Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Assistant professor 9/1959, promoted full professor (1966), emeritus status 01/2008., Stanford University, Dept of Psychology (1959 - Present)
  • Visiting Professor of Psychology,, Phillips University of Marburg, Germany, Spring semester (1987 - 1987)
  • Chief Science Advisor to the NIH Director, National Institutes of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (1992 - 1993)
  • Visiting Professor of Psychology (Holtzman Chair), University of Texas, Austin, TX Fall semester 2003 & Fall 2005 (2003 - 2005)

Honors & Awards


  • NIMH - MERIT Award for 48 years of continuous research funding from NIMH, 1960-2008, NIMH (1960-2008)
  • Elected Fellow of Division 3 (Experimental), American Psychological Association (1973)
  • Fellowship, The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (1973)
  • Awarded Albert Ray Lang Professorship Chair, Stanford University (1975)
  • Elected, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1975)
  • President of Division 3 (Experimental), American Psychological Association (1975)
  • Sir Frederick Bartlett Lecturer, British Experimental Psychology Society (1975)
  • Elected Chairman of the Governing Board and President, Psychonomics Society (1975-1976)
  • Elected to Governing Board, Cognitive Science Society (1981-1988)
  • Festschrift: Tutorials in Learning and Memory: Essays in Honor of Gordon Bower, W.H. Freeman & Co, San Francisco: Edited and written by ten of my former Ph.D. students. (1984)
  • Howard Crosby Warren Medal, Society of Experimental Psychologists (1986)
  • Elected Chairman of the Governing Board and President, Cognitive Science Society (1987-1988)
  • William James Fellow Award, American Psychological Society (1989)
  • Invited Keynote Speaker, British Experimental Psychologists Society, American Association of Behavior Therapists (1990's)
  • Invited Keynote Speaker, American Psychological Association, Western Psychological Association (1990's)
  • Invited Keynote Speaker, European Association of Behavior Therapists, German Psychological Association (1990's)
  • Keynote Speaker, American Educational Research Association, British Psychological Association (1990's)
  • Elected President (President Elect, 1989-1990), Western Psychological Association (1990-1991)
  • Elected President, American Psychological Society (1991-1993)
  • Senior Science Advisor, Director of the National Institute of Mental Health; Bethesda, MD (1992 - 1993)
  • Chief Scientific Advisor, American Psychological Association. (1993-2006)
  • Keynote address at opening of German Psychological Association, German Psychological Association, in Dresden, Germany (1998 September)
  • Presidential Citation for scientific contributions, American Psychological Association (2002)
  • Elected President (for second time), Western Psychological Society (2004)
  • Lifetime Contributions Award, Western Psychological Association (2006)
  • Outstanding Graduate Student Mentoring Award, Western Psychological Association (2011)
  • Outstanding Mentor Award, Association for Psychological Science (2018)
  • The John Kendall Honorary lectures, The John Kendall Honorary lectures at Gustavus Adolphus College; St. Peter, Minnesota. (April 1996)
  • Keynote address speaker at convention, American Psychological Association on “Emotion and Social Judgement” (August 19, 1996)
  • Panel to advise NIH director’s office, NIH director’s office regarding support for behavioral science research within the NIH. (February 1996)
  • Elected Distinguished Fellow and Founding Member, Cognitive Science Society (Initial year, 2008)
  • Keynote speaker, The Third International Conference on Human Memory in Padova, Italy (July 12, 1996)
  • Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters, University of Chicago (June 1991)
  • Board of Scientific Advisors, Science Directorate of the American Psychological Association (June 1993)
  • Honorary Doctorate of Science, Indiana State University (May 1993)
  • Wilbur Cross Medal for Distinguished Scientific Contributions and Career, Yale University Graduate School (May 1995)
  • Honorary Doctorate Degree, University of Basel, Switzerland (Nov. 2003)
  • Keynote address to the plenary session, Psychonomic Society in Vancouver, Canada (Nov. 2003)
  • Elected to American Philosophical Society, American Philosophical Society (Oct. 2004)
  • Advisory Committee to Director of NIMH on Psychology and Public Health Initiatives., NIMH (October 1999-2000.)
  • President’s National Medal of Science in 2005, National Science Foundation - President’s National Medal of Science (Pubic ceremony, July 2007)
  • Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award, American Psychological Association (Sept. 1979)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Member and Chairman, 1975., Executive Committee of Division of Experimental Psychology, APA, 1974-1976. (1974 - 1976)
  • Committee on Behavioral and Social Sciences, 1980-1983 and 2011-2012., National Academy of Sciences, Committee on Behavioral and Social Sciences. (1980 - 2012)
  • Member, American Philosophical Society (2004 - Present)
  • Member, Society for the Study of Text and Discourse (1968 - Present)
  • Member, International Society for Research on Emotions (1987 - Present)
  • Founder, Cognitive Science Society (1967 - Present)
  • Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1973 - Present)
  • Member, The National Academy of Sciences (1973 - Present)
  • Member, Society of Experimental Psychologists (1965 - Present)
  • Member, Psychonomic Society (1960 - Present)
  • Member, Western Psychological Association (1962 - Present)
  • Member, American Psychological Association, since 1960 (1960 - Present)
  • Advisor, Exploratorium Museum in San Francisco, CA, on human memory exhibits. (1993 - 1996)
  • Member, Chairman of the NIMH Task Force (50 members) that produced "Basic Behavioral Science Research for Mental Health," a 137-page report to Congress, assembled during 11/92-6/95. (1992 - 1995)
  • Board of Directors, The Beckman Center for Cognitive Science, The University of Illinois (1986 - 1991)
  • Sciences Advisory Committee, The President's External Advisory Committee to the Psychology Department; Carnegie Mellon University, 1993-annually through 2004); the Dean’s Arts and Sciences Advisory Committee at Carnegie Mellon University (2000 - 2004)
  • Chairman, External Advisory Board for the CNBC (1994 - 1999)
  • Organizer and presenter, Presidential Symposium on "Neuropsychology" at Convention of the American Psychological Society, June 1993. (1993 - 1993)
  • Convention Program Committee, Western Psychological Association (1993 - 1994)
  • Warren Medal Committee, Society for Experimental Psychologists (1991 - 1993)
  • Board of Directors, American Psychological Society (1989 - 1993)
  • Board of Scientific Affairs, American Psychological Association (1991 - 1991)
  • Chief Science Advisor to the Director, APA's Science Directorate (1985 - 1992)
  • Science Advisory Committee to Board of Directors, American Psychological Association (1989 - 1990)
  • Founding Member, International Society for Research on Emotion (1987 - 1987)
  • Member, International Union of Psychological Science (US Committee) (1991 - 1999)
  • Member of the Advisory Board, The Institute for the Learning Sciences, Northwestern University (1989 - 1996)
  • Member, "Forum on Federal Research Management" Committee of the Federation of Behavioral, Cognitive, and Neural Sciences. (1986 - 1989)
  • Governing Board, 1981-1988. Chairman and President, 1987., Cognitive Science Society (1981 - 1988)
  • Associate Dean of Humanities & Sciences, Stanford University, Humanities & Sciences, Stanford University (1983 - 1986)
  • Chairman, Stanford Psychology Department, Stanford University (1978 - 1982)
  • Chairman, 1978., Publications Committee of the Psychonomics Society, 1974-1978. (1974 - 1978)
  • Member and Chairman and President, 1976., Governing Board of the Psychonomics Society, 1972-1976. Chairman and President, 1976. (1972 - 1976)
  • Member, Psychology and the Educational Process Committee of the Social Science Research Council (1970 - 1972)
  • Member, Experimental Psychology Review Board, National Institutes of Mental Health (1968 - 1971)

Professional Education


  • Ph.D., Yale University, Psychology, graduated with distinction (1959)
  • MS, Yale University, Psychology (1957)
  • Fellowship, University of Minnesota, Woodrow Wilson Fellowship studying Philosophy of Science & Mathematics (1954)
  • BA, Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH., Philosophy of Science & Mathematics (1954)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS:
Conditioning, Learning, Memory, Language Comprehension
Mathematical Models, Computer Simulation of Memory, Behavior Modification

EDITORIAL CONSULTANT:
Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1963-1970.
Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1965-1972.
Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 1964-1970.
Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1965-1969.
British Journal of Mathematical & Statistical Psychology, 1965-1974.
Cognitive Psychology, 1969-1975.
Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1976-1980.
Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior (now Journal of Memory and Language), 1968- 1989.
Senior Editor, Annual Research Volume, The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, Academic Press. Annually 1968-1991 (Edited 23 annual volumes + 2 extra ones).
Cognitive Science, 1980-1996.
Advisory Board, Series in Cognitive Science, Harvard University Press, 1981-1991.
Advisory Board, MIT Press Series, Computational Models of Cognition, and Perception, 1983-1991.
Cognition and Emotion, 1986-2006.
Associate Editor, Annual Review of Psychology, 1986-1991.
Connection Science: A Journal of Neural Network and PDP Research, 1988-present.
Consciousness and Cognition, 1989-2007.
Occasional Reviewer for Psychological Review, Science, Child Development, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Psychological Bulletin, guest reviewer on ad hoc basis for many other journals.
Reviewed grant proposals for National Science Foundation, NIMH, NIE, and Canadian and Australian Research Councils.
Senior Advisory Editor, Encyclopedia of Psychology, by Oxford University Press and the American Psychological Association. Published 2000
Senior Advisory Editor, Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, by Elsevier Publishers. Published 2001

2015-16 Courses


All Publications


  • Emotionally colored cognition Scientists Making a Difference Bower, G. H. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY. 2016: 123–127
  • The evolution of a cognitive psychologist: A journey from simple behaviors to complex mental acts ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY Bower, G. H. 2008; 59: 1-27

    Abstract

    The author summarizes his evolving interests from conditioning studies within a behaviorist orientation, thence to human memory, knowledge representation, and narrative understanding and memory. Arguing that the study of skilled reading provides a microcosm for revealing cognitive processes, he illustrates this by reviewing his research on the use of spatial priming to investigate readers' on-line updating of their situational models of texts. Conceptual entities close to the reader's focus of attention within the model are readily retrieved. Retrieval speed from memory declines with the probed object's distance from the current focus and decays with time elapsed in the narrative since the item was last in focus. The focus effect varies with the character's perspective, his status in the story, his active goals, and other factors. The results are accommodated within an associative network model distinguishing just-read sentences in short-term memory from activated portions of long-term memory structures to which they refer.

    View details for DOI 10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093722

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253283000001

    View details for PubMedID 18154497

  • Memory and Mind: A Festschrift for Gordon H. Bower Gluck, M. A., et al Psychology Press Festschrift Series. 2008
  • The role of rehearsal and generation in false memory creation MEMORY Marsh, E. J., Bower, G. H. 2004; 12 (6): 748-761

    Abstract

    The current research investigated one possible mechanism underlying false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In the DRM paradigm, participants who study lists of related words (e.g., "table, sitting, bench ...") frequently report detailed memories for the centrally related but non-presented critical lure (e.g., "chair"). One possibility is that participants covertly call to mind the critical non-presented lure during the study phase, and later misattribute memory for this internally generated event to its external presentation. To investigate this, the DRM paradigm was modified to allow collection of on-line thoughts during the study phase. False recognition increased following generation during study. False recognition also increased following study of longer lists; this effect was partially explained by the fact that longer lists were more likely to elicit generations of the critical lure during study. Generation of the lure during study contributes to later false recognition, although it does not explain the entire effect.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/09658210344000170

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225571600008

    View details for PubMedID 15724363

  • Goal-based accessibility of entities within situation models PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND MOTIVATION: ADVANCES IN RESEARCH AND THEORY, VOL 44 Rinck, M., Bower, G. H. 2004; 44: 1-33
  • Adaptive categorization in unsupervised learning JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION Clapper, J. P., Bower, G. H. 2002; 28 (5): 908-923

    Abstract

    In 3 experiments, the authors provide evidence for a distinct category-invention process in unsupervised (discovery) learning and set forth a method for observing and investigating that process. In the 1st 2 experiments, the sequencing of unlabeled training instances strongly affected participants' ability to discover patterns (categories) across those instances. In the 3rd experiment, providing diagnostic labels helped participants discover categories and improved learning even for instance sequences that were unlearnable in the earlier experiments. These results are incompatible with models that assume that people learn by incrementally tracking correlations between individual features; instead, they suggest that learners in this study used expectation failure as a trigger to invent distinct categories to represent patterns in the stimuli. The results are explained in terms of J. R. Anderson's (1990, 1991) rational model of categorization, and extensions of this analysis for real-world learning are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1037//0278-7393.28.5.908

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177744800007

    View details for PubMedID 12219798

  • Demonstrations of a generation effect in context memory MEMORY & COGNITION Marsh, E. J., Edelman, G., Bower, G. H. 2001; 29 (6): 798-805

    Abstract

    Generation often leads to increased memorability within a laboratory context (see, e.g., Slamecka & Graf, 1978). Of interest in the present study is whether the benefits of generation extend beyond item memory to context memory. To investigate this question, in three experiments, we asked subjects to remember in which of two contexts they had read or generated words. In Experiment 1, the contexts were two different rooms; in Experiment 2A, the contexts were two different computer screens; in Experiment 2B, the contexts were different perceptual characteristics of the to-be-remembered words. In all experiments, subjects were better at remembering the context of generated words than of read words.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172035500003

    View details for PubMedID 11716053

  • Selecting one among many referents in spatial situation models JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION Bower, G. H., Rinck, M. 2001; 27 (1): 81-98

    Abstract

    Five experiments related anaphor resolution to a classic memory variable, namely, interference created by multiple uses of a given object-concept, and by spatial distance of the referent from the reader's focus of attention. Participants memorized a diagram of a building with rooms containing objects, and then read narratives describing characters' activities there. Reading was self-paced word by word. Accessibility was measured by readers' time to understand anaphoric sentences containing a definite noun phrase referring to an object in its room. Spatial distance between the object and the current focus of attention increased reading times for names of the object, the room, and sentence wrap-up. Multiple examples of a target-object increased its reading time only if they were scattered across different rooms. An associative model of memory retrieval during text comprehension was used to interpret the complex pattern of results.

    View details for DOI 10.1037//0278-7393.27.1.81

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166347800006

    View details for PubMedID 11204109

  • Temporal and spatial distance in situation models MEMORY & COGNITION Rinck, M., Bower, G. H. 2000; 28 (8): 1310-1320

    Abstract

    In two experiments, we investigated how readers use information about temporal and spatial distance to focus attention on the more important parts of the situation model that they create during narrative comprehension. Effects of spatial distance were measured by testing the accessibility in memory of objects and rooms located at differing distances from the protagonist's current location. Before the test probe, an intervening episode was inserted in the narrative. Story time distance was manipulated by stating that the intervening episode lasted for either minutes or hours. Discourse time--that is, time spent reading from prime to test--was manipulated by describing the intervening episode either briefly or at length. Clear effects of story time distance and spatial distance on accessibility were found, whereas discourse time distance did not affect accessibility. The results are interpreted as supporting constructionist theories of text comprehension.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166928800006

    View details for PubMedID 11219959

  • Cognitive impact of traumatic events DEVELOPMENT AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Bower, G. H., Sivers, H. 1998; 10 (4): 625-653

    Abstract

    The impact of traumatic experiences on cognitive processes, especially memory, is reviewed. The major psychological sequelae of trauma (reexperiencing, avoidance, hypervigilance) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are noted and related to traditional views of fear conditioning. Evidence indicating enhanced memory for the gist of emotional events is reviewed as are psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this enhancement. This view is updated by introducing the distinction between explicit and implicit memory and its relevance to traumatic memory and PTSD. The central role of "the experiencing ego" in the storage and retrieval of episodic memories is postulated. This leads into discussion of dissociative experiences during traumas and the occasional amnesia for voluntary recall of the trauma accompanied by involuntary, uncontrollable flashbacks of it. The relationship of dissociative experiences to hypnotizability and to pathological reactions to traumas is discussed, although the interpretation of those correlations is questioned. The article concludes by noting that beyond conditioning of fear, traumas often violate and shake the victims' basic assumptions about the benevolence, justice, and meaningfulness of their physical and social worlds. Psychotherapy with trauma victims then needs to attend not only to extinguishing the victims' fear and feelings of extreme vulnerability, but also to rebuilding their basic beliefs about the relative benevolence of the world.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077755500003

    View details for PubMedID 9886219

  • The metrics of spatial situation models JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION Rinck, M., Hahnel, A., Bower, G. H., Glowalla, U. 1997; 23 (3): 622-637

    Abstract

    The authors investigated the metrics of spatial distance represented in situation models of narratives. In 3 experiments, a spatial gradient of accessibility in situation models was observed: The accessibility of objects contained in the situation model decreased with increasing spatial distance between the object and the reader's focus of attention. The first 2 experiments demonstrated that this effect of spatial distance was purely categorical rather than Euclidean: Accessibility depended on the number of rooms located between the object and the focus of attention, not on the size of the rooms. Experiment 3 revealed, however, that participants were able to use information about Euclidean distance in a secondary task when necessary. The implications of these results for theories of narrative comprehension and hierarchical versus nonhierarchical theories of spatial memory are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WY39700006

    View details for PubMedID 9165708

  • Reactivating a reactivation theory of implicit memory CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION Bower, G. H. 1996; 5 (1-2): 27-72

    Abstract

    Implicit and explicit memory tasks are interpreted within a traditional memory theory that distinguishes associations between different classes of memory units (sensory features, logogens, imagines, concepts, context tags). Associations from specific sensory features to logogens are strengthened by perceptual experiences, leading to specific perceptual priming. Associations among concepts are strengthened by use, leading to specific conceptual priming. Activating associations from concepts to logogens leads to semantic and associative priming. Item presentation also establishes a new association from it to a representation of the personal context, comprising an "episodic memory." Such contextual associations play a major role in explicit memory tasks such as recall or recognition. A critical assumption of the theory is that presentation of a given item strengthens its sensory and contextual associations independently; this permits the theory to explain various dissociations of implicit and explicit memory measures. Furthermore, by assuming that brain-injured patients with global amnesia have a selective deficit in establishing novel associations to the context, the theory can explain their deficits in explicit memory along side their intact implicit memory.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UK44900004

    View details for PubMedID 8733923

  • Does recoding interfering material improve recall? JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION Bower, G. H., Wagner, A. D., Newman, S. E., Randle, J. D., Hodges, M. J. 1996; 22 (1): 240-245

    Abstract

    In 4 experiments, the authors attempted to replicate an improvement in recall of target memories produced by a post-learning clue enabling participants to reorganize and segregate interfering material, as shown by G. H. Bower and T. Mann (1992). The 1st three experiments studied retroactive interference (RI) in free recall of an initial word list after participants were informed post-learning of a way to categorize a second, interfering list. In each case, the reorganizing clue failed to reduce RI. In the 4th experiment, interference during serial recall of an initial list of letters from a 2nd list was examined. Again, the reorganizing clue given after learning failed to reduce RI. Clearly, if the post-information effect is genuine, then better experimental arrangements will be required to demonstrate it more reliably.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996TT57200015

    View details for PubMedID 8648287

  • Spatial situation models and narrative understanding: Some generalizations and extensions DISCOURSE PROCESSES Rinck, M., Williams, P., Bower, G. H., Becker, E. S. 1996; 21 (1): 23-55
  • ANAPHORA RESOLUTION AND THE FOCUS OF ATTENTION IN SITUATION MODELS JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE Rinck, M., Bower, G. H. 1995; 34 (1): 110-131
  • A MODEL FOR PREDICTING THE OUTCOMES OF BASKETBALL GAMES 32nd Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic-Society Heit, E., Price, P. C., Bower, G. H. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 1994: 621–39
  • IN APPRECIATION OF HILGARD,E.R. WRITINGS ON LEARNING-THEORIES PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Bower, G. H. 1994; 5 (4): 181-183
  • A TURNING-POINT IN MATHEMATICAL LEARNING-THEORY PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW Bower, G. H. 1994; 101 (2): 290-300

    Abstract

    This target article by Estes (1950) sparked the mathematical learning theory movement, which took seriously the goal of predicting quantitative details of behavioral data from standard learning experiments. The central constructs of Estes's theory were stimulus variability, stimulus sampling, and stimulus-response association by contiguity, all cast within a framework enabling predictions of response probabilities and latencies. The math models enterprise flourished during the period 1950-1975 and provided successful quantitative accounts of data from Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning, probability learning, verbal learning, concept identification, and other standard learning paradigms. The techniques have been assimilated into the armamentarium of theoretical psychology. Stimulus sampling theory has faded away as it has been transformed into modern descendants such as connectionism and information-processing models of cognition.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NF70200016

    View details for PubMedID 8022959

  • CATEGORY INVENTION IN UNSUPERVISED LEARNING JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION Clapper, J. P., Bower, G. H. 1994; 20 (2): 443-460

    Abstract

    This research aimed to discriminate between 2 general approaches to unsupervised category learning, one based on learning explicit correlational rules or associations within a stimulus domain (autocorrelation) and the other based on inventing separate categories to capture the correlational structure of the domain (category invention). An "attribute-listing" paradigm was used to index unsupervised learning in 3 experiments. Each experiment manipulated the order in which instances from 2 different categories were presented and evaluated the effects of this manipulation in terms of the 2 competing theoretical approaches to unsupervised learning. Strong evidence was found for the use by Ss of a discrete category invention process to learn the categories in these experiments. These results also suggest that attribute listing may be a valuable method for future investigations of unsupervised category learning.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994MZ25600012

    View details for PubMedID 8151279

  • REDUCING RETROACTIVE INTERFERENCE - AN INTERFERENCE ANALYSIS JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION Bower, G. H., THOMPSONSCHILL, S., Tulving, E. 1994; 20 (1): 51-66

    Abstract

    In 4 experiments on retroactive interference (RI), we varied paired-associate learning lists that produced either appreciable or negligible forgetting. When the category of the stimulus word predicted its response word category, and the response was relatively unique within its category, learning was extremely rapid, and negative transfer and RI were negligible. The more the competing primed items in the predicted response category, the slower the learning and the greater the RI. If cues and responses were unrelated, learning was very slow, and RI was appreciable. Thus, predictive relations that help stimuli retrieve unique responses greatly alter forgetting in RI paradigms.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994MV66300003

    View details for PubMedID 8138788

  • THE FRAGMENTATION OF PSYCHOLOGY AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST Bower, G. H. 1993; 48 (8): 905-907
  • ELICITING CRYPTOMNESIA - UNCONSCIOUS PLAGIARISM IN A PUZZLE TASK JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION Marsh, R. L., Bower, G. H. 1993; 19 (3): 673-688

    Abstract

    In three experiments we investigated cryptomnesia (unconscious plagiarism) and source memory using a word-search puzzle task. Subjects first alternated with a "computer partner" in locating words from 4 puzzles. They then attempted to recall their previously generated items as well as to locate additional new words. Substantially more plagiarism was committed in these tasks than was observed in a study by A. S. Brown and D. R. Murphy (1989), in which Ss generated category exemplars. Manipulations of retention interval (Experiment 1) and degree of encoding (Experiments 2a and 2b) reliably influenced plagiarism rates. Source confusions from a modified recognition memory task (Experiment 3) were used as the basis for a unitary relative strength model to explain both source and occurrence (item) forgetting.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LA75600011

    View details for PubMedID 8501434

  • MENTAL MODELS AND NARRATIVE COMPREHENSION - SOME QUALIFICATIONS JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE Wilson, S. G., Rinck, M., McNamara, T. P., Bower, G. H., Morrow, D. G. 1993; 32 (2): 141-154
  • IMPROVING RECALL BY RECODING INTERFERING MATERIAL AT THE TIME OF RETRIEVAL JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION Bower, G. H., Mann, T. 1992; 18 (6): 1310-1320

    Abstract

    Our experiments demonstrate that interference of an interpolated list of items with recall of an original list can be substantially reduced by forming Ss just before testing how to reorganize and simplify the interpolated material. In Experiments 1 and 2, Ss better recalled an initial serial list of letters when informed at testing that an interpolated list spelled a certain phrase backward. Similarly, in Experiments 3 and 4, Ss better recalled an initial list of cities when told that the interpolated cities were also names of former U.S. presidents. Control experiments rule out several simple explanations. In contrast to an editing hypothesis, the postorganizing clue helped recall even when problems of list differentiation were minimized. Current memory models appear unable to explain this benefit of a postlearning clue that enables Ss to segregate the interpolated material from the to-be-remembered material.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JW71800010

    View details for PubMedID 1447554

  • MOOD EFFECTS ON SUBJECTIVE-PROBABILITY ASSESSMENT ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES WRIGHT, W. F., Bower, G. H. 1992; 52 (2): 276-291
  • CONGRUENCY EFFECTS IN PART-LIST CUEING INHIBITION JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION Sloman, S. A., Bower, G. H., Rohrer, D. 1991; 17 (5): 974-982

    Abstract

    In demonstrations of part-list cuing inhibition, subjects who are shown a subset of studied list words recall fewer noncue words than subjects not shown such part-list cues. We propose that part-list inhibition is governed in part by an incongruency principle: Inhibition occurs to the extent that part-list cues induce a retrieval framework different from that used to encode list items. In Experiment 1, word lists were studied followed by a test of free recall either without cues, or with cue words serially organized to be either congruent or incongruent with the order of studied items. In Experiments 2-4, cues consisted of every second study item in the original presentation order (congruent ones) or reordered to form famous names or familiar idioms that had been hidden in the study list (incongruent cues). More part-list inhibition was observed with incongruent cues than congruent cues in all 4 experiments.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GF55400013

    View details for PubMedID 1834778

  • LEARNING AND APPLYING CATEGORY KNOWLEDGE IN UNSUPERVISED DOMAINS PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND MOTIVATION-ADVANCES IN RESEARCH AND THEORY Clapper, J. P., Bower, G. H. 1991; 27: 65-108
  • PRAISE OR BLAME - AFFECTIVE INFLUENCES ON ATTRIBUTIONS FOR ACHIEVEMENT JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY FORGAS, J. P., Bower, G. H., Moylan, S. J. 1990; 59 (4): 809-819

    Abstract

    Three experiments showed that mood influences achievement attributions and that cognitive processes underlie these effects. In Experiment 1, happy Ss made more internal and stable attributions for success than failure in typical 'life dilemmas'. In Experiment 2, attributions for real-life exam performance were more internal and stable in a happy than in a sad mood. Dysphoric moods resulted in self-critical rather than self-enhancing attributions, contrary to motivational theories, but consistent with cognitive models and the clinical literature on depression. In Experiment 3 this pattern was repeated with direct self vs. other comparisons, and for self-efficacy judgements. The results are interpreted as supporting cognitive rather than motivational theories of attribution biases. The implications of the results for clinical research, and contemporary affect-cognition theories are considered.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990ED50400019

    View details for PubMedID 2254856

  • COMPONENT AND PATTERN INFORMATION IN ADAPTIVE NETWORKS JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL Gluck, M. A., Bower, G. H. 1990; 119 (1): 105-109
  • MENTAL MODELS IN NARRATIVE COMPREHENSION SCIENCE Bower, G. H., Morrow, D. G. 1990; 247 (4938): 44-48

    Abstract

    Readers of stories construct mental models of the situation and characters described. They infer causal connections relating characters' actions to their goals. They also focus attention on characters' movements, thereby activating nearby parts of the mental model. This activation is revealed in readers' faster answering of questions about such parts, with less facilitation the greater their distance from the focus. Recently visited as well as imagined locations are also activated for several seconds. These patterns of temporary activation facilitate comprehension.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CG62000031

    View details for PubMedID 2403694

  • UPDATING SITUATION MODELS DURING NARRATIVE COMPREHENSION JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE Morrow, D. G., Bower, G. H., Greenspan, S. L. 1989; 28 (3): 292-312
  • IN SEARCH OF MOOD-DEPENDENT RETRIEVAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND PERSONALITY Bower, G. H., Mayer, J. D. 1989; 4 (2): 121-156
  • FROM CONDITIONING TO CATEGORY LEARNING - AN ADAPTIVE NETWORK MODEL JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL Gluck, M. A., Bower, G. H. 1988; 117 (3): 227-247

    Abstract

    We used adaptive network theory to extend the Rescorla-Wagner (1972) least mean squares (LMS) model of associative learning to phenomena of human learning and judgment. In three experiments subjects learned to categorize hypothetical patients with particular symptom patterns as having certain diseases. When one disease is far more likely than another, the model predicts that subjects will substantially overestimate the diagnosticity of the more valid symptom for the rare disease. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 provide clear support for this prediction in contradistinction to predictions from probability matching, exemplar retrieval, or simple prototype learning models. Experiment 3 contrasted the adaptive network model with one predicting pattern-probability matching when patients always had four symptoms (chosen from four opponent pairs) rather than the presence or absence of each of four symptoms, as in Experiment 1. The results again support the Rescorla-Wagner LMS learning rule as embedded within an adaptive network model.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P708900001

    View details for PubMedID 2971760

  • AFFECT IN SOCIAL JUDGMENTS AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY FORGAS, J. P., Bower, G. H. 1988; 40 (2): 125-145
  • EVALUATING AN ADAPTIVE NETWORK MODEL OF HUMAN LEARNING JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE Gluck, M. A., Bower, G. H. 1988; 27 (2): 166-195
  • RETRIEVING ACTIONS FROM GOAL HIERARCHIES BULLETIN OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOCIETY Franklin, N., Bower, G. H. 1988; 26 (1): 15-18
  • MOOD EFFECTS ON PERSON-PERCEPTION JUDGMENTS JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY FORGAS, J. P., Bower, G. H. 1987; 53 (1): 53-60

    Abstract

    How does mood affect the way we learn about, judge, and remember characteristics of other people? This study looked at the effects of mood on impression formation and person memory. Realistic person descriptions containing positive and negative details were presented to subjects experiencing a manipulated happy or sad mood. Next, impression-formation judgments were obtained, and subjects' recall and recognition of details of the characters were assessed. Results showed that subjects spent longer learning about mood-consistent details but were faster in making mood-consistent judgments. Overall, happy subjects formed more favorable impressions and made more positive judgments than did sad subjects. Both cued recall and recognition memory were superior for mood-consistent characteristics. Positive mood had a more pronounced effect on judgments and memory than did negative mood. These findings are discussed in terms of recent theories of mood effects on cognition, and the likely implications of the results for everyday person-perception judgments are considered.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987H936600005

    View details for PubMedID 3612493

  • ACCESSIBILITY AND SITUATION MODELS IN NARRATIVE COMPREHENSION JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE Morrow, D. G., Greenspan, S. L., Bower, G. H. 1987; 26 (2): 165-187
  • COMMENTARY ON MOOD AND MEMORY BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY Bower, G. H. 1987; 25 (6): 443-455

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987L103600001

    View details for PubMedID 3322254

  • LEARNING AND MEMORY FOR PERSONALITY PROTOTYPES JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Mayer, J. D., Bower, G. H. 1986; 51 (3): 473-492

    Abstract

    Although personality traits are commonly assumed to be represented in memory as schemata, little research has addressed whether such schemata can be learned from observation. Subjects in three studies classified 60 person instances into group members and nonmembers as defined by the instances' match to a complex personality prototype. To simulate learning of fuzzy categories, each person instance provided conflicting cues to group membership. Learning for instances' group membership was excellent across studies. In Study 1, frequency of cues indicating group membership was greatly overestimated among nongroup instances. In Study 2, schema-consistent memory bias was revealed for person instances. In Study 3, schemata of consistently positive (or negative) traits were learned faster than arbitrary schemata. The findings implicated frequency sensitivity of memory (Estes, 1986), and a model of probabilistic cued-memory retrieval was developed to account for the effects. The findings were then discussed in relation to everyday cognitive performance.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986D847600001

    View details for PubMedID 3761144

  • SEMANTIC REFERENCE AND PHRASAL GROUPING IN THE ACQUISITION OF A MINIATURE PHRASE STRUCTURE LANGUAGE JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE Meier, R. P., Bower, G. H. 1986; 25 (4): 492-505
  • PRIMING EFFECTS AND RECOGNITION MEMORY IN YOUNG AND ELDERLY ADULTS EXPERIMENTAL AGING RESEARCH Rose, T. L., Yesavage, J. A., Hill, R. D., Bower, G. H. 1986; 12 (1): 31-37

    Abstract

    The present study explores the effects of age on the priming of alternate homophone spellings and recognition memory. Sixteen young and sixteen elderly adults were given a general information test, a spelling test, and a test of recognition memory. By embedding the less frequently spelled member of different homophone units (e.g., write vs. right) in the general information questions, certain of the homophones were primed during this task. The effect of this priming was assessed through the subjects' choice of spelling for these words on the spelling test. Recognition memory was assessed by asking subjects to indicate which words from a longer list were presented during the spelling test. As found in prior research priming effects were observed in younger subjects; however, no significant priming effects occurred in the older age group. On the recognition test, homophones were more often correctly recognized than nonhomophones, and priming affected the scores of the young negatively, but had no effects, positive or negative, on the elderly. These results suggest possible differences in the underlying bases of memory loss in aged adults and amnesics.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986A819100003

    View details for PubMedID 3709605

  • FAILURE TO REPLICATE MOOD-DEPENDENT RETRIEVAL BULLETIN OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOCIETY Bower, G. H., Mayer, J. D. 1985; 23 (1): 39-42
  • NATURALLY-OCCURRING MOOD AND LEARNING - COMMENT JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL Mayer, J. D., Bower, G. H. 1985; 114 (3): 396-403

    Abstract

    We comment on the article by Hasher, Rose, Zacks, Sanft, & Doren (1985) in which they failed to find mood-congruent learning (MCL). MCL occurs whenever subjects learn more about materials that are congruent with their moods (e.g., depressed subjects learn more sad material). Hasher et al. failed to observe MCL with normal college students who scored high versus low on the Beck Depression Inventory and an affect checklist; in contrast, positive MCL has been observed with clinically depressed patients and with normals given laboratory mood inductions. Hasher et al. argue that moderately depressed normal students may be qualitatively different from clinically depressed patients and mood-induced subjects. Although we accept the findings of Hasher et al., we think it is also plausible that MCL may be a general though small effect which is present among normal college students as well.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985APJ2200009

    View details for PubMedID 3161982

  • MOOD-DEPENDENT RETRIEVAL - COMMENTARY ON WETZLER PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS Mayer, J. D., Bower, G. H. 1985; 57 (3): 1000-1002

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AVX0300062

    View details for PubMedID 4080899

  • CITATION CLASSIC - THEORIES OF LEARNING CURRENT CONTENTS/SOCIAL & BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES Bower, G. H. 1984: 16-16
  • DISCRIMINATION NETS AS PSYCHOLOGICAL MODELS COGNITIVE SCIENCE Barsalou, L. W., Bower, G. H. 1984; 8 (1): 1-26
  • THE INFLUENCE OF MOOD ON PERCEPTIONS OF SOCIAL INTERACTIONS JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY FORGAS, J. P., Bower, G. H., Krantz, S. E. 1984; 20 (6): 497-513
  • AFFECT AND COGNITION PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Bower, G. H. 1983; 302 (1110): 387-402
  • INCONSISTENCY IN SPATIAL KNOWLEDGE MEMORY & COGNITION MOAR, I., Bower, G. H. 1983; 11 (2): 107-113

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983QM26800001

    View details for PubMedID 6865743

  • REMINDING AND MOOD-CONGRUENT MEMORY BULLETIN OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOCIETY GILLIGAN, S. G., Bower, G. H. 1983; 21 (6): 431-434
  • INTERACTIVE IMAGERY AND AFFECTIVE JUDGMENTS IMPROVE FACE-NAME LEARNING IN THE ELDERLY JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY Yesavage, J. A., Rose, T. L., Bower, G. H. 1983; 38 (2): 197-203

    Abstract

    Groups of elderly adults were taught to learn name-to-face associations using one of three different techniques. In a control group (no image) participants were taught for each face-name pair to select a prominent facial feature and to transform the surname into a concrete word. Persons in a second group (image) additionally were taught to employ interactive imagery to form an association between the prominent feature and the transformed name. The third group (image + judgment) was treated the same as the second except that these individuals were also taught to judge the pleasantness of the image association that was formed. As predicted, improvement following instruction was minimal when no image association was formed but strong when interactive imagery was used. Moreover, those persons in the image + judgment group remembered more names than those in the image group and showed less forgetting on a measure of delayed recall. In addition to replicating and extending the findings of previous research with a different sample, the present study demonstrates that semantic orienting tasks can be used to enhance the retention of visual image associations as well as the simpler stimuli used in prior research.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983QG28300009

    View details for PubMedID 6827036

  • MUSICAL EXPERTISE AND MELODIC STRUCTURE IN MEMORY FOR MUSICAL NOTATION AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY Halpern, A. R., Bower, G. H. 1982; 95 (1): 31-50
  • STIMULUS VARIABLES IN THE BLOCK DESIGN TASK JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Schorr, D., Bower, G. H., Kiernan, R. 1982; 50 (4): 479-487

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982NZ63700001

    View details for PubMedID 7119230

  • EMOTIONAL INFLUENCES ON WORD RECOGNITION BULLETIN OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOCIETY Gerrig, R. J., Bower, G. H. 1982; 19 (4): 197-200
  • REMEMBERING SCRIPT-BASED TEXT + PSYCHOLOGY MEMORY POETICS Bellezza, F. S., Bower, G. H. 1982; 11 (1): 1-23
  • COMPARISONS OF MODELS OF ASSOCIATIVE RECALL MEMORY & COGNITION Ross, B. H., Bower, G. H. 1981; 9 (1): 1-16

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981LM45400001

    View details for PubMedID 7231163

  • THE REPRESENTATIONAL AND PROCESSING CHARACTERISTICS OF SCRIPTS BULLETIN OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOCIETY Bellezza, F. S., Bower, G. H. 1981; 18 (1): 1-4
  • SELECTIVITY OF LEARNING CAUSED BY AFFECTIVE STATES JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL Bower, G. H., GILLIGAN, S. G., MONTEIRO, K. P. 1981; 110 (4): 451-473
  • MOOD AND MEMORY AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST Bower, G. H. 1981; 36 (2): 129-148

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981LE97800003

    View details for PubMedID 7224324

  • PERSON STEREOTYPES AND MEMORY FOR PEOPLE JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Bellezza, F. S., Bower, G. H. 1981; 41 (5): 856-865
  • MOOD AND MEMORY PSYCHOLOGY TODAY Bower, G. H. 1981; 15 (6): 60-?
  • STORY UNDERSTANDING AS PROBLEM-SOLVING POETICS Black, J. B., Bower, G. H. 1980; 9 (1-3): 223-250
  • MEMORY FOR SCRIPTS WITH ORGANIZED VS RANDOMIZED PRESENTATIONS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY Bower, G. H., CLARKMEYERS, G. 1980; 71 (AUG): 369-377
  • JUDGMENTAL BIASES RESULTING FROM DIFFERING AVAILABILITIES OF ARGUMENTS JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Reyes, R. M., Thompson, W. C., Bower, G. H. 1980; 39 (1): 2-12
  • SCRIPTS IN MEMORY FOR TEXT COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Bower, G. H., Black, J. B., Turner, T. J. 1979; 11 (2): 177-220
  • POINT OF VIEW IN NARRATIVE COMPREHENSION, MEMORY, AND PRODUCTION JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR Black, J. B., Turner, T. J., Bower, G. H. 1979; 18 (2): 187-198
  • SOAP OPERA EFFECT IN STORY RECALL MEMORY & COGNITION Owens, J., Bower, G. H. 1979; 7 (3): 185-191
  • REMEMBERING INFORMATION RELATED TO ONES-SELF JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY Bower, G. H., GILLIGAN, S. G. 1979; 13 (4): 420-432
  • EPISODES AS CHUNKS IN NARRATIVE MEMORY JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR Black, J. B., Bower, G. H. 1979; 18 (3): 309-318
  • EMOTIONAL MOOD AS A CONTEXT FOR LEARNING AND RECALL JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR Bower, G. H., MONTEIRO, K. P., GILLIGAN, S. G. 1978; 17 (5): 573-585
  • CONTACTS OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY WITH SOCIAL-LEARNING THEORY COGNITIVE THERAPY AND RESEARCH Bower, G. H. 1978; 2 (2): 123-146
  • INTERFERENCE PARADIGMS FOR MEANINGFUL PROPOSITIONAL MEMORY AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY Bower, G. H. 1978; 91 (4): 575-585
  • IMPROVING MEMORY HUMAN NATURE Bower, G. H. 1978; 1 (2): 64-72
  • MODERN CONCEPTION OF HUMAN MEMORY CESKOSLOVENSKA PSYCHOLOGIE Bower, G. H. 1978; 22 (3): 232-242
  • SEMANTIC CATEGORY EFFECTS IN VISUAL WORD SEARCH PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS KARLIN, M. B., Bower, G. H. 1976; 19 (5): 417-424
  • EXPERIMENTS ON STORY UNDERSTANDING AND RECALL QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Bower, G. H. 1976; 28 (NOV): 511-534
  • QUESTION-ANSWERING BY A SEMANTIC NETWORK OF PARALLEL AUTOMATA JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PSYCHOLOGY FIKSEL, J. R., Bower, G. H. 1976; 13 (1): 1-45
  • STRUCTURAL UNITS AND RED-INTEGRATIVE POWER OF PICTURE FRAGMENTS JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN LEARNING AND MEMORY Bower, G. H., Glass, A. L. 1976; 2 (4): 456-466

    Abstract

    We suppose that line drawings are perceived and represented in memory as a hierarchy of related parts and subparts, as dictated by Gestalt laws like common direction and spatial proximity. Therefore, a figure fragment comprising a natural part of an orginally studied pattern should serve as a strong retrieval cue for redintegrating memory for the pattern, whereas an equally large fragment suggesting either no units of misleading units should lead to poorer recall. This was confirmed in an experiment in which subjects studied 33 nonsense line drawings; recall of each was tested with good, mediocre, or bad (misleading) fragments of the original patterns. Good cues had about five time more redintegrative power than bad cues. A second experiment testing multiple-choice recognition memory showed that subjects confused an originally studied pattern about four times as often with a structurally similar distractor as with a structurally dissimilar distractor (which had an equal-sized change). Thus, memory cuing by fragments and memory confusions with slightly altered distractors indicate the significant constitutents of a figure.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1976BV17800011

    View details for PubMedID 932651

  • FURTHER EVIDENCE REGARDING INSTRUCTIONAL EFFECTS ON FREQUENCY JUDGMENTS BULLETIN OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOCIETY FLEXSER, A. J., Bower, G. H. 1975; 6 (3): 321-324
  • COMPREHENSION AND MEMORY FOR PICTURES MEMORY & COGNITION Bower, G. H., KARLIN, M. B., Dueck, A. 1975; 3 (2): 216-220

    Abstract

    The thesis advanced is that people remember nonsensical pictures much better if they comprehend what they are about. Two experiments supported this thesis. In the first, nonsensical "droodles" were studied by subjects with or without an accompanying verbal interpretation of the pictures. Free recall was much better for subjects receiving the interpretation during study. Also, a later recognition test showed that subjects receiving the interpretation rated as more similar to the original picture a distractor which was close to the prototype of the interpreted category. In Experiment II, subjects studied pairs of nonsensical pictures, with or without a linking interpretation provided. Subjects who heard a phrase identifying and interrelating the pictures of a pair showed greater associative recall and matching than subjects who received no interpretation. The results suggest that memory is aided whenever contextual cues arouse appropriate schemata into which the material to be learned can be fitted.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1975W085700014

    View details for PubMedID 21287062

  • ROLE OF IMAGERY IN SENTENCE MEMORY - DEVELOPMENTAL-STUDY CHILD DEVELOPMENT Kosslyn, S. M., Bower, G. H. 1974; 45 (1): 30-38
  • INTERFERENCE IN MEMORY FOR MULTIPLE CONTEXTS MEMORY & COGNITION Anderson, J. R., Bower, G. H. 1974; 2 (3): 509-514

    Abstract

    Remembering that an item occurred in several different lists is formulated here in terms of retrieval of corresponding list tags associated to the item. Therefore, associative interference should operate upon remembering the several list contexts in which an item appeared. Experimental Ss studied four (or five) overlapping lists of 16 words, sampled from a master set of 32 words, with a given word exemplifying one of the 2 4 (or 2s 5 ) possible sequences of appearances and nonappearances over the four (or five) lists. Later Ss rated from memory for each word and for each list whether that word had occurred in that list. After correcting for interlist generalization effects, indices of discriminative memory revealed strong proactive interference and weaker retroactive interference. Discriminative memory that an item occurred in a given list was poorer the more prior or more subsequent lists in which that item had also occurred. Thus, list differentiation appears explicable in terms of item-specific associative interference.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1974U081400019

    View details for PubMedID 21274782

  • SELECTIVE FACILITATION AND INTERFERENCE IN RETENTION OF PROSE JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Bower, G. H. 1974; 66 (1): 1-8
  • DEPTH OF PROCESSING PICTURES OF FACES AND RECOGNITION MEMORY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Bower, G. H., KARLIN, M. B. 1974; 103 (4): 751-757
  • ON INTERFERING WITH ITEM VERSUS ORDER INFORMATION IN SERIAL RECALL AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY Bower, G. H., MINAIRE, H. 1974; 87 (4): 557-564
  • TRANSFER IN PART-WHOLE AND WHOLE-PART FREE-RECALL - COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THEORIES JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR STERNBER, R. J., Bower, G. H. 1974; 13 (1): 1-26
  • HOW FREQUENCY AFFECTS RECENCY JUDGMENTS - MODEL FOR RECENCY DISCRIMINATION JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY FLEXSER, A. J., Bower, G. H. 1974; 103 (4): 706-716

    View details for Web of Science ID A1974U355000016

    View details for PubMedID 4448968

  • PROPOSITIONAL THEORY OF RECOGNITION MEMORY MEMORY & COGNITION Anderson, J. R., Bower, G. H. 1974; 2 (3): 406-412

    Abstract

    This paper modifies the Anderson and Bower (1972) theory of recognition memory for words. A propositional representation is outlined for the contextual information underlying word recognition. Logical arguments are offered for preferring this representation over the undifferentiated associative representation used earlier. The propositional representation is used to interpret effects of verbal context upon recognition memory. The implications of these context effects are considered for two-process models of recall and recognition.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1974U081400002

    View details for PubMedID 21274765

  • STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL PROCESSES IN SENTENCE MEMORY COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY THORNDYK, P. W., Bower, G. H. 1974; 6 (4): 515-543
  • STORAGE AND LATER RECOGNITION OF EXEMPLARS OF CONCEPTS COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY REITMAN, J. S., Bower, G. H. 1973; 4 (2): 194-206
  • ENCODING AND RECOGNITION MEMORY FOR NATURALISTIC SOUNDS JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Bower, G. H., Holyoak, K. 1973; 101 (2): 360-366

    View details for Web of Science ID A1973R469300025

    View details for PubMedID 4753861

  • HOW TO UH REMEMBER PSYCHOLOGY TODAY Bower, G. H. 1973; 7 (5): 63-?
  • MNEMONIC ELABORATION IN MULTILIST LEARNING JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR Bower, G. H., REITMAN, J. S. 1972; 11 (4): 478-?
  • ASSOCIATIVE TRACE FOR SENTENCE MEMORY JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR Anderson, J. R., Bower, G. H. 1971; 10 (6): 673-680
  • COMPARISON OF ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES PSYCHONOMIC SCIENCE Bower, G. H., WINZENZ, D. 1970; 20 (2): 119-120
  • SUBJECT-IMPOSED CODING AND MEMORY FOR DIGIT SERIES JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY WINZENZ, D., Bower, G. H. 1970; 83 (1): 52-?
  • ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS IN MEMORY COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Bower, G. H. 1970; 1 (1): 18-46
  • CONFIDENCE RATINGS IN CONTINUOUS PAIRED-ASSOCIATE LEARNING PSYCHONOMIC SCIENCE BERNBACH, H. A., Bower, G. H. 1970; 21 (4): 252-253
  • HIERARCHICAL RETRIEVAL SCHEMES IN RECALL OF CATEGORIZED WORD LISTS JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR Bower, G. H., Clark, M. C., LESGOLD, A. M., WINZENZ, D. 1969; 8 (3): 323-?
  • GROUP STRUCTURE CODING AND MEMORY FOR DIGIT SERIES JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Bower, G. H., WINZENZ, D. 1969; 80 (2P2): 1-?
  • Rewarding and punishing effects from stimulating the same place in the rat's brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Bower, G. 1958: 669- 674

    View details for DOI 10.1037/h0038925