Academic Appointments

All Publications

  • Short-term cognitive fatigue effect on auditory temporal order judgments. Experimental brain research Simon, J., Takács, E., Orosz, G., Berki, B., Winkler, I. 2020


    Fatigue is a core symptom in many psychological disorders and it can strongly influence everyday productivity. As fatigue effects have been typically demonstrated after long hours of time on task, it was surprising that in a previous study, we accidentally found a decline of temporal order judgment (TOJ) performance within 5-8 min. After replicating prior relevant findings we tested whether pauses and/or feedback relating the participant's performance to some "standard" can eliminate or reduce this short-term performance decline. We also assessed whether the performance decline is specific to the processes evoked by the TOJ task or it is a product of either general inattentiveness or the lack of willingness to thoroughly follow the task instructions. We found that both feedback and introducing pauses between successive measurements can largely reduce the performance decline, and that these two manipulations likely mobilize overlapping capacities. Performance decline was not present in a similar task when controlling for the TOJ threshold and it was not a result of uncooperative behavior. Therefore, we conclude that the TOJ threshold decline is either specific to temporal processing in general or to the TOJ task employed in the study. Overall, the results are compatible with the notion that the decline of TOJ threshold with repeated measures represents a short-term cognitive fatigue effect. This objective fatigue measure did not correlate with subjective fatigue. The latter was rather related to perceived difficulty/effort, the reduction of positive affectivity, heightened sensitivity to criticism, and the best TOJ threshold.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00221-019-05712-x

    View details for PubMedID 31900505

  • Longitudinal Trajectories of Passion and Their Individual and Social Determinants: A Latent Growth Modeling Approach JOURNAL OF HAPPINESS STUDIES Toth-Kiraly, I., Bothe, B., Janvari, M., Rigo, A., Orosz, G. 2019; 20 (8): 2431–44
  • Two sides of the same coin: The differentiating role of need satisfaction and frustration in passion for screen-based activities EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Toth-Kiraly, I., Bothe, B., Marki, A., Rigo, A., Orosz, G. 2019; 49 (6): 1190–1205

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ejsp.2588

    View details for Web of Science ID 000486513900007

  • Examining sexual motivation profiles and their correlates using latent profile analysis PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Toth-Kiraly, I., Vallerand, R. J., Bothe, B., Rigo, A., Orosz, G. 2019; 146: 76–86
  • High-Frequency Pornography Users Are Not Always Problematic Users Bothe, B., Toth-Kiraly, I., Potenza, M. N., Orosz, G., Demetrovics, Z. AKADEMIAI KIADO ZRT. 2019: 37
  • Why do people watch pornography? The motivational basis of (problematic) pornography use Bothe, B., Bella, N., Toth-Kiraly, I., Demetrovics, Z., Orosz, G. AKADEMIAI KIADO ZRT. 2019: 15
  • Investigating the Associations Of Adult ADHD Symptoms, Hypersexuality, and Problematic Pornography Use Among Men and Women on a Largescale, Non-Clinical Sample JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Bothe, B., Koos, M., Toth-Kiraly, I., Orosz, G., Demetrovics, Z. 2019; 16 (4): 489–99
  • Investigating the Associations Of Adult ADHD Symptoms, Hypersexuality, and Problematic Pornography Use Among Men and Women on a Largescale, Non-Clinical Sample. The journal of sexual medicine Bothe, B., Koos, M., Toth-Kiraly, I., Orosz, G., Demetrovics, Z. 2019


    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent comorbid disorders in hypersexuality; however, previous studies only examined the associations of ADHD and hypersexuality among men seeking treatment. Although problematic pornography use (PPU) might be considered the most frequent manifestation of hypersexuality, no previous research examined its association with ADHD symptoms.AIM: To (i) examine ADHD symptoms in relation to hypersexuality and PPU and (ii) identify possible similarities and differences in relationship with hypersexuality and PPU in a large, non-clinical sample between both sexes.METHODS: Multi-group structural equation modeling was conducted to investigate the hypothesized associations among adult ADHD symptoms, hypersexuality, and PPU between men and women (N=14,043 participants; women=4,237; mean age=33.5 years, SD=10.9).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adult ADHD symptoms were assessed in relation to hypersexuality and PPU via self-reported measures.RESULTS: Results indicated that hypersexuality had positive and moderate association with problematic pornography use among women (r[14041]= .50, P < .01) and positive and strong association among men (r[14041]= .70, P < .01). ADHD symptoms had positive and moderate associations with hypersexuality in both men and women (beta= .50, P < .01; beta= .43; P < .01; respectively). Regarding men, ADHD symptoms had a positive, moderate association with PPU (beta= .45, P < .01), whereas ADHD symptoms had a positive, but weak, association with PPU in the case of women (beta= .26, P < .01).CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: When men have high levels of hypersexuality or PPU, ADHD should be assessed as a potential comorbid disorder. With regard to women, ADHD should be assessed as a potential comorbid disorder only in the case of hypersexuality.STRENGTH & LIMITATIONS: Applying self-report methods have possible biases that should be taken into account when interpreting the present findings. However, the present study was conducted on a large community sample and examined the differentiated role of ADHD symptoms in hypersexuality and PPU, not only in men but also in women, that has never been addressed in the literature.CONCLUSION: ADHD symptoms might play an important role in the severity of hypersexuality between both sexes, whereas ADHD symptoms might only play a stronger role in PPU among men but not women. The findings corroborate previous results that PPU may not be unambiguously considered as a subcategory of hypersexuality. In addition, potential background mechanisms behind problematic pornography use should be examined separately between men and women. Bothe B, Koos M, Toth-Kiraly I, etal. Investigating the Associations Of Adult ADHD Symptoms, Hypersexuality, and Problematic Pornography Use Among Men and Women on a Largescale, Non-Clinical Sample. J Sex Med 2019;XX:XXX-XXX.

    View details for PubMedID 30852107

  • Emergence of polarized opinions from free association networks BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS File, B., Keczer, Z., Vancso, A., Bothe, B., Toth-Kiraly, I., Hunyadi, M., Ujhelyi, A., Ulbert, I., Goth, J., Orosz, G. 2019; 51 (1): 280–94


    We developed a method that can identify polarized public opinions by finding modules in a network of statistically related free word associations. Associations to the cue "migrant" were collected from two independent and comprehensive samples in Hungary (N1 = 505, N2 = 505). The co-occurrence-based relations of the free word associations reflected emotional similarity, and the modules of the association network were validated with well-established measures. The positive pole of the associations was gathered around the concept of "Refugees" who need help, whereas the negative pole associated asylum seekers with "Violence." The results were relatively consistent in the two independent samples. We demonstrated that analyzing the modular organization of association networks can be a tool for identifying the most important dimensions of public opinion about a relevant social issue without using predefined constructs.

    View details for PubMedID 30094726

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6420605

  • Seeing the forest through different trees: A social psychological perspective of work addiction. Journal of behavioral addictions Toth-Kiraly, I., Bothe, B., Orosz, G. 2018: 1–5


    We live in exciting times for the scientific study of work addiction, given its increased relevance and the diverse perspectives one might take to approach this phenomenon. Simultaneously, this field does not appear to be unified as a result of several misleading myths, which are addressed by the debate paper of Griffiths etal. (2018). In response, we would like to complement this study by proposing that the construct of interest should be more precisely identified in the context of related constructs and that an integrative framework should be applied, which is able to take into account not just the micro-level characteristics (i.e., individual differences), but meso- (i.e., environmental factors) and macro-level (i.e., societal factors) ones as well.

    View details for PubMedID 30556783

  • Pride and Social Status FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY Bollo, H., Bothe, B., Toth-Kiraly, I., Orosz, G. 2018; 9
  • On the Determinants and Outcomes of Passion for Playing Pokemon Go FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY Orosz, G., Zsila, A., Vallerand, R. J., Boethe, B. 2018; 9: 316


    In 2016, Pokémon Go became the most popular smartphone game. Despite the increasing popularity of this augmented reality game, to date, no studies have investigated passion for playing Pokémon Go. On the theoretical basis of the Dualistic Model of Passion (DMP), our goal was to investigate the associations between Pokémon Go playing motives, passion, and impulsivity. A total of 621 Pokémon Go players participated in the study (54.9% female; Mage = 22.6 years, SDage = 4.4). It was found that impulsivity was more strongly associated with obsessive passion (OP) than with harmonious passion (HP). HP was associated with adaptive motives (i.e., outdoor activity, social, recreation, and nostalgia), while OP was associated with less adaptive motives (i.e., fantasy, escape, boredom, competition, and coping). Therefore, in line with the DMP, HP and OP for playing Pokémon Go can predict an almost perfectly distinguished set of adaptive or maladaptive playing motives, and OP has a noteworthy relationship with impulsivity as a determinant.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00316

    View details for Web of Science ID 000427536000001

    View details for PubMedID 29599735

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5862819

  • The personality, motivational, and need-based background of problematic Tinder use. Journal of behavioral addictions Orosz, G., Benyó, M., Berkes, B., Nikoletti, E., Gál, É., Tóth-Király, I., Bőthe, B. 2018: 1–16


    Background and aims Tinder is a geo-located online dating application, which is present in almost 200 countries and has 10 million daily users. The aim of the present research was to investigate the motivational, personality, and basic psychological need-related background of problematic Tinder use. Methods After qualitative pretest and item construction, in Study 1 (N = 414), confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to corroborate the different motivational factors behind Tinder use. In Study 2 (N = 346), the associations between Big Five traits, Tinder motivations, and problematic Tinder use were examined with structural equation modeling (SEM). In Study 3 (N = 298), the potential role of general self-esteem, relatedness need satisfaction, and frustration in relation to Tinder-use motivations and problematic Tinder use was examined with SEM. Results In Study 1, a 16-item first-order factor structure was identified with four motivational factors, such as sex, love, self-esteem enhancement, and boredom. In Study 2, problematic Tinder use was mainly related to using Tinder for self-esteem enhancement. The Big Five personality factors were only weakly related to the four motivations and to problematic Tinder use. Counterintuitively, Study 3 showed that instead of global self-esteem, relatedness need frustration was the strongest predictor of self-esteem enhancement Tinder-use motivation which, in turn, was the strongest predictor of problematic Tinder use. Discussion Four motivational factors were identified as predictors of problematic use with need frustration being a relevant background variable instead of general personality traits.

    View details for DOI 10.1556/2006.7.2018.21

    View details for PubMedID 29642722

  • Pride and Social Status. Frontiers in psychology Bolló, H., Bőthe, B., Tóth-Király, I., Orosz, G. 2018; 9: 1979


    Pride is a status-related self-conscious emotion. The present study aimed to investigate the nature of status behind pride in four studies with using the two-facet model of pride, status maintenance strategies and with differentiating subjective social status (SSS) and objective social status (OSS). In Studies 1 and 2, we used questionnaire methods with structural equation modeling (SEM) in order to identify the relationship patterns between SSS, OSS, status maintenance strategies and pride. In Studies 3 and 4, we used vignette method and SEM to identify these links. All four studies gave evidence for the SSS → prestige status maintenance strategy → authentic pride relationship pattern. Similarly consistent result was found regarding the dominance status maintenance strategy → hubristic pride link. Depending on the assessment method (questionnaire vs. vignette) and the evaluative frame of reference (self vs. other), OSS was related to either authentic and hubristic pride, only hubristic pride, or neither of them. Based on these results, one thing can be taken for granted: pride is a subjective status-related emotion. However, the present results suggest that it is not necessarily true for OSS.

    View details for PubMedID 30410456

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6209642

  • Investigating the Multidimensionality of Need Fulfillment: A Bifactor Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Representation STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING-A MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL Toth-Kiraly, I., Morin, A. S., Bothe, B., Orosz, G., Rigo, A. 2018; 25 (2): 267–86
  • The paradoxical effect of climate on time perspective considering resource accumulation BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES Orosz, G., Zimbardo, P. G., Bothe, B., Toth-Kiraly, I. 2017; 40: e92


    Considering purely climate, southern countries are less harsh and more predictable than northern countries. From a historical perspective, freezing winters resulting in fewer available resources contribute to the development of strong future orientation. The paradox is that future orientation contributes to accumulation of resources in the long run, making individuals' immediate living conditions less harsh, leading to slower life strategies.

    View details for PubMedID 29342550

  • Academic cheating and time perspective: Cheaters live in the present instead of the future LEARNING AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Orosz, G., Dombi, E., Toth-Kiraly, I., Bothe, B., Jagodics, B., Zimbardo, P. G. 2016; 52: 39-45
  • Social Representations of Hero and Everyday Hero: A Network Study from Representative Samples. PloS one Keczer, Z., File, B., Orosz, G., Zimbardo, P. G. 2016; 11 (8)


    The psychological investigation of heroism is relatively new. At this stage, inductive methods can shed light on its main aspects. Therefore, we examined the social representations of Hero and Everyday Hero by collecting word associations from two separate representative samples in Hungary. We constructed two networks from these word associations. The results show that the social representation of Hero is more centralized and it cannot be divided into smaller units. The network of Everyday Hero is divided into five units and the significance moves from abstract hero characteristics to concrete social roles and occupations exhibiting pro-social values. We also created networks from the common associations of Hero and Everyday Hero. The structures of these networks show a moderate similarity and the connections are more balanced in case of Everyday Hero. While heroism in general can be the source of inspiration, the promotion of everyday heroism can be more successful in encouraging ordinary people to recognize their own potential for heroic behavior.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0159354

    View details for PubMedID 27525418

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4985139