how threats affect different components within ecosystems and ultimately alter ecosystem functioning. We used a case study of a Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) food web and expert knowledge elicitation in an application of the initial steps of a framework for assessment of cumulative human impacts on food webs. We produced a conceptual seagrass food web model, determined the main trophic relationships, identified the main threats to the food web components, and assessed the components' vulnerability to those threats. Some threats had high (e.g., coastal infrastructure) or low impacts (e.g., agricultural runoff) on all food web components, whereas others (e.g., introduced carnivores) had very different impacts on each component. Partitioning the ecosystem into its components enabled us to identify threats previously overlooked and to reevaluate the importance of threats commonly perceived as major. By incorporating this understanding of system vulnerability with data on changes in the state of each threat (e.g., decreasing domestic pollution and increasing fishing) into a food web model, managers may be better able to estimate and predict cumulative human impacts on ecosystems and to prioritize conservation actions.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cobi.12468

    View details for Web of Science ID 000357981200029

    View details for PubMedID 25704365

  • Assessing niche width of endothermic fish from genes to ecosystem. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Madigan, D. J., Carlisle, A. B., Gardner, L. D., Jayasundara, N., Micheli, F., Schaefer, K. M., Fuller, D. W., Block, B. A. 2015; 112 (27): 8350-8355


    Endothermy in vertebrates has been postulated to confer physiological and ecological advantages. In endothermic fish, niche expansion into cooler waters is correlated with specific physiological traits and is hypothesized to lead to greater foraging success and increased fitness. Using the seasonal co-occurrence of three tuna species in the eastern Pacific Ocean as a model system, we used cardiac gene expression data (as a proxy for thermal tolerance to low temperatures), archival tag data, and diet analyses to examine the vertical niche expansion hypothesis for endothermy in situ. Yellowfin, albacore, and Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT) in the California Current system used more surface, mesopelagic, and deep waters, respectively. Expression of cardiac genes for calcium cycling increased in PBFT and coincided with broader vertical and thermal niche utilization. However, the PBFT diet was less diverse and focused on energy-rich forage fishes but did not show the greatest energy gains. Ecosystem-based management strategies for tunas should thus consider species-specific differences in physiology and foraging specialization.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1500524112

    View details for PubMedID 26100889

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4500250

  • Productivity and fishing pressure drive variability in fish parasite assemblages of the Line Islands, equatorial Pacific ECOLOGY Wood, C. L., Baum, J. K., Reddy, S. M., Trebilco, R., Sandin, S. A., Zgliczynski, B. J., Briggs, A. A., Micheli, F. 2015; 96 (5): 1383-1398
  • Spatio-temporal variability of polychaete colonization at volcanic CO2 vents indicates high tolerance to ocean acidification MARINE BIOLOGY Ricevuto, E., Kroeker, K. J., FERRIGNO, F., Micheli, F., Gambi, M. C. 2014; 161 (12): 2909-2919
  • Fabriciidae (Annelida, Sabellida) from a naturally acidified coastal system (Italy) with description of two new species JOURNAL OF THE MARINE BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM Giangrande, A., Gambi, M. C., Micheli, F., Kroeker, K. J. 2014; 94 (7): 1417-1427
  • Identifying the interacting roles of stressors in driving the global loss of canopy-forming to mat-forming algae in marine ecosystems GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY Strain, E. M., Thomson, R. J., Micheli, F., Mancuso, F. P., Airoldi, L. 2014; 20 (11): 3300-3312


    Identifying the type and strength of interactions between local anthropogenic and other stressors can help to set achievable management targets for degraded marine ecosystems and support their resilience by identifying local actions. We undertook a meta-analysis, using data from 118 studies to test the hypothesis that ongoing global declines in the dominant habitat along temperate rocky coastlines, forests of canopy-forming algae and/or their replacement by mat-forming algae are driven by the nonadditive interactions between local anthropogenic stressors that can be addressed through management actions (fishing, heavy metal pollution, nutrient enrichment and high sediment loads) and other stressors (presence of competitors or grazers, removal of canopy algae, limiting or excessive light, low or high salinity, increasing temperature, high wave exposure and high UV or CO2 ), not as easily amenable to management actions. In general, the cumulative effects of local anthropogenic and other stressors had negative effects on the growth and survival of canopy-forming algae. Conversely, the growth or survival of mat-forming algae was either unaffected or significantly enhanced by the same pairs of stressors. Contrary to our predictions, the majority of interactions between stressors were additive. There were however synergistic interactions between nutrient enrichment and heavy metals, the presence of competitors, low light and increasing temperature, leading to amplified negative effects on canopy-forming algae. There were also synergistic interactions between nutrient enrichment and increasing CO2 and temperature leading to amplified positive effects on mat-forming algae. Our review of the current literature shows that management of nutrient levels, rather than fishing, heavy metal pollution or high sediment loads, would provide the greatest opportunity for preventing the shift from canopy to mat-forming algae, particularly in enclosed bays or estuaries because of the higher prevalence of synergistic interactions between nutrient enrichment with other local and global stressors, and as such it should be prioritized.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/gcb.12619

    View details for Web of Science ID 000343762800002

    View details for PubMedID 24771500

  • Positive and Negative Effects of a Threatened Parrotfish on Reef Ecosystems CONSERVATION BIOLOGY McCauley, D. J., Young, H. S., Guevara, R., Williams, G. J., Power, E. A., Dunbar, R. B., Bird, D. W., Durham, W. H., Micheli, F. 2014; 28 (5): 1312-?


    Species that are strong interactors play disproportionately important roles in the dynamics of natural ecosystems. It has been proposed that their presence is necessary for positively shaping the structure and functioning of ecosystems. We evaluated this hypothesis using the case of the world's largest parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), a globally imperiled species. We used direct observation, animal tracking, and computer simulations to examine the diverse routes through which B. muricatum affects the diversity, dispersal, relative abundance, and survival of the corals that comprise the foundation of reef ecosystems. Our results suggest that this species can influence reef building corals in both positive and negative ways. Field observation and simulation outputs indicated that B. muricatum reduced the abundance of macroalgae that can outcompete corals, but they also feed directly on corals, decreasing coral abundance, diversity, and colony size. B. muricatum appeared to facilitate coral advancement by mechanically dispersing coral fragments and opening up bare space for coral settlement, but they also damaged adult corals and remobilized a large volume of potentially stressful carbonate sediment. The impacts this species has on reefs appears to be regulated in part by its abundance-the effects of B. muricatum were more intense in simulation scenarios populated with high densities of these fish. Observations conducted in regions with high and low predator (e.g., sharks) abundance generated results that are consistent with the hypothesis that these predators of B. muricatum may play a role in governing their abundance; thus, predation may modulate the intensity of the effects they have on reef dynamics. Overall our results illustrate that functionally unique and threatened species may not have universally positive impacts on ecosystems and that it may be necessary for environmental managers to consider the diverse effects of such species and the forces that mediate the strength of their influence.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cobi.12314

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342668700001

  • Positive and negative effects of a threatened parrotfish on reef ecosystems. Conservation biology McCauley, D. J., Young, H. S., Guevara, R., Williams, G. J., Power, E. A., Dunbar, R. B., Bird, D. W., Durham, W. H., Micheli, F. 2014; 28 (5): 1312-1321


    Species that are strong interactors play disproportionately important roles in the dynamics of natural ecosystems. It has been proposed that their presence is necessary for positively shaping the structure and functioning of ecosystems. We evaluated this hypothesis using the case of the world's largest parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum), a globally imperiled species. We used direct observation, animal tracking, and computer simulations to examine the diverse routes through which B. muricatum affects the diversity, dispersal, relative abundance, and survival of the corals that comprise the foundation of reef ecosystems. Our results suggest that this species can influence reef building corals in both positive and negative ways. Field observation and simulation outputs indicated that B. muricatum reduced the abundance of macroalgae that can outcompete corals, but they also feed directly on corals, decreasing coral abundance, diversity, and colony size. B. muricatum appeared to facilitate coral advancement by mechanically dispersing coral fragments and opening up bare space for coral settlement, but they also damaged adult corals and remobilized a large volume of potentially stressful carbonate sediment. The impacts this species has on reefs appears to be regulated in part by its abundance-the effects of B. muricatum were more intense in simulation scenarios populated with high densities of these fish. Observations conducted in regions with high and low predator (e.g., sharks) abundance generated results that are consistent with the hypothesis that these predators of B. muricatum may play a role in governing their abundance; thus, predation may modulate the intensity of the effects they have on reef dynamics. Overall our results illustrate that functionally unique and threatened species may not have universally positive impacts on ecosystems and that it may be necessary for environmental managers to consider the diverse effects of such species and the forces that mediate the strength of their influence.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cobi.12314

    View details for PubMedID 25065396

  • Reliance of mobile species on sensitive habitats: a case study of manta rays (Manta alfredi) and lagoons MARINE BIOLOGY McCauley, D. J., DeSalles, P. A., Young, H. S., Papastamatiou, Y. P., Caselle, J. E., Deakos, M. H., Gardner, J. P., Garton, D. W., Collen, J. D., Micheli, F. 2014; 161 (9): 1987-1998
  • A risk-based framework for assessing the cumulative impact of multiple fisheries BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Micheli, F., De Leo, G., Butner, C., Martone, R. G., Shester, G. 2014; 176: 224-235
  • Fishing drives declines in fish parasite diversity and has variable effects on parasite abundance ECOLOGY Wood, C. L., Sandin, S. A., Zgliczynski, B., Guerra, A. S., Micheli, F. 2014; 95 (7): 1929-1946


    Despite the ubiquity and ecological importance of parasites, relatively few studies have assessed their response to anthropogenic environmental change. Heuristic models have predicted both increases and decreases in parasite abundance in response to human disturbance, with empirical support for both. However, most studies focus on one or a few selected parasite species. Here, we assess the abundance of parasites of seven species of coral reef fishes collected from three fished and three unfished islands of the Line Islands archipelago in the central equatorial Pacific. Because we chose fish hosts that spanned different trophic levels, taxonomic groups, and body sizes, we were able to compare parasite responses across a broad cross section of the total parasite community in the presence and absence of fishing, a major human impact on marine ecosystems. We found that overall parasite species richness was substantially depressed on fished islands, but that the response of parasite abundance varied among parasite taxa: directly transmitted parasites were significantly more abundant on fished than on unfished islands, while the reverse was true for trophically transmitted parasites. This probably arises because trophically transmitted parasites require multiple host species, some of which are the top predators most sensitive to fishing impacts. The increase in directly transmitted parasites appeared to be due to fishing-driven compensatory increases in the abundance of their hosts. Together, these results provide support for the predictions of both heuristic models, and indicate that the direction of fishing's impact on parasite abundance is mediated by parasite traits, notably parasite transmission strategies.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000339470500021

    View details for PubMedID 25163125

  • Patterns and potential drivers of declining oxygen content along the southern California coast LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY Booth, J. A., Woodson, C. B., Sutula, M., Micheli, F., Weisberg, S. B., Bograd, S. J., Steele, A., Schoen, J., Crowder, L. B. 2014; 59 (4): 1127-1138
  • A system-wide approach to supporting improvements in seafood production practices and outcomes FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Micheli, F., De Leo, G., Shester, G. G., Martone, R. G., Lluch-Cota, S. E., Butner, C., Crowder, L. B., Fujita, R., Gelcich, S., Jams, M., Lester, S. E., McCay, B., Pelc, R., Saenz-Arroyo, A. 2014; 12 (5): 297-305

    View details for DOI 10.1890/110257

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336940100017

  • The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Ferrario, F., Beck, M. W., Storlazzi, C. D., Micheli, F., Shepard, C. C., Airoldi, L. 2014; 5


    The world's coastal zones are experiencing rapid development and an increase in storms and flooding. These hazards put coastal communities at heightened risk, which may increase with habitat loss. Here we analyse globally the role and cost effectiveness of coral reefs in risk reduction. Meta-analyses reveal that coral reefs provide substantial protection against natural hazards by reducing wave energy by an average of 97%. Reef crests alone dissipate most of this energy (86%). There are 100 million or more people who may receive risk reduction benefits from reefs or bear hazard mitigation and adaptation costs if reefs are degraded. We show that coral reefs can provide comparable wave attenuation benefits to artificial defences such as breakwaters, and reef defences can be enhanced cost effectively. Reefs face growing threats yet there is opportunity to guide adaptation and hazard mitigation investments towards reef restoration to strengthen this first line of coastal defence.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms4794

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337372200005

    View details for PubMedID 24825660

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4354160

  • High vulnerability of ecosystem function and services to diversity loss in Caribbean coral reefs BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Micheli, F., Mumby, P. J., Brumbaugh, D. R., Broad, K., Dahlgren, C. P., Harborne, A. R., Holmes, K. E., Kappel, C. V., Litvin, S. Y., Sanchirico, J. N. 2014; 171: 186-194
  • Cooperatives, concessions, and co-management on the Pacific coast of Mexico MARINE POLICY McCay, B. J., Micheli, F., Ponce-Diaz, G., Murray, G., Shester, G., Ramirez-Sanchez, S., Weisman, W. 2014; 44: 49-59
  • Large-scale assessment of mediterranean marine protected areas effects on fish assemblages. PloS one Guidetti, P., Baiata, P., Ballesteros, E., Di Franco, A., Hereu, B., Macpherson, E., Micheli, F., Pais, A., Panzalis, P., Rosenberg, A. A., Zabala, M., Sala, E. 2014; 9 (4)


    Marine protected areas (MPAs) were acknowledged globally as effective tools to mitigate the threats to oceans caused by fishing. Several studies assessed the effectiveness of individual MPAs in protecting fish assemblages, but regional assessments of multiple MPAs are scarce. Moreover, empirical evidence on the role of MPAs in contrasting the propagation of non-indigenous-species (NIS) and thermophilic species (ThS) is missing. We simultaneously investigated here the role of MPAs in reversing the effects of overfishing and in limiting the spread of NIS and ThS. The Mediterranean Sea was selected as study area as it is a region where 1) MPAs are numerous, 2) fishing has affected species and ecosystems, and 3) the arrival of NIS and the northward expansion of ThS took place. Fish surveys were done in well-enforced no-take MPAs (HP), partially-protected MPAs (IP) and fished areas (F) at 30 locations across the Mediterranean. Significantly higher fish biomass was found in HP compared to IP MPAs and F. Along a recovery trajectory from F to HP MPAs, IP were similar to F, showing that just well enforced MPAs triggers an effective recovery. Within HP MPAs, trophic structure of fish assemblages resembled a top-heavy biomass pyramid. Although the functional structure of fish assemblages was consistent among HP MPAs, species driving the recovery in HP MPAs differed among locations: this suggests that the recovery trajectories in HP MPAs are likely to be functionally similar (i.e., represented by predictable changes in trophic groups, especially fish predators), but the specific composition of the resulting assemblages may depend on local conditions. Our study did not show any effect of MPAs on NIS and ThS. These results may help provide more robust expectations, at proper regional scale, about the effects of new MPAs that may be established in the Mediterranean Sea and other ecoregions worldwide.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0091841

    View details for PubMedID 24740479

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3989174

  • Cumulative Human Impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea Marine Ecosystems: Assessing Current Pressures and Opportunities PLOS ONE Micheli, F., Halpern, B. S., Walbridge, S., Ciriaco, S., Ferretti, F., Fraschetti, S., Lewison, R., Nykjaer, L., Rosenberg, A. A. 2013; 8 (12)


    Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60-99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification), demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0079889

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327949300012

    View details for PubMedID 24324585

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3850916

  • Marine protected areas facilitate parasite populations among four fished host species of central Chile. journal of animal ecology Wood, C. L., Micheli, F., Fernández, M., Gelcich, S., Castilla, J. C., Carvajal, J. 2013; 82 (6): 1276-1287


    Parasites comprise a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and exert important ecological influences on hosts, communities and ecosystems, but our knowledge of how parasite populations respond to human impacts is in its infancy. Here, we present the results of a natural experiment in which we used a system of highly successful marine protected areas and matched open-access areas in central Chile to assess the influence of fishing-driven biodiversity loss on parasites of exploited fish and invertebrate hosts. We measured the burden of gill parasites for two reef fishes (Cheilodactylus variegatus and Aplodactylus punctatus), trematode parasites for a keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata), and pinnotherid pea crab parasites for a sea urchin (Loxechinus albus). We also measured host density for all four hosts. We found that nearly all parasite species exhibited substantially greater density (# parasites m(-2) ) in protected than in open-access areas, but only one parasite species (a gill monogenean of C. variegatus) was more abundant within hosts collected from protected relative to open-access areas. These data indicate that fishing can drive declines in parasite abundance at the parasite population level by reducing the availability of habitat and resources for parasites, but less commonly affects the abundance of parasites at the infrapopulation level (within individual hosts). Considering the substantial ecological role that many parasites play in marine communities, fishing and other human impacts could exert cryptic but important effects on marine community structure and ecosystem functioning via reductions in parasite abundance.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/1365-2656.12104

    View details for PubMedID 23855822

  • Marine protected areas facilitate parasite populations among four fished host species of central Chile JOURNAL OF ANIMAL ECOLOGY Wood, C. L., Micheli, F., Fernandez, M., Gelcich, S., Carlos Castilla, J., Carvajal, J. 2013; 82 (6): 1276-1287
  • Conservation at the edges of the world BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION McCauley, D. J., Power, E. A., Bird, D. W., McInturff, A., Dunbar, R. B., Durham, W. H., Micheli, F., Young, H. S. 2013; 165: 139-145
  • Linking human activity and ecosystem condition to inform marine ecosystem based management AQUATIC CONSERVATION-MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS Menzel, S., Kappel, C. V., Broitman, B. R., Micheli, F., Rosenberg, A. A. 2013; 23 (4): 506-514

    View details for DOI 10.1002/aqc.2365

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321821300005

  • Community dynamics and ecosystem simplification in a high-CO2 ocean PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Kroeker, K. J., Gambi, M. C., Micheli, F. 2013; 110 (31): 12721-12726


    Disturbances are natural features of ecosystems that promote variability in the community and ultimately maintain diversity. Although it is recognized that global change will affect environmental disturbance regimes, our understanding of the community dynamics governing ecosystem recovery and the maintenance of functional diversity in future scenarios is very limited. Here, we use one of the few ecosystems naturally exposed to future scenarios of environmental change to examine disturbance and recovery dynamics. We examine the recovery patterns of marine species from a physical disturbance across different acidification regimes caused by volcanic CO2 vents. Plots of shallow rocky reef were cleared of all species in areas of ambient, low, and extreme low pH that correspond to near-future and extreme scenarios for ocean acidification. Our results illustrate how acidification decreases the variability of communities, resulting in homogenization and reduced functional diversity at a landscape scale. Whereas the recovery trajectories in ambient pH were highly variable and resulted in a diverse range of assemblages, recovery was more predictable with acidification and consistently resulted in very similar algal-dominated assemblages. Furthermore, low pH zones had fewer signs of biological disturbance (primarily sea urchin grazing) and increased recovery rates of the dominant taxa (primarily fleshy algae). Together, our results highlight how environmental change can cause ecosystem simplification via environmentally mediated changes in community dynamics in the near future, with cascading impacts on functional diversity and ecosystem function.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1216464110

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322441500055

    View details for PubMedID 23836638

  • Ecomarkets for conservation and sustainable development in the coastal zone BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS Fujita, R., Lynham, J., Micheli, F., Feinberg, P. G., Bourillon, L., Saenz-Arroyo, A., Markham, A. C. 2013; 88 (2): 273-286


    Because conventional markets value only certain goods or services in the ocean (e.g. fish), other services provided by coastal and marine ecosystems that are not priced, paid for, or stewarded tend to become degraded. In fact, the very capacity of an ecosystem to produce a valued good or service is often reduced because conventional markets value only certain goods and services, rather than the productive capacity. Coastal socio-ecosystems are particularly susceptible to these market failures due to the lack of clear property rights, strong dependence on resource extraction, and other factors. Conservation strategies aimed at protecting unvalued coastal ecosystem services through regulation or spatial management (e.g. Marine Protected Areas) can be effective but often result in lost revenue and adverse social impacts, which, in turn, create conflict and opposition. Here, we describe 'ecomarkets' - markets and financial tools - that could, under the right conditions, generate value for broad portfolios of coastal ecosystem services while maintaining ecosystem structure and function by addressing the unique problems of the coastal zone, including the lack of clear management and exclusion rights. Just as coastal tenure and catch-share systems generate meaningful conservation and economic outcomes, it is possible to imagine other market mechanisms that do the same with respect to a variety of other coastal ecosystem goods and services. Rather than solely relying on extracting goods, these approaches could allow communities to diversify ecosystem uses and focus on long-term stewardship and conservation, while meeting development, food security, and human welfare goals. The creation of ecomarkets will be difficult in many cases, because rights and responsibilities must be devolved, new social contracts will be required, accountability systems must be created and enforced, and long-term patterns of behaviour must change. We argue that efforts to overcome these obstacles are justified, because these deep changes will strongly complement policies and tools such as Marine Protected Areas, coastal spatial management, and regulation, thereby helping to bring coastal conservation to scale.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1469-185X.2012.00251.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317067900002

    View details for PubMedID 23176665

  • Decreased solar radiation and increased temperature combine to facilitate fouling by marine non-indigenous species BIOFOULING Kim, T. W., Micheli, F. 2013; 29 (5): 501-512


    Studies of the effects of climate changes on marine biofouling have mainly focused on the effects of temperature increase, but a decrease in the level of solar radiation could also influence the establishment and persistence of fouling species. To test if decreased solar radiation and/or increased temperature influenced marine fouling communities, solar radiation, and temperature were manipulated by deploying shading devices in the intertidal zone of a central California estuary. Non-indigenous species (NIS) recruiting to artificial substrata had greater coverage under the shading treatments than under transparent plates, indicating that low radiation facilitates recruitment and growth of NIS. In contrast, the coverage of NIS underneath warmer black plates was higher than that on white plates. Furthermore, spatial comparisons of recruitment showed that NIS had a tendency to grow better in the warmer region of the estuary whereas native species showed the opposing trend. The results suggest that both lower radiation and higher temperature may facilitate the spread of marine NIS.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/08927014.2013.784964

    View details for Web of Science ID 000319740800003

    View details for PubMedID 23668309

  • Dispersal at a snail's pace: historical processes affect contemporary genetic structure in the exploited wavy top snail (Megastraea undosa). journal of heredity Haupt, A. J., Micheli, F., Palumbi, S. R. 2013; 104 (3): 327-340


    We used population genetics to assess historical and modern demography of the exploited wavy top snail, Megastraea undosa, which has a 5-10 day pelagic larval duration. Foot tissue was sampled from an average of 51 individuals at 17 sites across the range of M. undosa. Genetic structure at the mtDNA locus is strikingly high (ΦST of 0.19 across 1000 km), and a major cline occurs in northern Baja California (ΦCT of 0.29 between northern and southern populations). Genetic data indicate that the northern region is highly connected through larval dispersal, whereas the southern region exhibits low genetic structure. However, additional analyses based on patterns of haplotype diversity and relationships among haplotypes indicate that M. undosa has likely recently expanded into the Southern California Bight or expanded from a small refugial population, and analysis using isolation by distance to calculate dispersal distance indicates surprisingly short estimates of dispersal from 30 m to 3 km. This scenario of a northward expansion and limited larval dispersal is supported by coalescent-based simulations of genetic data. The different patterns of genetic variation between northern and southern populations are likely artifacts of evolutionary history rather than differences in larval dispersal and this may have applications to management of this species. Specifically, these data can help to inform the scale at which this species should be managed, and given the potentially very small dispersal distances, this species should be managed at local scales. Consideration of the evolutionary history of target species allows for a more accurate interpretation of genetic data for management.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jhered/est002

    View details for PubMedID 23450089

  • REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL CAN PREDICT RECRUITMENT RATES IN ABALONE JOURNAL OF SHELLFISH RESEARCH Rossetto, M., De Leo, G. A., Greenley, A., Vazquez, L., Saenz-Arroyo, A., Espinoza Montes, J. A., Micheli, F. 2013; 32 (1): 161-169
  • Ocean acidification causes ecosystem shifts via altered competitive interactions NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE Kroeker, K. J., Micheli, F., Gambi, M. C. 2013; 3 (2): 156-159
  • Setting priorities for regional conservation planning in the Mediterranean Sea. PloS one Micheli, F., Levin, N., Giakoumi, S., Katsanevakis, S., Abdulla, A., Coll, M., Fraschetti, S., Kark, S., Koutsoubas, D., Mackelworth, P., Maiorano, L., Possingham, H. P. 2013; 8 (4)


    Spatial prioritization in conservation is required to direct limited resources to where actions are most urgently needed and most likely to produce effective conservation outcomes. In an effort to advance the protection of a highly threatened hotspot of marine biodiversity, the Mediterranean Sea, multiple spatial conservation plans have been developed in recent years. Here, we review and integrate these different plans with the goal of identifying priority conservation areas that represent the current consensus among the different initiatives. A review of six existing and twelve proposed conservation initiatives highlights gaps in conservation and management planning, particularly within the southern and eastern regions of the Mediterranean and for offshore and deep sea habitats. The eighteen initiatives vary substantially in their extent (covering 0.1-58.5% of the Mediterranean Sea) and in the location of additional proposed conservation and management areas. Differences in the criteria, approaches and data used explain such variation. Despite the diversity among proposals, our analyses identified ten areas, encompassing 10% of the Mediterranean Sea, that are consistently identified among the existing proposals, with an additional 10% selected by at least five proposals. These areas represent top priorities for immediate conservation action. Despite the plethora of initiatives, major challenges face Mediterranean biodiversity and conservation. These include the need for spatial prioritization within a comprehensive framework for regional conservation planning, the acquisition of additional information from data-poor areas, species or habitats, and addressing the challenges of establishing transboundary governance and collaboration in socially, culturally and politically complex conditions. Collective prioritised action, not new conservation plans, is needed for the north, western, and high seas of the Mediterranean, while developing initial information-based plans for the south and eastern Mediterranean is an urgent requirement for true regional conservation planning.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0059038

    View details for PubMedID 23577060

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3618442

  • Achieving Success under Pressure in the Conservation of Intensely Used Coastal Areas ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY Micheli, F., Niccolini, F. 2013; 18 (4)
  • Conserving Biodiversity in a Human-Dominated World: Degradation of Marine Sessile Communities within a Protected Area with Conflicting Human Uses. PloS one Parravicini, V., Micheli, F., Montefalcone, M., Morri, C., Villa, E., Castellano, M., Povero, P., Bianchi, C. N. 2013; 8 (10)


    Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area) exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load) that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM), that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0075767

    View details for PubMedID 24143173

  • Conservation at the edges of the world Biological Conservation McCauley, D., Power, E., Bird, D., Dunbar, R., Durham, W., Micheli, F., Young, H. 2013; 165: 139-145
  • Reproductive potential predicts recruitment rates in abalones J Shellfish Res Rossetto, M., De Leo, G., Saenz, A., Greenley, A., Vazquez, L., Espinoza, A., Micheli, F. 2013; 32: 161-169
  • Linking human activity and ecosystem condition to inform ecosystem-based management Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems Menzel, S., Kappel, C., Broitman, B., Micheli, F., Rosenberg, A. 2013
  • Advancing marine conservation planning in the Mediterranean Sea REVIEWS IN FISH BIOLOGY AND FISHERIES Giakoumi, S., Mazor, T., Fraschetti, S., Kark, S., Portman, M., Coll, M., Steenbeek, J., Possingham, H. 2012; 22 (4): 943-949
  • Stable Isotope Analysis Challenges Wasp-Waist Food Web Assumptions in an Upwelling Pelagic Ecosystem SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Madigan, D. J., Carlisle, A. B., Dewar, H., Snodgrass, O. E., Litvin, S. Y., Micheli, F., Block, B. A. 2012; 2


    Eastern boundary currents are often described as 'wasp-waist' ecosystems in which one or few mid-level forage species support a high diversity of larger predators that are highly susceptible to fluctuations in prey biomass. The assumption of wasp-waist control has not been empirically tested in all such ecosystems. This study used stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis of wasp-waist control in the southern California Current large marine ecosystem (CCLME). We analyzed prey and predator tissue for δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N and used Bayesian mixing models to provide estimates of CCLME trophic dynamics from 2007-2010. Our results show high omnivory, planktivory by some predators, and a higher degree of trophic connectivity than that suggested by the wasp-waist model. Based on this study period, wasp-waist models oversimplify trophic dynamics within the CCLME and potentially other upwelling, pelagic ecosystems. Higher trophic connectivity in the CCLME likely increases ecosystem stability and resilience to perturbations.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep00654

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308807000002

    View details for PubMedID 22977729

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3440624

  • Assessing the effects of large mobile predators on ecosystem connectivity. Ecological applications McCauley, D. J., Young, H. S., Dunbar, R. B., Estes, J. A., Semmens, B. X., Micheli, F. 2012; 22 (6): 1711-1717


    Large predators are often highly mobile and can traverse and use multiple habitats. We know surprisingly little about how predator mobility determines important processes of ecosystem connectivity. Here we used a variety of data sources drawn from Palmyra Atoll, a remote tropical marine ecosystem where large predators remain in high abundance, to investigate how these animals foster connectivity. Our results indicate that three of Palmyra's most abundant large predators (e.g., two reef sharks and one snapper) use resources from different habitats creating important linkages across ecosystems. Observations of cross-system foraging such as this have important implications for the understanding of ecosystem functioning, the management of large-predator populations, and the design of conservation measures intended to protect whole ecosystems. In the face of widespread declines of large, mobile predators, it is important that resource managers, policy makers, and ecologists work to understand how these predators create connectivity and to determine the impact that their depletions may be having on the integrity of these linkages.

    View details for PubMedID 23092009

  • Understanding relationships between conflicting human uses and coastal ecosystems status: A geospatial modeling approach ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS Parravicini, V., Rovere, A., Vassallo, P., Micheli, F., Montefalcone, M., Morri, C., Paoli, C., Albertelli, G., Fabiano, M., Bianchi, C. N. 2012; 19: 253-263
  • Evidence That Marine Reserves Enhance Resilience to Climatic Impacts PLOS ONE Micheli, F., Saenz-Arroyo, A., Greenley, A., Vazquez, L., Espinoza Montes, J. A., Rossetto, M., De Leo, G. A. 2012; 7 (7)


    Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event possibly caused by climate-driven hypoxia. Despite high and widespread adult mortality of benthic invertebrates in Baja California, Mexico, that affected populations both within and outside marine reserves, juvenile replenishment of the species that supports local economies, the pink abalone Haliotis corrugata, remained stable within reserves because of large body size and high egg production of the protected adults. Thus, local protection provided resilience through greater resistance and faster recovery of protected populations. Moreover, this benefit extended to adjacent unprotected areas through larval spillover across the edges of the reserves. While climate change mitigation is being debated, coastal communities have few tools to slow down negative impacts of global environmental shifts. These results show that marine protected areas can provide such protection.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0040832

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306548900054

    View details for PubMedID 22855690

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3408031

  • Night Shift: Expansion of Temporal Niche Use Following Reductions in Predator Density PLOS ONE McCauley, D. J., Hoffmann, E., Young, H. S., Micheli, F. 2012; 7 (6)


    Predation shapes many fundamental aspects of ecology. Uncertainty remains, however, about whether predators can influence patterns of temporal niche construction at ecologically relevant timescales. Partitioning of time is an important mechanism by which prey avoid interactions with predators. However, the traits that control a prey organism's capacity to operate during a particular portion of the diel cycle are diverse and complex. Thus, diel prey niches are often assumed to be relatively unlikely to respond to changes in predation risk at short timescales. Here we present evidence to the contrary. We report results that suggest that the anthropogenic depletion of daytime active predators (species that are either diurnal or cathemeral) in a coral reef ecosystem is associated with rapid temporal niche expansions in a multi-species assemblage of nocturnal prey fishes. Diurnal comparisons of nocturnal prey fish abundance in predator rich and predator depleted reefs at two atolls revealed that nocturnal fish were approximately six (biomass) and eight (density) times more common during the day on predator depleted reefs. Amongst these, the prey species that likely were the most specialized for nocturnal living, and thus the most vulnerable to predation (i.e. those with greatest eye size to body length ratio), showed the strongest diurnal increases at sites where daytime active predators were rare. While we were unable to determine whether these observed increases in diurnal abundance by nocturnal prey were the result of a numerical or behavioral response, either effect could be ecologically significant. These results raise the possibility that predation may play an important role in regulating the partitioning of time by prey and that anthropogenic depletions of predators may be capable of causing rapid changes to key properties of temporal community architecture.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0038871

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305341900058

    View details for PubMedID 22719970

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3374761

  • New tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in pink abalone (Haliotis corrugata) isolated via 454 pyrosequencing CONSERVATION GENETICS RESOURCES Greenley, A. P., Muguia-Vega, A., Saenz-Arroyo, A., Micheli, F. 2012; 4 (2): 265-268
  • From wing to wing: the persistence of long ecological interaction chains in less-disturbed ecosystems SCIENTIFIC REPORTS McCauley, D. J., DeSalles, P. A., Young, H. S., Dunbar, R. B., Dirzo, R., Mills, M. M., Micheli, F. 2012; 2


    Human impact on biodiversity usually is measured by reduction in species abundance or richness. Just as important, but much more difficult to discern, is the anthropogenic elimination of ecological interactions. Here we report on the persistence of a long ecological interaction chain linking diverse food webs and habitats in the near-pristine portions of a remote Pacific atoll. Using biogeochemical assays, animal tracking, and field surveys we show that seabirds roosting on native trees fertilize soils, increasing coastal nutrients and the abundance of plankton, thus attracting manta rays to native forest coastlines. Partnered observations conducted in regions of this atoll where native trees have been replaced by human propagated palms reveal that this complex interaction chain linking trees to mantas readily breaks down. Taken together these findings provide a compelling example of how anthropogenic disturbance may be contributing to widespread reductions in ecological interaction chain length, thereby isolating and simplifying ecosystems.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/srep00409

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304393800001

    View details for PubMedID 22624091

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3354671

  • Allometric scaling of mortality rates with body mass in abalones OECOLOGIA Rossetto, M., De Leo, G. A., Bevacqua, D., Micheli, F. 2012; 168 (4): 989-996


    The existence of an allometric relationship between mortality rates and body mass has been theorized and extensively documented across taxa. Within species, however, the allometry between mortality rates and body mass has received substantially less attention and the consistency of such scaling patterns at the intra-specific level is controversial. We reviewed 73 experimental studies to examine the relationship between mortality rates and body size among seven species of abalone (Haliotis spp.), a marine herbivorous mollusk. Both in the field and in the laboratory, log-transformed mortality rates were negatively correlated with log-transformed individual body mass for all species considered, with allometric exponents remarkably similar among species. This regular pattern confirms previous findings that juvenile abalones suffer higher mortality rates than adult individuals. Field mortality rates were higher overall than those measured in the laboratory, and the relationship between mortality and body mass tended to be steeper in field than in laboratory conditions for all species considered. These results suggest that in the natural environment, additional mortality factors, especially linked to predation, could significantly contribute to mortality, particularly at small body sizes. On the other hand, the consistent allometry of mortality rates versus body mass in laboratory conditions suggests that other sources of mortality, beside predation, are size-dependent in abalone.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00442-011-2163-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301604200010

    View details for PubMedID 22020817

  • Evaluating the performance of methods for estimating the abundance of rapidly declining coastal shark populations ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS McCauley, D. J., Mclean, K. A., Bauer, J., Young, H. S., Micheli, F. 2012; 22 (2): 385-392


    Accurately surveying shark populations is critical to monitoring precipitous ongoing declines in shark abundance and interpreting the effects that these reductions are having on ecosystems. To evaluate the effectiveness of existing survey tools, we used field trials and computer simulations to critically examine the operation of four common methods for counting coastal sharks: stationary point counts, belt transects, video surveys, and mark and recapture abundance estimators. Empirical and theoretical results suggest that (1) survey method selection has a strong impact on the estimates of shark density that are produced, (2) standardizations by survey duration are needed to properly interpret and compare survey outputs, (3) increasing survey size does not necessarily increase survey precision, and (4) methods that yield the highest density estimates are not always the most accurate. These findings challenge some of the assumptions traditionally associated with surveying mobile marine animals. Of the methods we trialed, 8 x 50 m belt transects and a 20 m radius point count produced the most accurate estimates of shark density. These findings can help to improve the ways we monitor, manage, and understand the ecology of globally imperiled coastal shark populations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302516900001

    View details for PubMedID 22611841

  • The Structure of Mediterranean Rocky Reef Ecosystems across Environmental and Human Gradients, and Conservation Implications PLOS ONE Sala, E., Ballesteros, E., Dendrinos, P., Di Franco, A., Ferretti, F., Foley, D., Fraschetti, S., Friedlander, A., Garrabou, J., Guclusoy, H., Guidetti, P., Halpern, B. S., Hereu, B., Karamanlidis, A. A., Kizilkaya, Z., Macpherson, E., Mangialajo, L., Mariani, S., Micheli, F., Pais, A., Riser, K., Rosenberg, A. A., Sales, M., Selkoe, K. A., Starr, R., Tomas, F., Zabala, M. 2012; 7 (2)


    Historical exploitation of the Mediterranean Sea and the absence of rigorous baselines makes it difficult to evaluate the current health of the marine ecosystems and the efficacy of conservation actions at the ecosystem level. Here we establish the first current baseline and gradient of ecosystem structure of nearshore rocky reefs at the Mediterranean scale. We conducted underwater surveys in 14 marine protected areas and 18 open access sites across the Mediterranean, and across a 31-fold range of fish biomass (from 3.8 to 118 g m(-2)). Our data showed remarkable variation in the structure of rocky reef ecosystems. Multivariate analysis showed three alternative community states: (1) large fish biomass and reefs dominated by non-canopy algae, (2) lower fish biomass but abundant native algal canopies and suspension feeders, and (3) low fish biomass and extensive barrens, with areas covered by turf algae. Our results suggest that the healthiest shallow rocky reef ecosystems in the Mediterranean have both large fish and algal biomass. Protection level and primary production were the only variables significantly correlated to community biomass structure. Fish biomass was significantly larger in well-enforced no-take marine reserves, but there were no significant differences between multi-use marine protected areas (which allow some fishing) and open access areas at the regional scale. The gradients reported here represent a trajectory of degradation that can be used to assess the health of any similar habitat in the Mediterranean, and to evaluate the efficacy of marine protected areas.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0032742

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303003500099

    View details for PubMedID 22393445

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3290621

  • Geographic variation in demography of a temperate reef snail: importance of multiple life-history traits MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Martone, R. G., Micheli, F. 2012; 457: 85-99

    View details for DOI 10.3354/meps09693

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306755000007

  • High-Frequency Dynamics of Ocean pH: A Multi-Ecosystem Comparison PLOS ONE Hofmann, G. E., Smith, J. E., Johnson, K. S., Send, U., Levin, L. A., Micheli, F., Paytan, A., Price, N. N., Peterson, B., Takeshita, Y., Matson, P. G., Crook, E. D., Kroeker, K. J., Gambi, M. C., Rivest, E. B., Frieder, C. A., Yu, P. C., Martz, T. R. 2011; 6 (12)


    The effect of Ocean Acidification (OA) on marine biota is quasi-predictable at best. While perturbation studies, in the form of incubations under elevated pCO(2), reveal sensitivities and responses of individual species, one missing link in the OA story results from a chronic lack of pH data specific to a given species' natural habitat. Here, we present a compilation of continuous, high-resolution time series of upper ocean pH, collected using autonomous sensors, over a variety of ecosystems ranging from polar to tropical, open-ocean to coastal, kelp forest to coral reef. These observations reveal a continuum of month-long pH variability with standard deviations from 0.004 to 0.277 and ranges spanning 0.024 to 1.430 pH units. The nature of the observed variability was also highly site-dependent, with characteristic diel, semi-diurnal, and stochastic patterns of varying amplitudes. These biome-specific pH signatures disclose current levels of exposure to both high and low dissolved CO(2), often demonstrating that resident organisms are already experiencing pH regimes that are not predicted until 2100. Our data provide a first step toward crystallizing the biophysical link between environmental history of pH exposure and physiological resilience of marine organisms to fluctuations in seawater CO(2). Knowledge of this spatial and temporal variation in seawater chemistry allows us to improve the design of OA experiments: we can test organisms with a priori expectations of their tolerance guardrails, based on their natural range of exposure. Such hypothesis-testing will provide a deeper understanding of the effects of OA. Both intuitively simple to understand and powerfully informative, these and similar comparative time series can help guide management efforts to identify areas of marine habitat that can serve as refugia to acidification as well as areas that are particularly vulnerable to future ocean change.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0028983

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298665600019

    View details for PubMedID 22205986

  • Ancient art serving marine conservation FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Guidetti, P., Micheli, F. 2011; 9 (7): 374-375

    View details for DOI 10.1890/11.WB.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294978500012

  • Divergent ecosystem responses within a benthic marine community to ocean acidification PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Kroeker, K. J., Micheli, F., Gambi, M. C., Martz, T. R. 2011; 108 (35): 14515-14520


    Ocean acidification is predicted to impact all areas of the oceans and affect a diversity of marine organisms. However, the diversity of responses among species prevents clear predictions about the impact of acidification at the ecosystem level. Here, we used shallow water CO(2) vents in the Mediterranean Sea as a model system to examine emergent ecosystem responses to ocean acidification in rocky reef communities. We assessed in situ benthic invertebrate communities in three distinct pH zones (ambient, low, and extreme low), which differed in both the mean and variability of seawater pH along a continuous gradient. We found fewer taxa, reduced taxonomic evenness, and lower biomass in the extreme low pH zones. However, the number of individuals did not differ among pH zones, suggesting that there is density compensation through population blooms of small acidification-tolerant taxa. Furthermore, the trophic structure of the invertebrate community shifted to fewer trophic groups and dominance by generalists in extreme low pH, suggesting that there may be a simplification of food webs with ocean acidification. Despite high variation in individual species' responses, our findings indicate that ocean acidification decreases the diversity, biomass, and trophic complexity of benthic marine communities. These results suggest that a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function is expected under extreme acidification scenarios.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1107789108

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294425900034

    View details for PubMedID 21844331

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3167536

  • Conservation challenges for small-scale fisheries: Bycatch and habitat impacts of traps and gillnets BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Shester, G. G., Micheli, F. 2011; 144 (5): 1673-1681
  • Acute effects of removing large fish from a near-pristine coral reef MARINE BIOLOGY McCauley, D. J., Micheli, F., Young, H. S., Tittensor, D. P., Brumbaugh, D. R., Madin, E. M., Holmes, K. E., Smith, J. E., Lotze, H. K., DeSalles, P. A., Arnold, S. N., Worm, B. 2010; 157 (12): 2739-2750
  • Rapid assessment of epibenthic communities: A comparison between two visual sampling techniques JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY Parravicini, V., Micheli, F., Montefalcone, M., Villa, E., Morri, C., Bianchi, C. N. 2010; 395 (1-2): 21-29
  • The value of spatial information in MPA network design PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Costello, C., Rassweiler, A., Siegel, D., De Leo, G., Micheli, F., Rosenberg, A. 2010; 107 (43): 18294-18299


    The science of spatial fisheries management, which combines ecology, oceanography, and economics, has matured significantly. As a result, there have been recent advances in exploiting spatially explicit data to develop spatially explicit management policies, such as networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). However, when data are sparse, spatially explicit policies become less viable, and we must instead rely on blunt policies such as total allowable catches or imprecisely configured networks of MPAs. Therefore, spatial information has the potential to change management approaches and thus has value. We develop a general framework within which to analyze the value of information for spatial fisheries management and apply that framework to several US Pacific coast fisheries. We find that improved spatial information can increase fishery value significantly (>10% in our simulations), and that it changes dramatically the efficient management approach-switching from diffuse effort everywhere to a strategy where fishing is spatially targeted, with some areas under intensive harvest and others closed to fishing. Using all available information, even when incomplete, is essential to management success and may as much as double fishery value relative to using (admittedly incorrect) assumptions commonly invoked.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0908057107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283677400016

    View details for PubMedID 20176962

  • Disentangling trophic interactions inside a Caribbean marine reserve ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS Kellner, J. B., Litvin, S. Y., Hastings, A., Micheli, F., Mumby, P. J. 2010; 20 (7): 1979-1992


    Recent empirical studies have demonstrated that human activities such as fishing can strongly affect the natural capital and services provided by tropical seascapes. However, policies to mitigate anthropogenic impacts can also alter food web structure and interactions, regardless of whether the regulations are aimed at single or multiple species, with possible unexpected consequences for the ecosystems and their associated services. Complex community response to management interventions have been highlighted in the Caribbean, where, contrary to predictions from linear food chain models, a reduction in fishing intensity through the establishment of a marine reserve has led to greater biomass of herbivorous fish inside the reserve, despite an increased abundance of large predatory piscivores. This positive multi-trophic response, where both predators and prey benefit from protection, highlights the need to take an integrated approach that considers how numerous factors control species coexistence in both fished and unfished systems. In order to understand these complex relationships, we developed a general model to examine the trade-offs between fishing pressure and trophic control on reef fish communities, including an exploration of top-down and bottom-up effects. We then validated the general model predictions by parameterizing the model for a reef system in the Bahamas in order to tease apart the wide range of species responses to reserves in the Caribbean. Combining the development of general theory and site-specific models parameterized with field data reveals the underlying driving forces in these communities and enables us to make better predictions about possible population and community responses to different management schemes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282278200017

    View details for PubMedID 21049884

  • Guiding ecological principles for marine spatial planning MARINE POLICY Foley, M. M., Halpern, B. S., Micheli, F., Armsby, M. H., Caldwell, M. R., Crain, C. M., Prahler, E., Rohr, N., Sivas, D., Beck, M. W., Carr, M. H., Crowder, L. B., Duffy, J. E., Hacker, S. D., McLeod, K. L., Palumbi, S. R., Peterson, C. H., Regan, H. M., Ruckelshaus, M. H., Sandifer, P. A., Steneck, R. S. 2010; 34 (5): 955-966
  • Acute effects of removing large fish from a near-pristine coral reef. Marine biology McCauley, D. J., Micheli, F., Young, H. S., Tittensor, D. P., Brumbaugh, D. R., Madin, E. M., Holmes, K. E., Smith, J. E., Lotze, H. K., DeSalles, P. A., Arnold, S. N., Worm, B. 2010; 157 (12): 2739-2750


    Large animals are severely depleted in many ecosystems, yet we are only beginning to understand the ecological implications of their loss. To empirically measure the short-term effects of removing large animals from an ocean ecosystem, we used exclosures to remove large fish from a near-pristine coral reef at Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean. We identified a range of effects that followed from the removal of these large fish. These effects were revealed within weeks of their removal. Removing large fish (1) altered the behavior of prey fish; (2) reduced rates of herbivory on certain species of reef algae; (3) had both direct positive (reduced mortality of coral recruits) and indirect negative (through reduced grazing pressure on competitive algae) impacts on recruiting corals; and (4) tended to decrease abundances of small mobile benthic invertebrates. Results of this kind help advance our understanding of the ecological importance of large animals in ecosystems.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00227-010-1533-2

    View details for PubMedID 24391253

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3873048

  • Non-native Ecosystem Engineer Alters Estuarine Communities INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY Heiman, K. W., Micheli, F. 2010; 50 (2): 226-236


    Many ecosystems are created by the presence of ecosystem engineers that play an important role in determining species' abundance and species composition. Additionally, a mosaic environment of engineered and non-engineered habitats has been shown to increase biodiversity. Non-native ecosystem engineers can be introduced into environments that do not contain or have lost species that form biogenic habitat, resulting in dramatic impacts upon native communities. Yet, little is known about how non-native ecosystem engineers interact with natives and other non-natives already present in the environment, specifically whether non-native ecosystem engineers facilitate other non-natives, and whether they increase habitat heterogeneity and alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of benthic species. Through sampling and experimental removal of reefs, we examine the effects of a non-native reef-building tubeworm, Ficopomatus enigmaticus, on community composition in the central Californian estuary, Elkhorn Slough. Tubeworm reefs host significantly greater abundances of many non-native polychaetes and amphipods, particularly the amphipods Monocorophium insidiosum and Melita nitida, compared to nearby mudflats. Infaunal assemblages under F. enigmaticus reefs and around reef's edges show very low abundance and taxonomic diversity. Once reefs are removed, the newly exposed mudflat is colonized by opportunistic non-native species, such as M. insidiosum and the polychaete Streblospio benedicti, making removal of reefs a questionable strategy for control. These results show that provision of habitat by a non-native ecosystem engineer may be a mechanism for invasional meltdown in Elkhorn Slough, and that reefs increase spatial heterogeneity in the abundance and composition of benthic communities.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/icb/icq036

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280279800007

    View details for PubMedID 21558201

  • Using expert judgment to estimate marine ecosystem vulnerability in the California Current ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS Teck, S. J., Halpern, B. S., Kappel, C. V., Micheli, F., Selkoe, K. A., Crain, C. M., Martone, R., Shearer, C., Arvai, J., Fischhoff, B., Murray, G., Neslo, R., Cooke, R. 2010; 20 (5): 1402-1416


    As resource management and conservation efforts move toward multi-sector, ecosystem-based approaches, we need methods for comparing the varying responses of ecosystems to the impacts of human activities in order to prioritize management efforts, allocate limited resources, and understand cumulative effects. Given the number and variety of human activities affecting ecosystems, relatively few empirical studies are adequately comprehensive to inform these decisions. Consequently, management often turns to expert judgment for information. Drawing on methods from decision science, we offer a method for eliciting expert judgment to (1) quantitatively estimate the relative vulnerability of ecosystems to stressors, (2) help prioritize the management of stressors across multiple ecosystems, (3) evaluate how experts give weight to different criteria to characterize vulnerability of ecosystems to anthropogenic stressors, and (4) identify key knowledge gaps. We applied this method to the California Current region in order to evaluate the relative vulnerability of 19 marine ecosystems to 53 stressors associated with human activities, based on surveys from 107 experts. When judging the relative vulnerability of ecosystems to stressors, we found that experts primarily considered two criteria: the ecosystem's resistance to the stressor and the number of species or trophic levels affected. Four intertidal ecosystems (mudflat, beach, salt marsh, and rocky intertidal) were judged most vulnerable to the suite of human activities evaluated here. The highest vulnerability rankings for coastal ecosystems were invasive species, ocean acidification, sea temperature change, sea level rise, and habitat alteration from coastal engineering, while offshore ecosystems were assessed to be most vulnerable to ocean acidification, demersal destructive fishing, and shipwrecks. These results provide a quantitative, transparent, and repeatable assessment of relative vulnerability across ecosystems to any ongoing or emerging human activity. Combining these results with data on the spatial distribution and intensity of human activities provides a systematic foundation for ecosystem-based management.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279047400015

    View details for PubMedID 20666257

  • Fishing out marine parasites? Impacts of fishing on rates of parasitism in the ocean ECOLOGY LETTERS Wood, C. L., Lafferty, K. D., Micheli, F. 2010; 13 (6): 761-775


    Among anthropogenic effects on the ocean, fishing is one of the most pervasive and extends deepest into the past. Because fishing reduces the density of fish (reducing transmission efficiency of directly transmitted parasites), selectively removes large fish (which tend to carry more parasites than small fish), and reduces food web complexity (reducing transmission efficiency of trophically transmitted parasites), the removal of fish from the world's oceans over the course of hundreds of years may be driving a longterm, global decline in fish parasites. There has been growing recognition in recent years that parasites are a critical part of biodiversity and that their loss could substantially alter ecosystem function. Such a loss may be among the last major ecological effects of industrial fishing to be recognized by scientists.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01467.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277867100011

    View details for PubMedID 20412277

  • Global priority areas for incorporating land-sea connections in marine conservation CONSERVATION LETTERS Halpern, B. S., Ebert, C. M., Kappel, C. V., Madin, E. M., Micheli, F., Perry, M., Selkoe, K. A., Walbridge, S. 2009; 2 (4): 189-196
  • Imprint of past environmental regimes on structure and succession of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent community OECOLOGIA Mullineaux, L. S., Micheli, F., Peterson, C. H., Lenihan, H. S., Markus, N. 2009; 161 (2): 387-400


    Dramatic perturbations of ecological communities through rapid shifts in environmental regime do not always result in complete mortality of residents. Instead, legacy individuals may remain and influence the succession and composition of subsequent communities. We used a reciprocal transplant experiment to investigate whether a legacy effect is detectable in communities experiencing an abrupt increase or decrease in hydrothermal fluid flux at deep-sea vents. Vent habitats are characterized by strong gradients in productivity and physico-chemical stressors, both of which tend to increase with increasing vent fluid flux. In our experiments, many species survived transplantation from cool (water temperatures <2 degrees C above ambient) to warm (4-30 degrees C above ambient) habitats, resulting in significantly higher species richness on transplanted than remaining experimental substrata. A legacy effect was much less apparent in transplantation from warm to cool habitat, although a few vestimentiferan tubeworms, normally restricted to warm habitat, survived transplantation. The asymmetry in influence of legacy individuals suggests that productivity enhancement may outweigh potential physiological stress in setting limits to distributions of vent invertebrates. This influence of biological processes contrasts with theory developed in the rocky intertidal that predicts the predominance of physical control at the high-stress end of an environmental gradient. Prediction of successional transitions in vents and other habitats experiencing regime shifts in which remnant species may survive must take into account the possible influence of historical effects.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00442-009-1390-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268548000016

    View details for PubMedID 19551410

  • Mapping cumulative human impacts to California Current marine ecosystems CONSERVATION LETTERS Halpern, B. S., Kappel, C. V., Selkoe, K. A., Micheli, F., Ebert, C. M., Kontgis, C., Crain, C. M., Martone, R. G., Shearer, C., Teck, S. J. 2009; 2 (3): 138-148
  • In the Zone Comprehensive Ocean Protection ISSUES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Kappel, C. V., Halpern, B. S., Martone, R. G., Micheli, F., Selkoe, K. A. 2009; 25 (3): 33-44
  • Design of marine protected areas in a human-dominated seascape MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Fraschetti, S., D'Ambrosio, P., Micheli, F., Pizzolante, F., Bussotti, S., Terlizzi, A. 2009; 375: 13-24

    View details for DOI 10.3354/meps07781

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263609600002

  • Biotic interactions at hydrothermal vents: Recruitment inhibition by the mussel Bathymodiolus thermophilus DEEP-SEA RESEARCH PART I-OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PAPERS Lenihan, H. S., Mills, S. W., Mullineaux, L. S., Peterson, C. H., Fisher, C. R., Micheli, F. 2008; 55 (12): 1707-1717
  • Tropical coastal habitats as surrogates of fish community structure, grazing, and fisheries value ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS Harborne, A. R., Mumby, P. J., Kappel, C. V., Dahlgren, C. P., Micheli, F., Holmes, K. E., Brumbaugh, D. R. 2008; 18 (7): 1689-1701


    Habitat maps are frequently invoked as surrogates of biodiversity to aid the design of networks of marine reserves. Maps are used to maximize habitat heterogeneity in reserves because this is likely to maximize the number of species protected. However, the technique's efficacy is limited by intra-habitat variability in the species present and their abundances. Although communities are expected to vary among patches of the same habitat, this variability is poorly documented and rarely incorporated into reserve planning. To examine intra-habitat variability in coral-reef fishes, we generated a data set from eight tropical coastal habitats and six islands in the Bahamian archipelago using underwater visual censuses. Firstly, we provide further support for habitat heterogeneity as a surrogate of biodiversity as each predefined habitat type supported a distinct assemblage of fishes. Intra-habitat variability in fish community structure at scales of hundreds of kilometers (among islands) was significant in at least 75% of the habitats studied, depending on whether presence/absence, density, or biomass data were used. Intra-habitat variability was positively correlated with the mean number of species in that habitat when density and biomass data were used. Such relationships provide a proxy for the assessment of intra-habitat variability when detailed quantitative data are scarce. Intra-habitat variability was examined in more detail for one habitat (forereefs visually dominated by Montastraea corals). Variability in community structure among islands was driven by small, demersal families (e.g., territorial pomacentrid and labrid fishes). Finally, we examined the ecological and economic significance of intra-habitat variability in fish assemblages on Montastraea reefs by identifying how this variability affects the composition and abundances of fishes in different functional groups, the key ecosystem process of parrotfish grazing, and the ecosystem service of value of commercially important finfish. There were significant differences in a range of functional groups and grazing, but not fisheries value. Variability at the scale of tens of kilometers (among reefs around an island) was less than that among islands. Caribbean marine reserves should be replicated at scales of hundreds of kilometers, particularly for species-rich habitats, to capture important intra-habitat variability in community structure, function, and an ecosystem process.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259555900010

    View details for PubMedID 18839764

  • Response to comment on "a global map of human impact on marine ecosystems" SCIENCE Selkoe, K. A., Kappel, C. V., Halpern, B. S., Micheli, F., D'Agrosa, C., Bruno, J., Casey, K. S., Ebert, C., Fox, H. E., Fujita, R., Heinemann, D., Lenihan, H. S., Madin, E. M., Perry, M., Selig, E. R., Spalding, M., Steneck, R., Walbridge, S., Watson, R. 2008; 321 (5895)
  • Reserve effects and natural variation in coral reef communities JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY Harborne, A. R., Mumby, P. J., Kappel, C. V., Dahlgren, C. P., Micheli, F., Holmes, K. E., Sanchirico, J. N., Broad, K., Elliott, I. A., Brumbaugh, D. R. 2008; 45 (4): 1010-1018
  • Coral reef habitats as surrogates of species, ecological functions, and ecosystem services CONSERVATION BIOLOGY Mumby, P. J., Broad, K., Brumbaugh, D. R., Dahlgren, C. P., Harborne, A. R., Hastings, A., Holmes, K. E., Kappel, C. V., Micheli, F., Sanchirico, J. N. 2008; 22 (4): 941-951


    Habitat maps are often the core spatially consistent data set on which marine reserve networks are designed, but their efficacy as surrogates for species richness and applicability to other conservation measures is poorly understood. Combining an analysis of field survey data, literature review, and expert assessment by a multidisciplinary working group, we examined the degree to which Caribbean coastal habitats provide useful planning information on 4 conservation measures: species richness, the ecological functions of fish species, ecosystem processes, and ecosystem services. Approximately one-quarter to one-third of benthic invertebrate species and fish species (disaggregated by life phase; hereafter fish species) occurred in a single habitat, and Montastraea-dominated forereefs consistently had the highest richness of all species, processes, and services. All 11 habitats were needed to represent all 277 fish species in the seascape, although reducing the conservation target to 95% of species approximately halved the number of habitats required to ensure representation. Species accumulation indices (SAIs) were used to compare the efficacy of surrogates and revealed that fish species were a more appropriate surrogate of benthic species (SAI = 71%) than benthic species were for fishes (SAI = 42%). Species of reef fishes were also distributed more widely across the seascape than invertebrates and therefore their use as a surrogate simultaneously included mangroves, sea grass, and coral reef habitats. Functional classes of fishes served as effective surrogates of fish and benthic species which, given their ease to survey, makes them a particularly useful measure for conservation planning. Ecosystem processes and services exhibited great redundancy among habitats and were ineffective as surrogates of species. Therefore, processes and services in this case were generally unsuitable for a complementarity-based approach to reserve design. In contrast, the representation of species or functional classes ensured inclusion of all processes and services in the reserve network.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00933.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258216600020

    View details for PubMedID 18477024

  • Alteration of seagrass species composition and function over two decades ECOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS Micheli, F., Bishop, M. J., Peterson, C. H., Rivera, J. 2008; 78 (2): 225-244
  • Persistence of depleted abalones in marine reserves of central California BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Micheli, F., Shelton, A. O., Bushinsky, S. M., Chiu, A. L., Haupt, A. J., Heiman, K. W., Kappel, C. V., Lynch, M. C., Martone, R. G., Dunbar, R. B., Watanabe, J. 2008; 141 (4): 1078-1090
  • Understanding and predicting ecological dynamics: Are major surprises inevitable? ECOLOGY Doak, D. F., Estes, J. A., Halpern, B. S., Jacob, U., Lindberg, D. R., Lovvorn, J., Monson, D. H., Tinker, M. T., Williams, T. M., Wootton, J. T., Carroll, I., Emmerson, M., Micheli, F., Novak, M. 2008; 89 (4): 952-961


    Ecological surprises, substantial and unanticipated changes in the abundance of one or more species that result from previously unsuspected processes, are a common outcome of both experiments and observations in community and population ecology. Here, we give examples of such surprises along with the results of a survey of well-established field ecologists, most of whom have encountered one or more surprises over the course of their careers. Truly surprising results are common enough to require their consideration in any reasonable effort to characterize nature and manage natural resources. We classify surprises as dynamic-, pattern-, or intervention-based, and we speculate on the common processes that cause ecological systems to so often surprise us. A long-standing and still growing concern in the ecological literature is how best to make predictions of future population and community dynamics. Although most work on this subject involves statistical aspects of data analysis and modeling, the frequency and nature of ecological surprises imply that uncertainty cannot be easily tamed through improved analytical procedures, and that prudent management of both exploited and conserved communities will require precautionary and adaptive management approaches.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255580200010

    View details for PubMedID 18481520

  • A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems SCIENCE Halpern, B. S., Walbridge, S., Selkoe, K. A., Kappel, C. V., Micheli, F., D'Agrosa, C., Bruno, J. F., Casey, K. S., Ebert, C., Fox, H. E., Fujita, R., Heinemann, D., Lenihan, H. S., Madin, E. M., Perry, M. T., Selig, E. R., Spalding, M., Steneck, R., Watson, R. 2008; 319 (5865): 948-952


    The management and conservation of the world's oceans require synthesis of spatial data on the distribution and intensity of human activities and the overlap of their impacts on marine ecosystems. We developed an ecosystem-specific, multiscale spatial model to synthesize 17 global data sets of anthropogenic drivers of ecological change for 20 marine ecosystems. Our analysis indicates that no area is unaffected by human influence and that a large fraction (41%) is strongly affected by multiple drivers. However, large areas of relatively little human impact remain, particularly near the poles. The analytical process and resulting maps provide flexible tools for regional and global efforts to allocate conservation resources; to implement ecosystem-based management; and to inform marine spatial planning, education, and basic research.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1149345

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253165700045

    View details for PubMedID 18276889

  • Non-native habitat as home for non-native species: comparison of communities associated with invasive tubeworm and native oyster reefs AQUATIC BIOLOGY Heiman, K. W., Vidargas, N., Micheli, F. 2008; 2 (1): 47-56

    View details for DOI 10.3354/ab00034

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259452400005

  • MODELING STAKEHOLDER PREFERENCES WITH PROBABILISTIC INVERSION Application to Prioritizing Marine Ecosystem Vulnerabilities NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Risk, Uncertainly and Decision Analysis for Environmental Security and Non-Chemical Stressors Neslo, R., Micheli, F., Kappel, C. V., Selkoe, K. A., Halpern, B. S., Cooke, R. M. SPRINGER. 2008: 265–284
  • Evaluating and ranking the vulnerability of global marine ecosystems to anthropogenic threats CONSERVATION BIOLOGY Halpern, B. S., Selkoe, K. A., Micheli, F., Kappel, C. V. 2007; 21 (5): 1301-1315


    Marine ecosystems are threatened by a suite of anthropogenic stressors. Mitigating multiple threats is a daunting task, particularly when funding constraints limit the number of threats that can be addressed. Threats are typically assessed and prioritized via expert opinion workshops that often leave no record of the rationale for decisions, making it difficult to update recommendations with new information. We devised a transparent, repeatable, and modifiable method for collecting expert opinion that describes and documents how threats affect marine ecosystems. Experts were asked to assess the functional impact, scale, and frequency of a threat to an ecosystem; the resistance and recovery time of an ecosystem to a threat; and the certainty of these estimates. To quantify impacts of 38 distinct anthropogenic threats on 23 marine ecosystems, we surveyed 135 experts from 19 different countries. Survey results showed that all ecosystems are threatened by at least nine threats and that nine ecosystems are threatened by >90% of existing threats. The greatest threats (highest impact scores) were increasing sea temperature, demersal destructive fishing, and point-source organic pollution. Rocky reef, coral reef, hard-shelf, mangrove, and offshore epipelagic ecosystems were identified as the most threatened. These general results, however, may be partly influenced by the specific expertise and geography of respondents, and should be interpreted with caution. This approach to threat analysis can identify the greatest threats (globally or locally), most widespread threats, most (or least) sensitive ecosystems, most (or least) threatened ecosystems, and other metrics of conservation value. Additionally, it can be easily modified, updated as new data become available, and scaled to local or regional settings, which would facilitate informed and transparent conservation priority setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00752.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250008700021

    View details for PubMedID 17883495

  • Human impacts on the species-area relationship reef fish assemblages ECOLOGY LETTERS Tittensor, D. P., Micheli, F., Nystrom, M., Worm, B. 2007; 10 (9): 760-772


    The relationship between species richness and area is one of the oldest, most recognized patterns in ecology. Here we provide empirical evidence for strong impacts of fisheries exploitation on the slope of the species-area relationship (SAR). Using comparative field surveys of fish on protected and exploited reefs in three oceans and the Mediterranean Sea, we show that exploitation consistently depresses the slope of the SAR for both power-law and exponential models. The magnitude of change appears to be proportional to fishing intensity. Results are independent of taxonomic resolution and robust across coral and rocky reefs, sampling protocols and statistical methods. Changes in species richness, relative abundance and patch occupancy all appear to contribute to this pattern. We conclude that exploitation pressure impacts the fundamental scaling of biodiversity as well as the species richness and spatial distribution patterns of reef fish. We propose that species-area curves can be sensitive indicators of community-level changes in biodiversity, and may be useful in quantifying the human imprint on reef biodiversity, and potentially elsewhere.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01076.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248598300002

    View details for PubMedID 17663709

  • Response to comments on "Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services" SCIENCE Worm, B., Barbier, E. B., Beaumont, N., Duffy, J. E., Folke, C., Halpern, B. S., Jackson, J. B., Lotze, H. K., Micheli, F., Palumbi, S. R., Sala, E., Selkoe, K. A., Stachowicz, J. J., Watson, R. 2007; 316 (5829): 1285-1286
  • Designing marine reserves for interacting species: Insights from theory BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Baskett, M. L., Micheli, F., Levin, S. A. 2007; 137 (2): 163-179
  • Trophic cascade facilitates coral recruitment in a marine reserve PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Mumby, P. J., Harborne, A. R., Williams, J., Kappel, C. V., Brumbaugh, D. R., Micheli, F., Holmes, K. E., Dahlgren, C. P., Paris, C. B., Blackwell, P. G. 2007; 104 (20): 8362-8367


    Reduced fishing pressure and weak predator-prey interactions within marine reserves can create trophic cascades that increase the number of grazing fishes and reduce the coverage of macroalgae on coral reefs. Here, we show that the impacts of reserves extend beyond trophic cascades and enhance the process of coral recruitment. Increased fish grazing, primarily driven by reduced fishing, was strongly negatively correlated with macroalgal cover and resulted in a 2-fold increase in the density of coral recruits within a Bahamian reef system. Our conclusions are robust because four alternative hypotheses that may generate a spurious correlation between grazing and coral recruitment were tested and rejected. Grazing appears to influence the density and community structure of coral recruits, but no detectable influence was found on the overall size-frequency distribution, community structure, or cover of corals. We interpret this absence of pattern in the adult coral community as symptomatic of the impact of a recent disturbance event that masks the recovery trajectories of individual reefs. Marine reserves are not a panacea for conservation but can facilitate the recovery of corals from disturbance and may help sustain the biodiversity of organisms that depend on a complex three-dimensional coral habitat.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0702602104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246599900032

    View details for PubMedID 17488824

  • High apex predator biomass on remote Pacific islands CORAL REEFS Stevenson, C., Katz, L. S., Micheli, F., Block, B., Heiman, K. W., Perle, C., Weng, K., Dunbar, R., Witting, J. 2007; 26 (1): 47-51
  • Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services SCIENCE Worm, B., Barbier, E. B., Beaumont, N., Duffy, J. E., Folke, C., Halpern, B. S., Jackson, J. B., Lotze, H. K., Micheli, F., Palumbi, S. R., Sala, E., Selkoe, K. A., Stachowicz, J. J., Watson, R. 2006; 314 (5800): 787-790


    Human-dominated marine ecosystems are experiencing accelerating loss of populations and species, with largely unknown consequences. We analyzed local experiments, long-term regional time series, and global fisheries data to test how biodiversity loss affects marine ecosystem services across temporal and spatial scales. Overall, rates of resource collapse increased and recovery potential, stability, and water quality decreased exponentially with declining diversity. Restoration of biodiversity, in contrast, increased productivity fourfold and decreased variability by 21%, on average. We conclude that marine biodiversity loss is increasingly impairing the ocean's capacity to provide food, maintain water quality, and recover from perturbations. Yet available data suggest that at this point, these trends are still reversible.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1132294

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241729800037

    View details for PubMedID 17082450

  • Integrating marine protected areas with catch regulation CANADIAN JOURNAL OF FISHERIES AND AQUATIC SCIENCES Hilborn, R., Micheli, F., De Leo, G. A. 2006; 63 (3): 642-649
  • Fishing, trophic cascades, and the process of grazing on coral reefs SCIENCE Mumby, P. J., Dahlgren, C. P., Harborne, A. R., Kappel, C. V., Micheli, F., Brumbaugh, D. R., Holmes, K. E., Mendes, J. M., Broad, K., Sanchirico, J. N., Buch, K., Box, S., Stoffle, R. W., Gill, A. B. 2006; 311 (5757): 98-101


    Since the mass mortality of the urchin Diadema antillarum in 1983, parrotfishes have become the dominant grazer on Caribbean reefs. The grazing capacity of these fishes could be impaired if marine reserves achieve their long-term goal of restoring large consumers, several of which prey on parrotfishes. Here we compare the negative impacts of enhanced predation with the positive impacts of reduced fishing mortality on parrotfishes inside reserves. Because large-bodied parrotfishes escape the risk of predation from a large piscivore (the Nassau grouper), the predation effect reduced grazing by only 4 to 8%. This impact was overwhelmed by the increase in density of large parrotfishes, resulting in a net doubling of grazing. Increased grazing caused a fourfold reduction in the cover of macroalgae, which, because they are the principal competitors of corals, highlights the potential importance of reserves for coral reef resilience.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1121129

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234546300042

    View details for PubMedID 16400152

  • The functional value of Caribbean coral reef, seagrass and mangrove habitats to ecosystem processes ADVANCES IN MARINE BIOLOGY, VOL 50 Harborne, A. R., Mumby, P. J., Micheli, F., Perry, C. T., Dahlgren, C. P., Holmes, K. E., Brumbaugh, D. R. 2006; 50: 57-189


    Caribbean coral reef habitats, seagrass beds and mangroves provide important goods and services both individually and through functional linkages. A range of anthropogenic factors are threatening the ecological and economic importance of these habitats and it is vital to understand how ecosystem processes vary across seascapes. A greater understanding of processes will facilitate further insight into the effects of disturbances and assist with assessing management options. Despite the need to study processes across whole seascapes, few spatially explicit ecosystem-scale assessments exist. We review the empirical literature to examine the role of different habitat types for a range of processes. The importance of each of 10 generic habitats to each process is defined as its "functional value" (none, low, medium or high), quantitatively derived from published data wherever possible and summarised in a single figure. This summary represents the first time the importance of habitats across an entire Caribbean seascape has been assessed for a range of processes. Furthermore, we review the susceptibility of each habitat to disturbances to investigate spatial patterns that might affect functional values. Habitat types are considered at the scale discriminated by remotely-sensed imagery and we envisage that functional values can be combined with habitat maps to provide spatially explicit information on processes across ecosystems. We provide examples of mapping the functional values of habitats for populations of three commercially important species. The resulting data layers were then used to generate seascape-scale assessments of "hot spots" of functional value that might be considered priorities for conservation. We also provide an example of how the literature reviewed here can be used to parameterise a habitat-specific model investigating reef resilience under different scenarios of herbivory. Finally, we use multidimensional scaling to provide a basic analysis of the overall functional roles of different habitats. The resulting ordination suggests that each habitat has a unique suite of functional values and, potentially, a distinct role within the ecosystem. This review shows that further data are required for many habitat types and processes, particularly forereef and escarpment habitats on reefs and for seagrass beds and mangroves. Furthermore, many data were collected prior to the regional mass mortality of Diadema and Acropora, and subsequent changes to benthic communities have, in many cases, altered a habitat's functional value, hindering the use of these data for parameterising maps and models. Similarly, few data exist on how functional values change when environmental parameters, such as water clarity, are altered by natural or anthropogenic influences or the effects of a habitat's spatial context within the seascape. Despite these limitations, sufficient data are available to construct maps and models to better understand tropical marine ecosystem processes and assist more effective mitigation of threats that alter habitats and their functional values.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238223900002

    View details for PubMedID 16782451

  • Marine Parks Need Sharks? – response Science Mumby, P., Micheli, F., Dahgren, C., Litvin, S., Gill, A., Brumbaugh, D., Broad, K., Sanchirico, J., Kappel, C., Harborne, A., Holmes, K. 2006; 312: 527
  • Selective predation by the zoarcid fish Thermarces cerberus at hydrothermal vents DEEP-SEA RESEARCH PART I-OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PAPERS Sancho, G., Fisher, C. R., Mills, S., Micheli, F., Johnson, G. A., Lenihan, H. S., Peterson, C. H., Mullineaux, L. S. 2005; 52 (5): 837-844
  • Low functional redundancy in coastal marine assemblages ECOLOGY LETTERS Micheli, F., Halpern, B. S. 2005; 8 (4): 391-400
  • Ecology - Are US coral reefs on the slippery slope to slime? SCIENCE Pandolfi, J. M., Jackson, J. B., Baron, N., Bradbury, R. H., Guzman, H. M., Hughes, T. P., Kappel, C. V., Micheli, F., Ogden, J. C., Possingham, H. P., Sala, E. 2005; 307 (5716): 1725-1726

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1104258

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227883900028

    View details for PubMedID 15774744

  • Cascading human impacts, marine protected areas, and the structure of Mediterranean reef assemblages ECOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS Micheli, F., Benedetti-Cecchi, L., Gambaccini, S., Bertocci, I., Borsini, C., Osio, G. C., Roman, F. 2005; 75 (1): 81-102
  • Ecological science and sustainability for the 21st century FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Palmer, M. A., Bernhardt, E. S., Chornesky, E. A., Collins, S. L., Dobson, A. P., Duke, C. S., Gold, B. D., Jacobson, R. B., Kingsland, S. E., Kranz, R. H., Mappin, M. J., Martinez, M. L., Micheli, F., Morse, J. L., Pace, M. L., Pascual, M., Palumbi, S. S., Reichman, O., Townsend, A. R., Turner, M. G. 2005; 3 (1): 4-11
  • Introduction of non-native oysters: Ecosystem effects and restoration implications ANNUAL REVIEW OF ECOLOGY EVOLUTION AND SYSTEMATICS Ruesink, J. L., Lenihan, H. S., Trimble, A. C., Heiman, K. W., Micheli, F., Byers, J. E., Kay, M. C. 2005; 36: 643-689
  • Reassessing US coral reefs - Response Science Jackson, J., Ogden, J., Pandolfi, J., Baron, N., Bradbury, R., Guzman, H., Hughes, T., Kappel, C., Micheli, F., Possingham, H., Sala, E. 2005; 308: 1741-1742
  • Trajectories and correlates of community change in no-take marine reserves ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS Micheli, F., Halpern, B. S., Botsford, L. W., Warner, R. R. 2004; 14 (6): 1709-1723
  • Distribution of plants in a California serpentine grassland: are rocky hummocks spatial refuges for native species? PLANT ECOLOGY Gram, W. K., Borer, E. T., Cottingham, K. L., Seabloom, E. W., Boucher, V. L., Goldwasser, L., Micheli, F., Kendall, B. E., Burton, R. S. 2004; 172 (2): 159-171
  • Ecology for a crowded planet SCIENCE Palmer, M., Bernhardt, E., Chornesky, E., Collins, S., Dobson, A., Duke, C., Gold, B., Jacobson, R., Kingsland, S., Kranz, R., Mappin, M., Martinez, M. L., Micheli, F., Morse, J., Pace, M., Pascual, M., Palumbi, S., Reichman, O. J., Simons, A., Townsend, A., Turner, M. 2004; 304 (5675): 1251-1252

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221669600023

    View details for PubMedID 15166349

  • Including species interactions in the design and evaluation of marine reserves: Some insights from a predator-prey model 4th International Symposium in Fisheries Ecology Micheli, F., Amarasekare, P., Bascompte, J., Gerber, L. R. ROSENSTIEL SCH MAR ATMOS SCI. 2004: 653–69
  • Flow damping under seagrass canopies of differing structure Marine Ecology Progress Series Peterson, C., Luettich Jr, R., Micheli, F., Skilleter, G. 2004; 268: 81-92
  • Successional mechanism varies along a gradient in hydrothermal fluid flux at deep-sea vents ECOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS Mullineaux, L. S., Peterson, C. H., Micheli, F., Mills, S. W. 2003; 73 (4): 523-542
  • Variation in rocky shore assemblages in the northwestern Mediterranean: contrasts between islands and the mainland JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY Benedetti-Cecchi, L., Maggi, E., Bertocci, I., Vaselli, S., Micheli, F., Osio, G. C., Cinelli, F. 2003; 293 (2): 193-215
  • Competition, seed limitation, disturbance, and reestablishment of California native annual forbs ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS Seabloom, E. W., Borer, E. T., Boucher, V. L., Burton, R. S., Cottingham, K. L., Goldwasser, L., Gram, W. K., Kendall, B. E., Micheli, F. 2003; 13 (3): 575-592
  • Implications of spatial heterogeneity for management of marine protected areas (MPAs): examples from assemblages of rocky coasts in the northwest Mediterranean MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH Benedetti-Cecchi, L., Bertocci, I., Micheli, F., Maggi, E., Fosella, T., Vaselli, S. 2003; 55 (5): 429-458


    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly used as a management tool to preserve species and habitats. Testing hypotheses about the effectiveness of MPAs is important for their implementation and to identify informative criteria to support management decisions. This study tested the general proposition that MPAs affected assemblages of algae and invertebrates between 0.0 and 0.5 m above the mean low water level of rocky coasts on two islands in the Tuscan Archipelago (northwest Mediterranean). Protection was concentrated mainly on the west coasts of the islands, raising the possibility that neither the full range of assemblages nor the relevant scales of variation were properly represented within MPAs. This motivated the comparison of assemblages on opposite sides of islands (habitats). The effects of MPAs and habitat were assessed with a multifactorial sampling design; hypotheses were tested about differences in structure of assemblages, in mean abundance of common taxa and in univariate and multivariate measures of spatial variation. The design consisted of three replicate shores for each condition of protected and reference areas on the west side of each island and three unprotected shores on the eastern side. Assemblages were sampled independently four times on each island between June 1999 and January 2001. At each time of sampling two sites were selected randomly at each of two tidal heights to represent midshore and lowshore assemblages on each shore. Estimates of abundance were obtained using non-destructive sampling methods from five replicate 20x20 cm quadrats at each site. Results indicated differences among habitats in structure of assemblages, in mean abundance of common taxa and in univariate and multivariate measures of spatial variation at the scale of shores. Most of these patterns were inconsistent with the predicted effect of management through MPAs. The data suggest that designation of MPAs in the Tuscan Archipelago should proceed through management of multiple shores and types of habitat selected to guarantee protection to a representative sample of assemblages and to the processes responsible for maintenance of spatial patchiness at different scales. This study also shows that considerations of spatial heterogeneity are important to underpin management decisions about the number, size and location of MPAs.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181740300004

    View details for PubMedID 12628195

  • Principles for the design of marine reserves ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS Botsford, L. W., Micheli, F., Hastings, A. 2003; 13 (1): S25-S31
  • Principles for the design of marine reserves Ecological Applications Botsford, L., Micheli, F., Hastings, A. 2003; S13: 25-31
  • Competition, seed limitation, disturbance, and the reestablishment of California native annual forbs Ecological Applications Seabloom, E., Borer, E., Boucher, V., Burton, R., Cottingham, K., Goldwasser, L., Gram, W., Kendall, B., Micheli, F. 2003; 13: 575-592
  • Marine Protected Areas in the Mediterranean Sea: Objectives, Effectiveness and Monitoring MARINE ECOLOGY-PUBBLICAZIONI DELLA STAZIONE ZOOLOGICA DI NAPOLI I Fraschetti, S., Terlizzi, A., Micheli, F., Benedetti-Cecchi, L., Boero, F. 2002; 23: 190-200
  • Predation structures communities at deep-sea hydrothermal vents ECOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS Micheli, F., Peterson, C. H., Mullineaux, L. S., Fisher, C. R., Mills, S. W., Sancho, G., Johnson, G. A., Lenihan, H. S. 2002; 72 (3): 365-382
  • Temporal, spatial, and taxonomic patterns of crustacean zooplankton variability in unmanipulated north-temperate lakes LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY Rusak, J. A., Yan, N. D., Somers, K. M., Cottingham, K. L., Micheli, F., Carpenter, S. R., Frost, T. M., Paterson, M. J., McQueen, D. J. 2002; 47 (3): 613-625
  • Interplay of encrusting coralline algae and sea urchins in maintaining alternative habitats MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Bulleri, F., Bertocci, I., Micheli, F. 2002; 243: 101-109
  • Climate change - Climate change in nontraditional data sets SCIENCE Sagarin, R., Micheli, F. 2001; 294 (5543): 811-811

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171851800034

    View details for PubMedID 11679659

  • Human alteration of food webs - Research priorities for conservation and management Workshop on Conservation Biology: Research Priorities for the New Decade Micheli, F., Polis, G. A., Boersma, P. D., Hixon, M. A., Norse, E. A., Snelgrove, P. V., Soule, M. E. ISLAND PRESS. 2001: 31–57
  • Oceans at risk - Research priorities in marine conservation biology Workshop on Conservation Biology: Research Priorities for the New Decade Hixon, M. A., Boersma, P. D., Hunter, M. L., Micheli, F., Norse, E. A. ISLAND PRESS. 2001: 125–154
  • Synthesis of linkages between benthic and fish communities as a key to protecting essential fish habitat 2nd William R and Lenore Mote International Symposium in Fisheries Ecology Peterson, C. H., Summerson, H. C., Thomson, E., Lenihan, H. S., Grabowski, J., Manning, L., Micheli, F., Johnson, G. ROSENSTIEL SCH MAR ATMOS SCI. 2000: 759–74
  • Biological effects of shellfish harvesting on oyster reefs: resolving a fishery conflict using ecological experimentationt Fishery Bulletin Lenihan, H., Micheli, F. 2000; 98: 86-95
  • Biological effects of shellfish harvesting on oyster reefs: resolving a fishery conflict by ecological experimentation FISHERY BULLETIN Lenihan, H. S., Micheli, F. 2000; 98 (1): 86-95
  • A method to determine rate and pattern of variability in ecological communities Oikos Collins, S., Micheli, F., Hartt, L. 2000; 91: 285-293
  • Eutrophication, fisheries, and consumer-resource dynamics in marine pelagic ecosystems SCIENCE Micheli, F. 1999; 285 (5432): 1396-1398
  • Estuarine vegetated habitats as corridors for predator movements CONSERVATION BIOLOGY Micheli, F., Peterson, C. H. 1999; 13 (4): 869-881
  • The influence of multiple environmental stressors on susceptibility to parasites: An experimental determination with oysters Symposium on the Effects of Multiple Stressors on Freshwater and Marine Ecosystems at the Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Limnology-and-Oceanography Lenihan, H. S., Micheli, F., Shelton, S. W., Peterson, C. H. AMER SOC LIMNOLOGY OCEANOGRAPHY. 1999: 910–24
  • The dual nature of community variability OIKOS Micheli, F., Cottingham, K. L., Bascompte, J., Bjornstad, O. N., Eckert, G. L., Fischer, J. M., Keitt, T. H., Kendall, B. E., Klug, J. L., Rusak, J. A. 1999; 85 (1): 161-169
  • Microalgae on seagrass mimics: Does epiphyte community structure differ from live seagrasses? JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY Pinckney, J. L., Micheli, F. 1998; 221 (1): 59-70
  • Effects of predator foraging behavior on patterns of prey mortality in marine soft bottoms ECOLOGICAL MONOGRAPHS Micheli, F. 1997; 67 (2): 203-224
  • Effects of previous experience on crab foraging in a mobile and a sedentary species Animal Behaviour Micheli, F. 1997; 53: 1149-1159
  • Predation intensity in estuarine soft bottoms: Between-habitat comparisons and experimental artifacts MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Micheli, F. 1996; 141 (1-3): 295-302
  • Feeding and burrowing ecology of two East African mangrove crabs Marine Biology Micheli, F., Gherardi, F., Vannini, M. 1991; 111: 247-254
  • FEEDING AND BURROWING ECOLOGY OF 2 EAST-AFRICAN MANGROVE CRABS MARINE BIOLOGY Micheli, F., Gherardi, F., Vannini, M. 1991; 111 (2): 247-254
  • Patterns of movement of the hermit crab, Clibanarius longitarsus, in a mangrove swamp Ethology, Ecology & Evolution Gherardi, F., Micheli, F., Vannini, M. 1990; 2: 312-313
  • Patterns of movement of the hermit crab, Clibanarius longitarsus, in a mangrove swamp Ethology, Ecology & Evolution Gherardi, F., Micheli, F., Vannini, M. 1990; 2: 312-313
  • Growth and reproduction in the freshwater crab Potamon fluviatile Herbst (Decapoda, Brachyura) Freshwater Biology Micheli, F., Gherardi, F., Vannini, M. 1990; 23: 491-503
  • Population structure and relative growth of Potamon potamios in the Dead Sea area Israel Journal of Zoology Gherardi, F., Micheli, F. 1989; 36: 133-145
  • Note sulla biologia ed ecologia del granchio di fiume Potamon fluviatile Bollettino del Museo di Storia Naturale della Lunigiana Gherardi, F., Micheli, F., Monaci, F., Tarducci, F. 1988; 6-7: 169-174