Professional Education


  • Doctor of Philosophy, Chinese Academy Of Sciences (2014)
  • Doctor, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Materials Science (2014)
  • Bachelor of Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Materials Science and Engineering (2008)

Stanford Advisors


  • Yi Cui, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor

All Publications


  • Easy fabrication of flexible and multilayer nanocarbon-based cathodes with a high unreal sulfur loading by electrostatic spraying for lithium-sulfur batteries CARBON Shi, H., Niu, S., Lv, W., Zhou, G., Zhang, C., Sun, Z., Li, F., Kang, F., Yang, Q. 2018; 138: 18–25
  • A non-nucleophilic mono-Mg2+ electrolyte for rechargeable Mg/S battery ENERGY STORAGE MATERIALS Xu, Y., Li, W., Zhou, G., Pan, Z., Zhang, Y. 2018; 14: 253–57
  • Core-Shell Nanofibrous Materials with High Particulate Matter Removal Efficiencies and Thermally Triggered Flame Retardant Properties. ACS central science Liu, K., Liu, C., Hsu, P., Xu, J., Kong, B., Wu, T., Zhang, R., Zhou, G., Huang, W., Sun, J., Cui, Y. 2018; 4 (7): 894–98

    Abstract

    Dust filtration is a crucial process for industrial waste gas treatment. Great efforts have been devoted to improve the performance of dust filtration filters both in industrial and fundamental research. Conventional air-filtering materials are limited by three key issues: (1) Low filtration efficiency, especially for particulate matter (PM) below 1 mum; (2) large air pressure drops across the filter, which require a high energy input to overcome; and (3) safety hazards such as dust explosions and fires. Here, we have developed a "smart" multifunctional material which can capture PM with high efficiency and an extremely low pressure drop, while possessing a flame retardant design. This multifunctionality is achieved through a core-shell nanofiber design with the polar polymer Nylon-6 as the shell and the flame retardant triphenyl phosphate (TPP) as the core. At 80% optical transmittance, the multifunctional materials showed capture efficiency of 99.00% for PM2.5 and >99.50% for PM10-2.5, with a pressure drop of only 0.25 kPa (0.2% of atmospheric pressure) at a flow rate of 0.5 m s-1. Moreover, during direct ignition tests, the multifunctional materials showed extraordinary flame retardation; the self-extinguishing time of the filtrate-contaminated filter is nearly instantaneous (0 s/g) compared to 150 s/g for unmodified Nylon-6.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acscentsci.8b00285

    View details for PubMedID 30062118

  • Vertically Aligned Lithiophilic CuO Nanosheets on a Cu Collector to Stabilize Lithium Deposition for Lithium Metal Batteries ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS Zhang, C., Lv, W., Zhou, G., Huang, Z., Zhang, Y., Lyu, R., Wu, H., Yun, Q., Kang, F., Yang, Q. 2018; 8 (21)
  • Quantitative investigation of polysulfide adsorption capability of candidate materials for Li-S batteries ENERGY STORAGE MATERIALS Wu, D., Shi, F., Zhou, G., Zu, C., Liu, C., Liu, K., Liu, Y., Wang, J., Peng, Y., Cui, Y. 2018; 13: 241–46
  • Morphology and property investigation of primary particulate matter particles from different sources NANO RESEARCH Zhang, R., Liu, C., Zhou, G., Sun, J., Liu, N., Hsu, P., Wang, H., Qiu, Y., Zhao, J., Wu, T., Zhao, W., Cui, Y. 2018; 11 (6): 3182–92
  • A Nacre-Like Carbon Nanotube Sheet for High Performance Li-Polysulfide Batteries with High Sulfur Loading ADVANCED SCIENCE Pan, Z., Lv, W., He, Y., Zhao, Y., Zhou, G., Dong, L., Niu, S., Zhang, C., Lyu, R., Wang, C., Shi, H., Zhang, W., Kang, F., Nishihara, H., Yang, Q. 2018; 5 (6): 1800384

    Abstract

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are considered as one of the most promising energy storage systems for next-generation electric vehicles because of their high-energy density. However, the poor cyclic stability, especially at a high sulfur loading, is the major obstacles retarding their practical use. Inspired by the nacre structure of an abalone, a similar configuration consisting of layered carbon nanotube (CNT) matrix and compactly embedded sulfur is designed as the cathode for Li-S batteries, which are realized by a well-designed unidirectional freeze-drying approach. The compact and lamellar configuration with closely contacted neighboring CNT layers and the strong interaction between the highly conductive network and polysulfides have realized a high sulfur loading with significantly restrained polysulfide shuttling, resulting in a superior cyclic stability and an excellent rate performance for the produced Li-S batteries. Typically, with a sulfur loading of 5 mg cm-2, the assembled batteries demonstrate discharge capacities of 1236 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C, 498 mAh g-1 at 2 C and moreover, when the sulfur loading is further increased to 10 mg cm-2 coupling with a carbon-coated separator, a superhigh areal capacity of 11.0 mAh cm-2 is achieved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/advs.201800384

    View details for Web of Science ID 000435765900030

    View details for PubMedID 29938193

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6010878

  • An Aqueous Inorganic Polymer Binder for High Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Flame-Retardant Properties ACS CENTRAL SCIENCE Zhou, G., Liu, K., Fan, Y., Yuan, M., Liu, B., Liu, W., Shi, F., Liu, Y., Chen, W., Lopez, J., Zhuo, D., Zhao, J., Tsao, Y., Huang, X., Zhang, Q., Cui, Y. 2018; 4 (2): 260–67

    Abstract

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are regarded as promising next-generation high energy density storage devices for both portable electronics and electric vehicles due to their high energy density, low cost, and environmental friendliness. However, there remain some issues yet to be fully addressed with the main challenges stemming from the ionically insulating nature of sulfur and the dissolution of polysulfides in electrolyte with subsequent parasitic reactions leading to low sulfur utilization and poor cycle life. The high flammability of sulfur is another serious safety concern which has hindered its further application. Herein, an aqueous inorganic polymer, ammonium polyphosphate (APP), has been developed as a novel multifunctional binder to address the above issues. The strong binding affinity of the main chain of APP with lithium polysulfides blocks diffusion of polysulfide anions and inhibits their shuttling effect. The coupling of APP with Li ion facilitates ion transfer and promotes the kinetics of the cathode reaction. Moreover, APP can serve as a flame retardant, thus significantly reducing the flammability of the sulfur cathode. In addition, the aqueous characteristic of the binder avoids the use of toxic organic solvents, thus significantly improving safety. As a result, a high rate capacity of 520 mAh g-1 at 4 C and excellent cycling stability of ∼0.038% capacity decay per cycle at 0.5 C for 400 cycles are achieved based on this binder. This work offers a feasible and effective strategy for employing APP as an efficient multifunctional binder toward building next-generation high energy density Li-S batteries.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acscentsci.7b00569

    View details for Web of Science ID 000426613700018

    View details for PubMedID 29532026

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5833002

  • Nanoporous polyethylene microfibres for large-scale radiative cooling fabric NATURE SUSTAINABILITY Peng, Y., Chen, J., Song, A. Y., Catrysse, P. B., Hsu, P., Cai, L., Liu, B., Zhu, Y., Zhou, G., Wu, D. S., Lee, H., Fan, S., Cui, Y. 2018; 1 (2): 105–12
  • In Situ Investigation on the Nanoscale Capture and Evolution of Aerosols on Nanofibers NANO LETTERS Zhang, R., Liu, B., Yang, A., Zhu, Y., Liu, C., Zhou, G., Sun, J., Hsu, P., Zhao, W., Lin, D., Liu, Y., Pei, A., Xie, J., Chen, W., Xu, J., Jin, Y., Wu, T., Huang, X., Cui, Y. 2018; 18 (2): 1130–38

    Abstract

    Aerosol-induced haze problem has become a serious environmental concern. Filtration is widely applied to remove aerosols from gas streams. Despite classical filtration theories, the nanoscale capture and evolution of aerosols is not yet clearly understood. Here we report an in situ investigation on the nanoscale capture and evolution of aerosols on polyimide nanofibers. We discovered different capture and evolution behaviors among three types of aerosols: wetting liquid droplets, nonwetting liquid droplets, and solid particles. The wetting droplets had small contact angles and could move, coalesce, and form axisymmetric conformations on polyimide nanofibers. In contrast, the nonwetting droplets had a large contact angle on polyimide nanofibers and formed nonaxisymmetric conformations. Different from the liquid droplets, the solid particles could not move along the nanofibers and formed dendritic structures. This study provides an important insight for obtaining a deep understanding of the nanoscale capture and evolution of aerosols and benefits future design and development of advanced filters.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04673

    View details for Web of Science ID 000425559700068

    View details for PubMedID 29297691

  • A general prelithiation approach for group IV elements and corresponding oxides ENERGY STORAGE MATERIALS Zhao, J., Sun, J., Pei, A., Zhou, G., Yan, K., Liu, Y., Lin, D., Cui, Y. 2018; 10: 275–81
  • Catalytic Effects in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Promoted Sulfur Transformation and Reduced Shuttle Effect ADVANCED SCIENCE Liu, D., Zhang, C., Zhou, G., Lv, W., Ling, G., Zhi, L., Yang, Q. 2018; 5 (1): 1700270

    Abstract

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery has emerged as one of the most promising next-generation energy-storage systems. However, the shuttle effect greatly reduces the battery cycle life and sulfur utilization, which is great deterrent to its practical use. This paper reviews the tremendous efforts that are made to find a remedy for this problem, mostly through physical or chemical confinement of the lithium polysulfides (LiPSs). Intrinsically, this "confinement" has a relatively limited effect on improving the battery performance because in most cases, the LiPSs are "passively" blocked and cannot be reused. Thus, this strategy becomes less effective with a high sulfur loading and ultralong cycling. A more "positive" method that not only traps but also increases the subsequent conversion of LiPSs back to lithium sulfides is urgently needed to fundamentally solve the shuttle effect. Here, recent advances on catalytic effects in increasing the rate of conversion of soluble long-chain LiPSs to insoluble short-chain Li2S2/Li2S, and vice versa, are reviewed, and the roles of noble metals, metal oxides, metal sulfides, metal nitrides, and some metal-free materials in this process are highlighted. Challenges and potential solutions for the design of catalytic cathodes and interlayers in Li-S battery are discussed in detail.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/advs.201700270

    View details for Web of Science ID 000422658700008

    View details for PubMedID 29375960

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5770674

  • Facilitation of sulfur evolution reaction by pyridinic nitrogen doped carbon nanoflakes for highly-stable lithium-sulfur batteries ENERGY STORAGE MATERIALS Yuan, H., Zhang, W., Wang, J., Zhou, G., Zhuang, Z., Luo, J., Huang, H., Gan, Y., Liang, C., Xia, Y., Zhang, J., Tao, X. 2018; 10: 1–9
  • Design of Complex Nanomaterials for Energy Storage: Past Success and Future Opportunity Published as part of the Accounts of Chemical Research special issue "Energy Storage: Complexities Among Materials and Interfaces at Multiple Length Scales" ACCOUNTS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH Liu, Y., Zhou, G., Liu, K., Cui, Y. 2017; 50 (12): 2895–2905
  • Stretchable Lithium-Ion Batteries Enabled by Device-Scaled Wavy Structure and Elastic-Sticky Separator ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS Liu, W., Chen, J., Chen, Z., Liu, K., Zhou, G., Sun, Y., Song, M., Bao, Z., Cui, Y. 2017; 7 (21)
  • Air-stable and freestanding lithium alloy/graphene foil as an alternative to lithium metal anodes NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY Zhao, J., Zhou, G., Yan, K., Xie, J., Li, Y., Liao, L., Jin, Y., Liu, K., Hsu, P., Wang, J., Cheng, H., Cui, Y. 2017; 12 (10): 993–99
  • Reactivation of dead sulfide species in lithium polysulfide flow battery for grid scale energy storage NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Jin, Y., Zhou, G., Shi, F., Zhuo, D., Zhao, J., Liu, K., Liu, Y., Zu, C., Chen, W., Zhang, R., Huang, X., Cui, Y. 2017; 8: 462

    Abstract

    Lithium polysulfide batteries possess several favorable attributes including low cost and high energy density for grid energy storage. However, the precipitation of insoluble and irreversible sulfide species on the surface of carbon and lithium (called "dead" sulfide species) leads to continuous capacity degradation in high mass loading cells, which represents a great challenge. To address this problem, herein we propose a strategy to reactivate dead sulfide species by reacting them with sulfur powder with stirring and heating (70 °C) to recover the cell capacity, and further demonstrate a flow battery system based on the reactivation approach. As a result, ultrahigh mass loading (0.125 g cm-3, 2 g sulfur in a single cell), high volumetric energy density (135 Wh L-1), good cycle life, and high single-cell capacity are achieved. The high volumetric energy density indicates its promising application for future grid energy storage.Lithium polysulfide batteries suffer from the precipitation of insoluble and irreversible sulfide species on the surface of carbon and lithium. Here the authors show a reactivation strategy by a reaction with cheap sulfur powder under stirring and heating to recover the cell capacity.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-017-00537-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000409458000016

    View details for PubMedID 28878273

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5587700

  • Conformal Lithium Fluoride Protection Layer on Three-Dimensional Lithium by Nonhazardous Gaseous Reagent Freon. Nano letters Lin, D., Liu, Y., Chen, W., Zhou, G., Liu, K., Dunn, B., Cui, Y. 2017

    Abstract

    Research on lithium (Li) metal chemistry has been rapidly gaining momentum nowadays not only because of the appealing high theoretical capacity, but also its indispensable role in the next-generation Li-S and Li-air batteries. However, two root problems of Li metal, namely high reactivity and infinite relative volume change during cycling, bring about numerous other challenges that impede its practical applications. In the past, extensive studies have targeted these two root causes by either improving interfacial stability or constructing a stable host. However, efficient surface passivation on three-dimensional (3D) Li is still absent. Here, we develop a conformal LiF coating technique on Li surface with commercial Freon R134a as the reagent. In contrast to solid/liquid reagents, gaseous Freon exhibits not only nontoxicity and well-controlled reactivity, but also much better permeability that enables a uniform LiF coating even on 3D Li. By applying a LiF coating onto 3D layered Li-reduced graphene oxide (Li-rGO) electrodes, highly reduced side reactions and enhanced cycling stability without overpotential augment for over 200 cycles were proven in symmetric cells. Furthermore, Li-S cells with LiF protected Li-rGO exhibit significantly improved cyclability and Coulombic efficiency, while excellent rate capability (∼800 mAh g(-1) at 2 C) can still be retained.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b01020

    View details for PubMedID 28535068

  • /Carbon Foam and Polymer. Nano letters Tao, X., Liu, Y., Liu, W., Zhou, G., Zhao, J., Lin, D., Zu, C., Sheng, O., Zhang, W., Lee, H., Cui, Y. 2017; 17 (5): 2967-2972

    Abstract

    An all solid-state lithium-ion battery with high energy density and high safety is a promising solution for a next-generation energy storage system. High interface resistance of the electrodes and poor ion conductivity of solid-state electrolytes are two main challenges for solid-state batteries, which require operation at elevated temperatures of 60-90 °C. Herein, we report the facile synthesis of Al(3+)/Nb(5+) codoped cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) nanoparticles and LLZO nanoparticle-decorated porous carbon foam (LLZO@C) by the one-step Pechini sol-gel method. The LLZO nanoparticle-filled poly(ethylene oxide) electrolyte shows improved conductivity compared with filler-free samples. The sulfur composite cathode based on LLZO@C can deliver an attractive specific capacity of >900 mAh g(-1) at the human body temperature 37 °C and a high capacity of 1210 and 1556 mAh g(-1) at 50 and 70 °C, respectively. In addition, the solid-state Li-S batteries exhibit high Coulombic efficiency and show remarkably stable cycling performance.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b00221

    View details for PubMedID 28388080

  • Solid-State Lithium Sulfur Batteries Operated at 37 degrees C with Composites of Nanostructured Li7La3Zr2O12/Carbon Foam and Polymer NANO LETTERS Tao, X., Liu, Y., Liu, W., Zhou, G., Zhao, J., Lin, D., Zu, C., Sheng, O., Zhang, W., Lee, H., Cui, Y. 2017; 17 (5): 2967-2972

    Abstract

    An all solid-state lithium-ion battery with high energy density and high safety is a promising solution for a next-generation energy storage system. High interface resistance of the electrodes and poor ion conductivity of solid-state electrolytes are two main challenges for solid-state batteries, which require operation at elevated temperatures of 60-90 °C. Herein, we report the facile synthesis of Al(3+)/Nb(5+) codoped cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) nanoparticles and LLZO nanoparticle-decorated porous carbon foam (LLZO@C) by the one-step Pechini sol-gel method. The LLZO nanoparticle-filled poly(ethylene oxide) electrolyte shows improved conductivity compared with filler-free samples. The sulfur composite cathode based on LLZO@C can deliver an attractive specific capacity of >900 mAh g(-1) at the human body temperature 37 °C and a high capacity of 1210 and 1556 mAh g(-1) at 50 and 70 °C, respectively. In addition, the solid-state Li-S batteries exhibit high Coulombic efficiency and show remarkably stable cycling performance.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b00221

    View details for Web of Science ID 000401307300033

  • Sulfiphilic Nickel Phosphosulfide Enabled Li2S Impregnation in 3D Graphene Cages for Li-S Batteries ADVANCED MATERIALS Zhou, G., Sun, J., Jin, Y., Chen, W., Zu, C., Zhang, R., Qiu, Y., Zhao, J., Zhuo, D., Liu, Y., Tao, X., Liu, W., Yan, K., Lee, H. R., Cui, Y. 2017; 29 (12)

    Abstract

    A 3D graphene cage with a thin layer of electrodeposited nickel phosphosulfide for Li2S impregnation, using ternary nickel phosphosulphide as a highly conductive coating layer for stabilized polysulfide chemistry, is accomplished by the combination of theoretical and experimental studies. The 3D interconnected graphene cage structure leads to high capacity, good rate capability and excellent cycling stability in a Li2S cathode.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201603366

    View details for Web of Science ID 000396998800001

  • Self-healing SEI enables full-cell cycling of a silicon-majority anode with a coulombic efficiency exceeding 99.9% ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Jin, Y., Li, S., Kushima, A., Zheng, X., Sun, Y., Xie, J., Sun, J., Xue, W., Zhou, G., Wu, J., Shi, F., Zhang, R., Zhu, Z., So, K., Cui, Y., Li, J. 2017; 10 (2): 580-592

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c6ee02685k

    View details for Web of Science ID 000395679100017

  • Catalytic oxidation of Li2S on the surface of metal sulfides for Li-S batteries PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Zhou, G., Tian, H., Jin, Y., Tao, X., Liu, B., Zhang, R., Seh, Z. W., Zhuo, D., Liu, Y., Sun, J., Zhao, J., Zu, C., Wu, D. S., Zhang, Q., Cui, Y. 2017; 114 (5): 840-845

    Abstract

    Polysulfide binding and trapping to prevent dissolution into the electrolyte by a variety of materials has been well studied in Li-S batteries. Here we discover that some of those materials can play an important role as an activation catalyst to facilitate oxidation of the discharge product, Li2S, back to the charge product, sulfur. Combining theoretical calculations and experimental design, we select a series of metal sulfides as a model system to identify the key parameters in determining the energy barrier for Li2S oxidation and polysulfide adsorption. We demonstrate that the Li2S decomposition energy barrier is associated with the binding between isolated Li ions and the sulfur in sulfides; this is the main reason that sulfide materials can induce lower overpotential compared with commonly used carbon materials. Fundamental understanding of this reaction process is a crucial step toward rational design and screening of materials to achieve high reversible capacity and long cycle life in Li-S batteries.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1615837114

    View details for Web of Science ID 000393196300042

    View details for PubMedID 28096362

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5293031

  • S Impregnation in 3D Graphene Cages for Li-S Batteries. Advanced materials Zhou, G., Sun, J., Jin, Y., Chen, W., Zu, C., Zhang, R., Qiu, Y., Zhao, J., Zhuo, D., Liu, Y., Tao, X., Liu, W., Yan, K., Lee, H. R., Cui, Y. 2017

    Abstract

    A 3D graphene cage with a thin layer of electrodeposited nickel phosphosulfide for Li2S impregnation, using ternary nickel phosphosulphide as a highly conductive coating layer for stabilized polysulfide chemistry, is accomplished by the combination of theoretical and experimental studies. The 3D interconnected graphene cage structure leads to high capacity, good rate capability and excellent cycling stability in a Li2S cathode.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201603366

    View details for PubMedID 28134456

  • In Situ Electrochemically Derived Nanoporous Oxides from Transition Metal Dichalcogenides for Active Oxygen Evolution Catalysts NANO LETTERS Chen, W., Liu, Y., Li, Y., Sun, J., Qiu, Y., Liu, C., Zhou, G., Cui, Y. 2016; 16 (12): 7588-7596

    Abstract

    Transition metal dichalcogenides have been widely studied as active electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions. However, their properties as oxygen evolution reaction catalysts have not been fully explored. In this study, we systematically investigate a family of transition metal dichalcogenides (MX, M = Co, Ni, Fe; X = S, Se, Te) as candidates for water oxidation. It reveals that the transition metal dichalcogenides are easily oxidized in strong alkaline media via an in situ electrochemical oxidation process, producing nanoporous transition metal oxides toward much enhanced water oxidation activity due to their increased surface area and more exposed electroactive sites. The optimal cobalt nickel iron oxides that derived from their sulfides and selenides demonstrate a low overpotential of 232 mV at current density of 10 mA cm(-2), a small Tafel slope of 35 mV per decade, and negligible degradation of electrochemical activity over 200 h of electrolysis. This study represents the discovery of nanoporous transition metal oxides deriving from their chalcogenides as outstanding electrocatalysts for water oxidation.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b03458

    View details for Web of Science ID 000389963200040

    View details for PubMedID 27960466

  • Improved Lithium Ionic Conductivity in Composite Polymer Electrolytes with Oxide-Ion Conducting Nanowires ACS NANO Liu, W., Lin, D., Sun, J., Zhou, G., Cui, Y. 2016; 10 (12): 11407-11413

    Abstract

    Solid Li-ion electrolytes used in all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are being considered to replace conventional liquid electrolytes that have leakage, flammability, and poor chemical stability issues, which represents one major challenge and opportunity for next-generation high-energy-density batteries. However, the low mobility of lithium ions in solid electrolytes limits their practical applications. Here, we report a solid composite polymer electrolyte with Y2O3-doped ZrO2 (YSZ) nanowires that are enriched with positive-charged oxygen vacancies. The morphologies and ionic conductivities have been studied systemically according to concentration of Y2O3 dopant in the nanowires. In comparison to the conventional filler-free electrolyte with a conductivity of 3.62 × 10(-7) S cm(-1), the composite polymer electrolytes with the YSZ nanowires show much higher ionic conductivity. It indicates that incorporation of 7 mol % of Y2O3-doped ZrO2 nanowires results in the highest ionic conductivity of 1.07 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 30 °C. This conductivity enhancement originates from the positive-charged oxygen vacancies on the surfaces of the nanowires that could associate with anions and then release more Li ions. Our work demonstrates a composite polymer electrolyte with oxygen-ion conductive nanowires that could address the challenges of all-solid-state LIBs.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsnano.6b06797

    View details for Web of Science ID 000391079700086

    View details for PubMedID 28024352

  • Entrapment of Polysulfides by a Black-Phosphorus-Modified Separator for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries ADVANCED MATERIALS Sun, J., Sun, Y., Pasta, M., Zhou, G., Li, Y., Liu, W., Xiong, F., Cui, Y. 2016; 28 (44): 9797-?

    Abstract

    A bifunctional separator modified by black-phosphorus nanoflakes is prepared to overcome the challenges associated with the polysulfide diffusion in lithium-sulfur batteries. It brings the benefits of the entrapment of various sulfur species via the strong binding energy and re-activation of the trapped sulfur species due to its high electron conductivity as well as Li-ion diffusivity.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201602172

    View details for Web of Science ID 000392721400016

    View details for PubMedID 27634105

  • Metallurgically lithiated SiOx anode with high capacity and ambient air compatibility PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Zhao, J., Lee, H., Sun, J., Yan, K., Liu, Y., Liu, W., Lu, Z., Lin, D., Zhou, G., Cui, Y. 2016; 113 (27): 7408-7413

    Abstract

    A common issue plaguing battery anodes is the large consumption of lithium in the initial cycle as a result of the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase followed by gradual loss in subsequent cycles. It presents a need for prelithiation to compensate for the loss. However, anode prelithiation faces the challenge of high chemical reactivity because of the low anode potential. Previous efforts have produced prelithiated Si nanoparticles with dry air stability, which cannot be stabilized under ambient air. Here, we developed a one-pot metallurgical process to synthesize LixSi/Li2O composites by using low-cost SiO or SiO2 as the starting material. The resulting composites consist of homogeneously dispersed LixSi nanodomains embedded in a highly crystalline Li2O matrix, providing the composite excellent stability even in ambient air with 40% relative humidity. The composites are readily mixed with various anode materials to achieve high first cycle Coulombic efficiency (CE) of >100% or serve as an excellent anode material by itself with stable cyclability and consistently high CEs (99.81% at the seventh cycle and ∼99.87% for subsequent cycles). Therefore, LixSi/Li2O composites achieved balanced reactivity and stability, promising a significant boost to lithium ion batteries.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1603810113

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379021700047

    View details for PubMedID 27313206

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4941422

  • Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells. Science advances Qiu, Y., Liu, W., Chen, W., Chen, W., Zhou, G., Hsu, P., Zhang, R., Liang, Z., Fan, S., Zhang, Y., Cui, Y. 2016; 2 (6)

    Abstract

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) has been widely regarded as a promising photoanode material for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting because of its low cost, its high stability against photocorrosion, and its relatively narrow band gap of 2.4 eV. However, the achieved performance of the BiVO4 photoanode remains unsatisfactory to date because its short carrier diffusion length restricts the total thickness of the BiVO4 film required for sufficient light absorption. We addressed the issue by deposition of nanoporous Mo-doped BiVO4 (Mo:BiVO4) on an engineered cone-shaped nanostructure, in which the Mo:BiVO4 layer with a larger effective thickness maintains highly efficient charge separation and high light absorption capability, which can be further enhanced by multiple light scattering in the nanocone structure. As a result, the nanocone/Mo:BiVO4/Fe(Ni)OOH photoanode exhibits a high water-splitting photocurrent of 5.82 ± 0.36 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode under 1-sun illumination. We also demonstrate that the PEC cell in tandem with a single perovskite solar cell exhibits unassisted water splitting with a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of up to 6.2%.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/sciadv.1501764

    View details for PubMedID 27386565

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4928885

  • 3D Porous Sponge-Inspired Electrode for Stretchable Lithium-Ion Batteries ADVANCED MATERIALS Liu, W., Chen, Z., Zhou, G., Sun, Y., Lee, H. R., Liu, C., Yao, H., Bao, Z., Cui, Y. 2016; 28 (18): 3578-?

    Abstract

    A stretchable Li4 Ti5 O12 anode and a LiFePO4 cathode with 80% stretchability are prepared using a 3D interconnected porous polydimethylsiloxane sponge based on sugar cubes. 82% and 91% capacity retention for anode and cathode are achieved after 500 stretch-release cycles. Slight capacity decay of 6% in the battery using the electrode in stretched state is observed.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.201505299

    View details for Web of Science ID 000376250600021

    View details for PubMedID 26992146

  • Balancing surface adsorption and diffusion of lithium-polysulfides on nonconductive oxides for lithium-sulfur battery design NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Tao, X., Wang, J., Liu, C., Wang, H., Yao, H., Zheng, G., Seh, Z. W., Cai, Q., Li, W., Zhou, G., Zu, C., Cui, Y. 2016; 7

    Abstract

    Lithium-sulfur batteries have attracted attention due to their six-fold specific energy compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Dissolution of lithium polysulfides, volume expansion of sulfur and uncontrollable deposition of lithium sulfide are three of the main challenges for this technology. State-of-the-art sulfur cathodes based on metal-oxide nanostructures can suppress the shuttle-effect and enable controlled lithium sulfide deposition. However, a clear mechanistic understanding and corresponding selection criteria for the oxides are still lacking. Herein, various nonconductive metal-oxide nanoparticle-decorated carbon flakes are synthesized via a facile biotemplating method. The cathodes based on magnesium oxide, cerium oxide and lanthanum oxide show enhanced cycling performance. Adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations reveal that polysulfide capture by the oxides is via monolayered chemisorption. Moreover, we show that better surface diffusion leads to higher deposition efficiency of sulfide species on electrodes. Hence, oxide selection is proposed to balance optimization between sulfide-adsorption and diffusion on the oxides.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms11203

    View details for Web of Science ID 000373622000001

    View details for PubMedID 27046216

  • Highly Nitridated Graphene-Li2S Cathodes with Stable Modulated Cycles ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS Qiu, Y., Rong, G., Yang, J., Li, G., Ma, S., Wang, X., Pan, Z., Hou, Y., Liu, M., Ye, F., Li, W., Seh, Z. W., Tao, X., Yao, H., Liu, N., Zhang, R., Zhou, G., Wang, J., Fan, S., Cui, Y., Zhang, Y. 2015; 5 (23)