Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, Ben Gurion University Of The Negev (2018)
  • Master of Science, Ben Gurion University Of The Negev (2015)
  • Bachelor of Science, Hebrew University Of Jerusalem (2010)

Lab Affiliations

2019-20 Courses

All Publications

  • Network-based hierarchical population structure analysis for large genomic datasets. Genome research Greenbaum, G., Rubin, A., Templeton, A. R., Rosenberg, N. A. 2019


    Analysis of population structure in natural populations using genetic data is a common practice in ecological and evolutionary studies. With large genomic datasets of populations now appearing more frequently across the taxonomic spectrum, it is becoming increasingly possible to reveal many hierarchical levels of structure, including fine-scale genetic clusters. To analyze these datasets, methods need to be appropriately suited to the challenges of extracting multi-level structure from whole-genome data. Here, we present a network-based approach for constructing population structure representations from genetic data. The use of community detection algorithms from network theory generates a natural hierarchical perspective on the representation that the method produces. The method is computationally efficient, and it requires relatively few assumptions regarding the biological processes that underlie the data. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing population structure in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana and in human populations. These examples illustrate how network-based approaches for population structure analysis are well-suited to extracting valuable ecological and evolutionary information in the era of large genomic datasets.

    View details for DOI 10.1101/gr.250092.119

    View details for PubMedID 31694865

  • Disease transmission and introgression can explain the long-lasting contact zone of modern humans and Neanderthals. Nature communications Greenbaum, G., Getz, W. M., Rosenberg, N. A., Feldman, M. W., Hovers, E., Kolodny, O. 2019; 10 (1): 5003


    Neanderthals and modern humans both occupied the Levant for tens of thousands of years prior to the spread of modern humans into the rest of Eurasia and their replacement of the Neanderthals. That the inter-species boundary remained geographically localized for so long is a puzzle, particularly in light of the rapidity of its subsequent movement. Here, we propose that infectious-disease dynamics can explain the localization and persistence of the inter-species boundary. We further propose, and support with dynamical-systems models, that introgression-basedtransmission of alleles related to the immune system would have gradually diminished this barrier to pervasive inter-species interaction, leading to the eventual release of the inter-species boundary from its geographic localization. Asymmetries between the species in the characteristics of their associated 'pathogen packages' could have generated feedback that allowed modern humans to overcome disease burden earlier than Neanderthals, giving them an advantage in their subsequent spread into Eurasia.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-019-12862-7

    View details for PubMedID 31676766

  • Evolution of Immune Sexual Dimorphism in Response to Placental Invasiveness: AResponse to Natri etal. Trends in genetics : TIG Greenbaum, S., Greenbaum, G. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tig.2019.10.009

    View details for PubMedID 31753530

  • The role of landscape and history on the genetic structure of peripheral populations of the Near Eastern fire salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata, in Northern Israel CONSERVATION GENETICS Sinai, I., Segev, O., Wei, G., Oron, T., Merila, J., Templeton, A. R., Blaustein, L., Greenbaum, G., Blank, L. 2019; 20 (4): 875–89
  • Was inter-population connectivity of Neanderthals and modern humans the driver of the Upper Paleolithic transition rather than its product? QUATERNARY SCIENCE REVIEWS Greenbaum, G., Friesem, D. E., Hovers, E., Feldman, M. W., Kolodny, O. 2019; 217: 316–29
  • Ecological dynamics of the vaginal microbiome in relation to health and disease AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Greenbaum, S., Greenbaum, G., Moran-Gilad, J., Weintruab, A. Y. 2019; 220 (4): 324–35
  • Are both necessity and opportunity the mothers of innovations? The Behavioral and brain sciences Greenbaum, G., Fogarty, L., Colleran, H., Berger-Tal, O., Kolodny, O., Creanza, N. 2019; 42: e199


    Baumard's perspective asserts that "opportunity is the mother of innovation," in contrast to the adage ascribing this role to necessity. Drawing on behavioral ecology and cognition, we propose that both extremes - affluence and scarcity - can drive innovation. We suggest that the types of innovations at these two extremes differ and that both rely on mechanisms operating on different time scales.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0140525X19000207

    View details for PubMedID 31744576

  • Ecological dynamics of the vaginal microbiome in relation to health and disease. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology Greenbaum, S., Greenbaum, G., Moran-Gilad, J., Weintruab, A. Y. 2018


    The bacterial composition of the vaginal microbiome is thought to be related to health and disease states of women. This microbiome is particularly dynamic, with compositional changes related to pregnancy, menstruation, and disease states such as bacterial vaginosis. In order to understand these dynamics and their impact on health and disease, ecological theories have been introduced to study the complex interactions between the many taxa in the vaginal bacterial ecosystem. The goal of this review is to introduce the ecological principles that are used in the study of the vaginal microbiome and its dynamics, and to review the application of ecology to vaginal microbial communities with respect to health and disease. While applications of vaginal microbiome analysis and modulation have not yet been introduced into the routine clinical setting, a deeper understanding of its dynamics has the potential to facilitate development of future practices, for example in the context of postmenopausal vaginal symptoms, stratifying risk for obstetric complications, and control of sexually transmitted infections.

    View details for PubMedID 30447213

  • Detecting hierarchical levels of connectivity in a population of Acacia tortilis at the northern edge of the species' global distribution: Combining classical population genetics and network analyses PLOS ONE Rodger, Y. S., Greenbaum, G., Silver, M., Bar-David, S., Winters, G. 2018; 13 (4): e0194901


    Genetic diversity and structure of populations at the edge of the species' spatial distribution are important for potential adaptation to environmental changes and consequently, for the long-term survival of the species. Here, we combined classical population genetic methods with newly developed network analyses to gain complementary insights into the genetic structure and diversity of Acacia tortilis, a keystone desert tree, at the northern edge of its global distribution, where the population is under threat from climatic, ecological, and anthropogenic changes. We sampled A. tortilis from 14 sites along the Dead Sea region and the Arava Valley in Israel and in Jordan. In addition, we obtained samples from Egypt and Sudan, the hypothesized origin of the species. Samples from all sites were genotyped using six polymorphic microsatellite loci.Our results indicate a significant genetic structure in A. tortilis along the Arava Valley. This was detected at different hierarchical levels-from the basic unit of the subpopulation, corresponding to groups of trees within ephemeral rivers (wadis), to groups of subpopulations (communities) that are genetically more connected relative to others. The latter structure mostly corresponds to the partition of the major drainage basins in the area. Network analyses, combined with classical methods, allowed for the identification of key A. tortilis subpopulations in this region, characterized by their relatively high level of genetic diversity and centrality in maintaining gene flow in the population. Characterizing such key subpopulations may enable conservation managers to focus their efforts on certain subpopulations that might be particularly important for the population's long-term persistence, thus contributing to species conservation within its peripheral range.

    View details for PubMedID 29649222