Genevieve D’souza MD, FASA is a Clinical Associate Professor in the Pediatric Anesthesia division of the Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine at Stanford University. She is a Board-certified Pediatric Anesthesiologist , Fellowship trained Pediatric Pain Doctor, and trained in Medical Acupuncture.
She is a practicing Chronic Pediatric Pain Doctor at Stanford Medicine Children's Health and is also part of the Acute Pain Service. She is the Interim Medical Director of the Pediatric Pain Division. She is also the Director of the Pediatric Anesthesia Resource Center at Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital.
She is also the Senior Editor for the Visual Pearl Series For the Society of Pediatric Pain Medicine and on the Board of Directors for Society of Pediatric Pain Medicine.

Clinical Focus

  • Pediatric Pain
  • Pain Medicine

Administrative Appointments

  • Interim Medical Director, Pediatric Pain Division (2023 - Present)
  • Director, Pediatric Anesthesia Resource center (2014 - Present)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • District Delegate 3, California Society of Anesthesiology (2022 - Present)
  • Board of Director, Society of Pediatric Pain Medicine (2023 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Anesthesiology, Pediatric Anesthesiology (2024)
  • Internship: Morehouse School of Medicine Office of the Registrar (2004) GA
  • Fellowship: AI Dupont Hospital for Children (2008) DE
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pain Medicine, Pain Medicine (2013)
  • Professional Education: Helms Medical Institute (2015) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Anesthesiology, Anesthesia (2008)
  • Residency: Thomas Jefferson Univ Hospital (2007) PA
  • Medical Education: Terna Medical College (1999)

All Publications

  • Postdural Puncture Headaches in Pediatric Patients: A Review of Options When Repeated Epidural Blood Patches Do Not Work CUREUS JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCE Bansal, V., D'Souza, G., Aladade, E., Mcfarlane, D. M., Agarwal, R. 2024; 16 (6)
  • Review of Ultrasound-Guided Procedures in the Management of Chronic Pain. Anesthesiology clinics Aggarwal, A. K., Ottestad, E., Pfaff, K. E., Huai-Yu Li, A., Xu, L., Derby, R., Hecht, D., Hah, J., Pritzlaff, S., Prabhakar, N., Krane, E., D'Souza, G., Hoydonckx, Y. 2023; 41 (2): 395-470


    This article summarizes clinical expert recommendations and findings for the application of ultrasound-guided procedures in chronic pain management. Data on analgesic outcomes and adverse effects were collected and analyzed and are reported in this narrative review. Ultrasound guidance offers opportunities for the treatment of pain, with focus in this article on greater occipital nerve, trigeminal nerves, sphenopalatine ganglion, stellate ganglion, suprascapular nerve, median nerve, radial nerve, ulnar nerve, transverse abdominal plane block, quadratus lumborum, rectus sheath, anterior cutaneous abdominal nerves, pectoralis and serratus plane, erector spinae plane, illioinguinal/iliohypogastric/genitofemoral nerve, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, genicular nerve, and foot and ankle nerves.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.anclin.2023.02.003

    View details for PubMedID 37245950

  • Error Traps in the Perioperative Care of Children with Chronic Pain. Paediatric anaesthesia D'souza, G., Walia, A., Agarwal, R. 2023


    Pediatric patients with a history of chronic pain frequently have complex health needs that are challenging to meet in the perioperative period. Error traps are consequences or errors that are known to occur due to either gaps in knowledge or cognitive errors. Avoiding common error traps in these children can contribute to improved patient care and patient outcomes and overall better patient and family satisfaction. In patients with chronic pain, common errors during their perioperative care include: failure to adequately prepare the patient and family; failure to incorporate past pain history and therapy into current treatment plans, failure to provide adequate multimodal analgesia; and failure to provide multidisciplinary and multimodal analgesia by incorporating other services such as mental health services and physical therapy. Cognitive errors may play a role in these error traps. Recognizing and avoiding them may improve and optimize pain care and outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pan.14646

    View details for PubMedID 36785933

  • Novel Utilization of Strand-Specific Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction in Perioperative Clinical Decision Making for SARS-CoV-2 Polymerase Chain Reaction Positive Patients. Paediatric anaesthesia Jette, C. G., Wang, T., Wang, E., Man, J. Y., Mireles, S., Maass, B., Mathew, R., Pinsky, B. A., Claure, R., D'Souza, G. 2022


    In order to prevent in-hospital transmission and potential complications related to SARS-CoV-2 in the perioperative patient, most healthcare institutions require preoperative testing for SARS-CoV-2 prior to proceeding with elective surgery. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends a time and symptom-based duration of isolation for the presumed infectious period. The guidance to avoid retesting of asymptomatic patients in the 90days following a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test is because of the possibility of detection of non-infectious viral shedding. When to reschedule asymptomatic patients who test RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 preoperatively is of considerable debate, both from the perspective of ensuring a patient's full preoperative fitness, as well as reducing the risk of viral transmission within the hospital. We describe the novel perioperative use of a strand-specific assay to detect minus strand ribonucleic acid (RNA) in a clinical decision-making algorithm to determine optimal timing of elective surgery after a patient tests RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2. This is the first description in the literature of an attempt to further stratify patients who repeatedly test positive for SARS-CoV-2 into infectious versus non-infectious for perioperative planning.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pan.14448

    View details for PubMedID 35338765

  • Pre-operative fasting times for clear liquids at a tertiary children's hospital; what can be improved? Anesthesia and pain medicine Schmidt, A. R., Fehr, J., Man, J., D'Souza, G., Wang, E., Claure, R., Mendoza, J. 2021


    Background: The goal of preoperative fasting is to prevent pulmonary aspiration during general anesthesia. Fasting times are often prolonged leading to patient discomfort and risk for adverse events. This retrospective quality improvement survey evaluated effective nil-per-os (NPO) times and causes for prolonged NPO times with the aim to suggest improvement strategies by a newly founded fasting task force.Methods: Data from all electronic anesthesia records from 2019 at our institution were reviewed for fasting times. Our NPO instructions follow American Society of Anesthesiology guidelines and are calculated based on the patient's arrival time (90 min before operating room [OR] time). Primary outcome was the effective NPO time for clear liquids, secondary outcomes were incidence of delays and the parental compliance with the NPO instructions. Data are presented as median (interquartile range).Results: In total 9,625 cases were included in the analysis. NPO time was documented in 72.1% with a median effective NPO time of 7:13 h (7:36). OR in room times were documented in 72.8%, 2,075 (29.5%; median time 0:10 h [0:21]) were earlier and 4,939 (70.5%; median time 0:29 h [0:54]) were later than scheduled. Parental NPO compliance showed a median deviation for clear liquid intake of 0:55 h (8:30).Conclusions: This study revealed that effective NPO times were longer than current ASA guidelines. Contributing causes include case delays and parental non-compliance to NPO instructions. Thus, task force recommendations include change NPO instruction calculations to scheduled OR time versus arrival time, and encourage parents to give their child clear liquids at the instructed time.

    View details for DOI 10.17085/apm.21025

    View details for PubMedID 34289299

  • Multidisciplinary Pain Management for Pediatric Patients with Acute and Chronic Pain: A Foundational Treatment Approach When Prescribing Opioids. Children (Basel, Switzerland) Wren, A. A., Ross, A. C., D'Souza, G., Almgren, C., Feinstein, A., Marshall, A., Golianu, B. 2019; 6 (2)


    Opioid therapy is the cornerstone of treatment for acute procedural and postoperative pain and is regularly prescribed for severe and debilitating chronic pain conditions. Although beneficial for many patients, opioid therapy may have side effects, limited efficacy, and potential negative outcomes. Multidisciplinary pain management treatments incorporating pharmacological and integrative non-pharmacological therapies have been shown to be effective in acute and chronic pain management for pediatric populations. A multidisciplinary approach can also benefit psychological functioning and quality of life, and may have the potential to reduce reliance on opioids. The aims of this paper are to: (1) provide a brief overview of a multidisciplinary pain management approach for pediatric patients with acute and chronic pain, (2) highlight the mechanisms of action and evidence base of commonly utilized integrative non-pharmacological therapies in pediatric multidisciplinary pain management, and (3) explore the opioid sparing effects of multidisciplinary treatment for pediatric pain.

    View details for PubMedID 30795645

  • Multidisciplinary Pain Management for Pediatric Patients with Acute and Chronic Pain: A Foundational Treatment Approach When Prescribing Opioids CHILDREN-BASEL Wren, A. A., Ross, A. C., D'Souza, G., Almgren, C., Feinstein, A., Marshall, A., Golianu, B. 2019; 6 (2)
  • Perioperative Management of the Pediatric Patient on Medicinal Marijuana: What Anesthesiologists Should Know. Anesthesia and analgesia Flannery, K. M., D'Souza, G. n., Agarwal, R. n. 2019


    In 2018, 29 states allow the use of medicinal marijuana. In these states, minors, with parental permission, are granted access. Use has increased in some states, although there remains a paucity of clear evidence regarding usefulness and dosing. There are 2 Food and Drug Administration-approved synthetic derivatives. One purified compound was just approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and another is undergoing Food and Drug Administration review. This article will review the literature regarding the use of each of these compounds in the literature, with particular attention to data in children. The history, known pharmacology, data from nonmedicinal use, current evidence, and anesthetic considerations will be described.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0000000000003956

    View details for PubMedID 30985382

  • Pharmacological Strategies for Decreasing Opioid Therapy and Management of Side Effects from Chronic Use. Children (Basel, Switzerland) D'Souza, G., Wren, A. A., Almgren, C., Ross, A. C., Marshall, A., Golianu, B. 2018; 5 (12)


    As awareness increases about the side effects of opioids and risks of misuse, opioid use and appropriate weaning of opioid therapies have become topics of significant clinical relevance among pediatric populations. Critically ill hospitalized neonates, children, and adolescents routinely receive opioids for analgesia and sedation as part of their hospitalization, for both acute and chronic illnesses. Opioids are frequently administered to manage pain symptoms, reduce anxiety and agitation, and diminish physiological stress responses. Opioids are also regularly prescribed to youth with chronic pain. These medications may be prescribed during the initial phase of a diagnostic workup, during an emergency room visit; as an inpatient, or on an outpatient basis. Following treatment for underlying pain conditions, it can be challenging to appropriately wean and discontinue opioid therapies. Weaning opioid therapy requires special expertise and care to avoid symptoms of increased pain, withdrawal, and agitation. To address this challenge, there have been enhanced efforts to implement opioid-reduction during pharmacological therapies for pediatric pain management. Effective pain management therapies and their outcomes in pediatrics are outside the scope of this paper. The aims of this paper were to: (1) Review the current practice of opioid-reduction during pharmacological therapies; and (2) highlight concrete opioid weaning strategies and management of opioid withdrawal.

    View details for PubMedID 30563157

  • Pharmacological Strategies for Decreasing Opioid Therapy and Management of Side Effects from Chronic Use CHILDREN-BASEL D'Souza, G., Wren, A. A., Almgren, C., Ross, A. C., Marshall, A., Golianu, B. 2018; 5 (12)
  • Nusinersen versus Sham Control in Later-Onset Spinal Muscular Atrophy NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Mercuri, E., Darras, B. T., Chiriboga, C. A., Day, J. W., Campbell, C., Connolly, A. M., Iannaccone, S. T., Kirschner, J., Kuntz, N. L., Saito, K., Shieh, P. B., Tulinius, M., Mazzone, E. S., Montes, J., Bishop, K. M., Yang, Q., Foster, R., Gheuens, S., Bennett, C. F., Farwell, W., Schneider, E., De Vivo, D. C., Finkel, R. S., CHERISH Study Grp 2018; 378 (7): 625–35


    Nusinersen is an antisense oligonucleotide drug that modulates pre-messenger RNA splicing of the survival motor neuron 2 ( SMN2) gene. It has been developed for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, sham-controlled, phase 3 trial of nusinersen in 126 children with SMA who had symptom onset after 6 months of age. The children were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to undergo intrathecal administration of nusinersen at a dose of 12 mg (nusinersen group) or a sham procedure (control group) on days 1, 29, 85, and 274. The primary end point was the least-squares mean change from baseline in the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale-Expanded (HFMSE) score at 15 months of treatment; HFMSE scores range from 0 to 66, with higher scores indicating better motor function. Secondary end points included the percentage of children with a clinically meaningful increase from baseline in the HFMSE score (≥3 points), an outcome that indicates improvement in at least two motor skills.In the prespecified interim analysis, there was a least-squares mean increase from baseline to month 15 in the HFMSE score in the nusinersen group (by 4.0 points) and a least-squares mean decrease in the control group (by -1.9 points), with a significant between-group difference favoring nusinersen (least-squares mean difference in change, 5.9 points; 95% confidence interval, 3.7 to 8.1; P<0.001). This result prompted early termination of the trial. Results of the final analysis were consistent with results of the interim analysis. In the final analysis, 57% of the children in the nusinersen group as compared with 26% in the control group had an increase from baseline to month 15 in the HFMSE score of at least 3 points (P<0.001), and the overall incidence of adverse events was similar in the nusinersen group and the control group (93% and 100%, respectively).Among children with later-onset SMA, those who received nusinersen had significant and clinically meaningful improvement in motor function as compared with those in the control group. (Funded by Biogen and Ionis Pharmaceuticals; CHERISH number, NCT02292537 .).

    View details for PubMedID 29443664

  • Management of a Ventral Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak With a Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Blood Patch in a Child With Persistent Postdural Puncture Headache: A Case Report. Regional anesthesia and pain medicine D'souza, G., Seidel, F. G., Krane, E. J. 2017; 42 (2): 263-266


    Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is an uncommon sequel of lumbar puncture in children. When conservative treatment with bed rest, hydration, and caffeine are ineffective, epidural blood patches are recommended and are generally effective. The purpose of this report was to highlight that when lumbar epidural blood patches fail to eliminate PDPH, diagnostic evaluation should be performed and alternative treatment sought.An unusual case is described of an 11-year-old boy with PDPH, which was successfully managed with a ventral (anterior) epidural blood patch and epidural saline infusion after headache and other symptoms failed to resolve after conservative treatment and conventionally performed blood patches.Ineffectiveness of conservative measures and epidural blood patches performed posteriorly to resolve PDPH should lead the physician both to question the diagnosis of PDPH by pursuing radiographic confirmation of a cerebral spinal fluid leak and, furthermore, identification of its location to best direct further therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000562

    View details for PubMedID 28178090

  • Nusinersen versus Sham Control in Infantile-Onset Spinal Muscular Atrophy. The New England journal of medicine Finkel, R. S., Mercuri, E. n., Darras, B. T., Connolly, A. M., Kuntz, N. L., Kirschner, J. n., Chiriboga, C. A., Saito, K. n., Servais, L. n., Tizzano, E. n., Topaloglu, H. n., Tulinius, M. n., Montes, J. n., Glanzman, A. M., Bishop, K. n., Zhong, Z. J., Gheuens, S. n., Bennett, C. F., Schneider, E. n., Farwell, W. n., De Vivo, D. C. 2017; 377 (18): 1723–32


    Spinal muscular atrophy is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder that is caused by an insufficient level of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Nusinersen is an antisense oligonucleotide drug that modifies pre-messenger RNA splicing of the SMN2 gene and thus promotes increased production of full-length SMN protein.We conducted a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, phase 3 efficacy and safety trial of nusinersen in infants with spinal muscular atrophy. The primary end points were a motor-milestone response (defined according to results on the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination) and event-free survival (time to death or the use of permanent assisted ventilation). Secondary end points included overall survival and subgroup analyses of event-free survival according to disease duration at screening. Only the first primary end point was tested in a prespecified interim analysis. To control the overall type I error rate at 0.05, a hierarchical testing strategy was used for the second primary end point and the secondary end points in the final analysis.In the interim analysis, a significantly higher percentage of infants in the nusinersen group than in the control group had a motor-milestone response (21 of 51 infants [41%] vs. 0 of 27 [0%], P<0.001), and this result prompted early termination of the trial. In the final analysis, a significantly higher percentage of infants in the nusinersen group than in the control group had a motor-milestone response (37 of 73 infants [51%] vs. 0 of 37 [0%]), and the likelihood of event-free survival was higher in the nusinersen group than in the control group (hazard ratio for death or the use of permanent assisted ventilation, 0.53; P=0.005). The likelihood of overall survival was higher in the nusinersen group than in the control group (hazard ratio for death, 0.37; P=0.004), and infants with a shorter disease duration at screening were more likely than those with a longer disease duration to benefit from nusinersen. The incidence and severity of adverse events were similar in the two groups.Among infants with spinal muscular atrophy, those who received nusinersen were more likely to be alive and have improvements in motor function than those in the control group. Early treatment may be necessary to maximize the benefit of the drug. (Funded by Biogen and Ionis Pharmaceuticals; ENDEAR number, NCT02193074 .).

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa1702752

    View details for PubMedID 29091570

  • Acupuncture as an Anesthetic Adjuvant for Pediatric Orthopedic Patients: A Pilot Study and Protocol Description MEDICAL ACUPUNCTURE Golianu, B., Seybold, J., D'Souza, G. 2015; 27 (6): 475–80
  • Use of Cockroft and Gault formula for estimation of creatinine clearance. Anesthesiology D'Souza, G., Viscusi, E. R., Rowlands, J. 2008; 109 (6): 1140-1; author reply 1141-2

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ALN.0b013e31818dd6fe

    View details for PubMedID 19034112