Professional Education

  • PhD, Harvard Medical School, Biological and Biomedical Sciences (2022)
  • BA, Mount Holyoke College, Biological Sciences (2014)

Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Metabolic modulation of mitochondrial mass during CD4+ T cell activation. Cell chemical biology Kurmi, K., Liang, D., van de Ven, R., Georgiev, P., Gassaway, B. M., Han, S., Notarangelo, G., Harris, I. S., Yao, C. H., Park, J. S., Hu, S. H., Peng, J., Drijvers, J. M., Boswell, S., Sokolov, A., Dougan, S. K., Sorger, P. K., Gygi, S. P., Sharpe, A. H., Haigis, M. C. 2023; 30 (9): 1064-1075.e8


    Mitochondrial biogenesis initiates within hours of T cell receptor (TCR) engagement and is critical for T cell activation, function, and survival; yet, how metabolic programs support mitochondrial biogenesis during TCR signaling is not fully understood. Here, we performed a multiplexed metabolic chemical screen in CD4+ T lymphocytes to identify modulators of metabolism that impact mitochondrial mass during early T cell activation. Treatment of T cells with pyrvinium pamoate early during their activation blocks an increase in mitochondrial mass and results in reduced proliferation, skewed CD4+ T cell differentiation, and reduced cytokine production. Furthermore, administration of pyrvinium pamoate at the time of induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an experimental model of multiple sclerosis in mice, prevented the onset of clinical disease. Thus, modulation of mitochondrial biogenesis may provide a therapeutic strategy for modulating T cell immune responses.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.chembiol.2023.08.008

    View details for PubMedID 37716347

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10604707

  • Uncoupled glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle in kidney cancer reveals that cytosolic GPD is essential to support lipid synthesis. Molecular cell Yao, C. H., Park, J. S., Kurmi, K., Hu, S. H., Notarangelo, G., Crowley, J., Jacobson, H., Hui, S., Sharpe, A. H., Haigis, M. C. 2023; 83 (8): 1340-1349.e7


    The glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle (G3PS) is a major NADH shuttle that regenerates reducing equivalents in the cytosol and produces energy in the mitochondria. Here, we demonstrate that G3PS is uncoupled in kidney cancer cells where the cytosolic reaction is ∼4.5 times faster than the mitochondrial reaction. The high flux through cytosolic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) is required to maintain redox balance and support lipid synthesis. Interestingly, inhibition of G3PS by knocking down mitochondrial GPD (GPD2) has no effect on mitochondrial respiration. Instead, loss of GPD2 upregulates cytosolic GPD on a transcriptional level and promotes cancer cell proliferation by increasing glycerol-3-phosphate supply. The proliferative advantage of GPD2 knockdown tumor can be abolished by pharmacologic inhibition of lipid synthesis. Taken together, our results suggest that G3PS is not required to run as an intact NADH shuttle but is instead truncated to support complex lipid synthesis in kidney cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.molcel.2023.03.023

    View details for PubMedID 37084714

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10131091

  • Oncometabolite d-2HG alters T cell metabolism to impair CD8+ T cell function. Science (New York, N.Y.) Notarangelo, G., Spinelli, J. B., Perez, E. M., Baker, G. J., Kurmi, K., Elia, I., Stopka, S. A., Baquer, G., Lin, J. R., Golby, A. J., Joshi, S., Baron, H. F., Drijvers, J. M., Georgiev, P., Ringel, A. E., Zaganjor, E., McBrayer, S. K., Sorger, P. K., Sharpe, A. H., Wucherpfennig, K. W., Santagata, S., Agar, N. Y., Suvà, M. L., Haigis, M. C. 2022; 377 (6614): 1519-1529


    Gain-of-function mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in human cancers result in the production of d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2HG), an oncometabolite that promotes tumorigenesis through epigenetic alterations. The cancer cell-intrinsic effects of d-2HG are well understood, but its tumor cell-nonautonomous roles remain poorly explored. We compared the oncometabolite d-2HG with its enantiomer, l-2HG, and found that tumor-derived d-2HG was taken up by CD8+ T cells and altered their metabolism and antitumor functions in an acute and reversible fashion. We identified the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a molecular target of d-2HG. d-2HG and inhibition of LDH drive a metabolic program and immune CD8+ T cell signature marked by decreased cytotoxicity and impaired interferon-γ signaling that was recapitulated in clinical samples from human patients with IDH1 mutant gliomas.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.abj5104

    View details for PubMedID 36173860

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9629749

  • Tumor cells dictate anti-tumor immune responses by altering pyruvate utilization and succinate signaling in CD8+ T cells. Cell metabolism Elia, I., Rowe, J. H., Johnson, S., Joshi, S., Notarangelo, G., Kurmi, K., Weiss, S., Freeman, G. J., Sharpe, A. H., Haigis, M. C. 2022; 34 (8): 1137-1150.e6


    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a unique metabolic niche that can inhibit T cell metabolism and cytotoxicity. To dissect the metabolic interplay between tumors and T cells, we establish an in vitro system that recapitulates the metabolic niche of the TME and allows us to define cell-specific metabolism. We identify tumor-derived lactate as an inhibitor of CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity, revealing an unexpected metabolic shunt in the TCA cycle. Metabolically fit cytotoxic T cells shunt succinate out of the TCA cycle to promote autocrine signaling via the succinate receptor (SUCNR1). Cytotoxic T cells are reliant on pyruvate carboxylase (PC) to replenish TCA cycle intermediates. By contrast, lactate reduces PC-mediated anaplerosis. The inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is sufficient to restore PC activity, succinate secretion, and the activation of SUCNR1. These studies identify PDH as a potential drug target to allow CD8+ T cells to retain cytotoxicity and overcome a lactate-enriched TME.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cmet.2022.06.008

    View details for PubMedID 35820416

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9357162

  • SIRT4 is an early regulator of branched-chain amino acid catabolism that promotes adipogenesis. Cell reports Zaganjor, E., Yoon, H., Spinelli, J. B., Nunn, E. R., Laurent, G., Keskinidis, P., Sivaloganathan, S., Joshi, S., Notarangelo, G., Mulei, S., Chvasta, M. T., Tucker, S. A., Kalafut, K., van de Ven, R. A., Clish, C. B., Haigis, M. C. 2021; 36 (2): 109345


    Upon nutrient stimulation, pre-adipocytes undergo differentiation to transform into mature adipocytes capable of storing nutrients as fat. We profiled cellular metabolite consumption to identify early metabolic drivers of adipocyte differentiation. We find that adipocyte differentiation raises the uptake and consumption of numerous amino acids. In particular, branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism precedes and promotes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a key regulator of adipogenesis. In early adipogenesis, the mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT4 elevates BCAA catabolism through the activation of methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (MCCC). MCCC supports leucine oxidation by catalyzing the carboxylation of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA to 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA. Sirtuin 4 (SIRT4) expression is decreased in adipose tissue of numerous diabetic mouse models, and its expression is most correlated with BCAA enzymes, suggesting a potential role for SIRT4 in adipose pathology through the alteration of BCAA metabolism. In summary, this work provides a temporal analysis of adipocyte differentiation and uncovers early metabolic events that stimulate transcriptional reprogramming.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109345

    View details for PubMedID 34260923

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8320302

  • Defective glycosylation and multisystem abnormalities characterize the primary immunodeficiency XMEN disease. The Journal of clinical investigation Ravell, J. C., Matsuda-Lennikov, M., Chauvin, S. D., Zou, J., Biancalana, M., Deeb, S. J., Price, S., Su, H. C., Notarangelo, G., Jiang, P., Morawski, A., Kanellopoulou, C., Binder, K., Mukherjee, R., Anibal, J. T., Sellers, B., Zheng, L., He, T., George, A. B., Pittaluga, S., Powers, A., Kleiner, D. E., Kapuria, D., Ghany, M., Hunsberger, S., Cohen, J. I., Uzel, G., Bergerson, J., Wolfe, L., Toro, C., Gahl, W., Folio, L. R., Matthews, H., Angelus, P., Chinn, I. K., Orange, J. S., Trujillo-Vargas, C. M., Franco, J. L., Orrego-Arango, J., Gutiérrez-Hincapié, S., Patel, N. C., Raymond, K., Patiroglu, T., Unal, E., Karakukcu, M., Day, A. G., Mehta, P., Masutani, E., De Ravin, S. S., Malech, H. L., Altan-Bonnet, G., Rao, V. K., Mann, M., Lenardo, M. J. 2020; 130 (1): 507-522


    X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, EBV infection, and neoplasia (XMEN) disease are caused by deficiency of the magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1) gene. We studied 23 patients with XMEN, 8 of whom were EBV naive. We observed lymphadenopathy (LAD), cytopenias, liver disease, cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), and increased CD4-CD8-B220-TCRαβ+ T cells (αβDNTs), in addition to the previously described features of an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio, CD4+ T lymphocytopenia, increased B cells, dysgammaglobulinemia, and decreased expression of the natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor. EBV-associated B cell malignancies occurred frequently in EBV-infected patients. We studied patients with XMEN and patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) by deep immunophenotyping (32 immune markers) using time-of-flight mass cytometry (CyTOF). Our analysis revealed that the abundance of 2 populations of naive B cells (CD20+CD27-CD22+IgM+HLA-DR+CXCR5+CXCR4++CD10+CD38+ and CD20+CD27-CD22+IgM+HLA-DR+CXCR5+CXCR4+CD10-CD38-) could differentially classify XMEN, ALPS, and healthy individuals. We also performed glycoproteomics analysis on T lymphocytes and show that XMEN disease is a congenital disorder of glycosylation that affects a restricted subset of glycoproteins. Transfection of MAGT1 mRNA enabled us to rescue proteins with defective glycosylation. Together, these data provide new clinical and pathophysiological foundations with important ramifications for the diagnosis and treatment of XMEN disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI131116

    View details for PubMedID 31714901

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6934229

  • Sweet Temptation: From Sugar Metabolism to Gene Regulation. Immunity Notarangelo, G., Haigis, M. C. 2019; 51 (6): 980-981


    In a recent issue of Nature, Zhang et al. (2019) describe an additional histone post-translational modification, named histone lactylation. Following increased lactate production as a consequence of M1 polarization, histone lactylation regulates the induction of an M2-like phenotype in late stages of M1 macrophage activation to promote wound healing.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.immuni.2019.11.008

    View details for PubMedID 31851904

  • Mitochondrial Reprogramming Underlies Resistance to BCL-2 Inhibition in Lymphoid Malignancies. Cancer cell Guièze, R., Liu, V. M., Rosebrock, D., Jourdain, A. A., Hernández-Sánchez, M., Martinez Zurita, A., Sun, J., Ten Hacken, E., Baranowski, K., Thompson, P. A., Heo, J. M., Cartun, Z., Aygün, O., Iorgulescu, J. B., Zhang, W., Notarangelo, G., Livitz, D., Li, S., Davids, M. S., Biran, A., Fernandes, S. M., Brown, J. R., Lako, A., Ciantra, Z. B., Lawlor, M. A., Keskin, D. B., Udeshi, N. D., Wierda, W. G., Livak, K. J., Letai, A. G., Neuberg, D., Harper, J. W., Carr, S. A., Piccioni, F., Ott, C. J., Leshchiner, I., Johannessen, C. M., Doench, J., Mootha, V. K., Getz, G., Wu, C. J. 2019; 36 (4): 369-384.e13


    Mitochondrial apoptosis can be effectively targeted in lymphoid malignancies with the FDA-approved B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) inhibitor venetoclax, but resistance to this agent is emerging. We show that venetoclax resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is associated with complex clonal shifts. To identify determinants of resistance, we conducted parallel genome-scale screens of the BCL-2-driven OCI-Ly1 lymphoma cell line after venetoclax exposure along with integrated expression profiling and functional characterization of drug-resistant and engineered cell lines. We identified regulators of lymphoid transcription and cellular energy metabolism as drivers of venetoclax resistance in addition to the known involvement by BCL-2 family members, which were confirmed in patient samples. Our data support the implementation of combinatorial therapy with metabolic modulators to address venetoclax resistance.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccell.2019.08.005

    View details for PubMedID 31543463

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6801112

  • T Cell Activation Depends on Extracellular Alanine. Cell reports Ron-Harel, N., Ghergurovich, J. M., Notarangelo, G., LaFleur, M. W., Tsubosaka, Y., Sharpe, A. H., Rabinowitz, J. D., Haigis, M. C. 2019; 28 (12): 3011-3021.e4


    T cell stimulation is metabolically demanding. To exit quiescence, T cells rely on environmental nutrients, including glucose and the amino acids glutamine, leucine, serine, and arginine. The expression of transporters for these nutrients is tightly regulated and required for T cell activation. In contrast to these amino acids, which are essential or require multi-step biosynthesis, alanine can be made from pyruvate by a single transamination. Here, we show that extracellular alanine is nevertheless required for efficient exit from quiescence during naive T cell activation and memory T cell restimulation. Alanine deprivation leads to metabolic and functional impairments. Mechanistically, this vulnerability reflects the low expression of alanine aminotransferase, the enzyme required for interconverting pyruvate and alanine, whereas activated T cells instead induce alanine transporters. Stable isotope tracing reveals that alanine is not catabolized but instead supports protein synthesis. Thus, T cells depend on exogenous alanine for protein synthesis and normal activation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.08.034

    View details for PubMedID 31533027

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6934407

  • Magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1) deficiency causes selective defects in N-linked glycosylation and expression of immune-response genes. The Journal of biological chemistry Matsuda-Lennikov, M., Biancalana, M., Zou, J., Ravell, J. C., Zheng, L., Kanellopoulou, C., Jiang, P., Notarangelo, G., Jing, H., Masutani, E., Oler, A. J., Olano, L. R., Schulz, B. L., Lenardo, M. J. 2019; 294 (37): 13638-13656


    Magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1) critically mediates magnesium homeostasis in eukaryotes and is highly-conserved across different evolutionary branches. In humans, loss-of-function mutations in the MAGT1 gene cause X-linked magnesium deficiency with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and neoplasia (XMEN), a disease that has a broad range of clinical and immunological consequences. We have previously shown that EBV susceptibility in XMEN is associated with defective expression of the antiviral natural-killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) protein and abnormal Mg2+ transport. New evidence suggests that MAGT1 is the human homolog of the yeast OST3/OST6 proteins that form an integral part of the N-linked glycosylation complex, although the exact contributions of these perturbations in the glycosylation pathway to disease pathogenesis are still unknown. Using MS-based glycoproteomics, along with CRISPR/Cas9-KO cell lines, natural killer cell-killing assays, and RNA-Seq experiments, we now demonstrate that humans lacking functional MAGT1 have a selective deficiency in both immune and nonimmune glycoproteins, and we identified several critical glycosylation defects in important immune-response proteins and in the expression of genes involved in immunity, particularly CD28. We show that MAGT1 function is partly interchangeable with that of the paralog protein tumor-suppressor candidate 3 (TUSC3) but that each protein has a different tissue distribution in humans. We observed that MAGT1-dependent glycosylation is sensitive to Mg2+ levels and that reduced Mg2+ impairs immune-cell function via the loss of specific glycoproteins. Our findings reveal that defects in protein glycosylation and gene expression underlie immune defects in an inherited disease due to MAGT1 deficiency.

    View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.RA119.008903

    View details for PubMedID 31337704

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6746436

  • Defective respiration and one-carbon metabolism contribute to impaired naïve T cell activation in aged mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Ron-Harel, N., Notarangelo, G., Ghergurovich, J. M., Paulo, J. A., Sage, P. T., Santos, D., Satterstrom, F. K., Gygi, S. P., Rabinowitz, J. D., Sharpe, A. H., Haigis, M. C. 2018; 115 (52): 13347-13352


    T cell-mediated immune responses are compromised in aged individuals, leading to increased morbidity and reduced response to vaccination. While cellular metabolism tightly regulates T cell activation and function, metabolic reprogramming in aged T cells has not been thoroughly studied. Here, we report a systematic analysis of metabolism during young versus aged naïve T cell activation. We observed a decrease in the number and activation of naïve T cells isolated from aged mice. While young T cells demonstrated robust mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration upon activation, aged T cells generated smaller mitochondria with lower respiratory capacity. Using quantitative proteomics, we defined the aged T cell proteome and discovered a specific deficit in the induction of enzymes of one-carbon metabolism. The activation of aged naïve T cells was enhanced by addition of products of one-carbon metabolism (formate and glycine). These studies define mechanisms of skewed metabolic remodeling in aged T cells and provide evidence that modulation of metabolism has the potential to promote immune function in aged individuals.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1804149115

    View details for PubMedID 30530686

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6310842