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  • An operando X-ray diffraction study of chloroaluminate anion-graphite intercalation in aluminum batteries PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Pan, C., Yuan, C., Zhu, G., Zhang, Q., Huang, C., Lin, M., Angell, M., Hwang, B., Kaghazchi, P., Dai, H. 2018; 115 (22): 5670–75


    We investigated rechargeable aluminum (Al) batteries composed of an Al negative electrode, a graphite positive electrode, and an ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte at temperatures down to -40 °C. The reversible battery discharge capacity at low temperatures could be superior to that at room temperature. In situ/operando electrochemical and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments combined with theoretical modeling revealed stable AlCl4-/graphite intercalation up to stage 3 at low temperatures, whereas intercalation was reversible up to stage 4 at room temperature (RT). The higher-degree anion/graphite intercalation at low temperatures affords rechargeable Al battery with higher discharge voltage (up to 2.5 V, a record for Al battery) and energy density. A remarkable cycle life of >20,000 cycles at a rate of 6C (10 minutes charge time) was achievable for Al battery operating at low temperatures, corresponding to a >50-year battery life if charged/discharged once daily.

    View details for PubMedID 29760096