Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • In situ visualization of multicomponents coevolution in a battery pouch cell. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Zan, G., Qian, G., Gul, S., Li, J., Matusik, K., Wang, Y., Lewis, S., Yun, W., Pianetta, P., Vine, D. J., Li, L., Liu, Y. 2022; 119 (29): e2203199119


    Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is a broadly adopted technology for energy storage. With increasing demands to improve the rate capability, cyclability, energy density, safety, and cost efficiency, it is crucial to establish an in-depth understanding of the detailed structural evolution and cell-degradation mechanisms during battery operation. Here, we present a laboratory-based high-resolution and high-throughput X-ray micro-computed laminography approach, which is capable of in situ visualizing of an industry-relevant lithium-ion (Li-ion) pouch cell with superior detection fidelity, resolution, and reliability. This technique enables imaging of the pouch cell at a spatial resolution of 0.5 mum in a laboratory system and permits the identification of submicron features within cathode and anode electrodes. We also demonstrate direct visualization of the lithium plating in the imaged pouch cell, which is an important phenomenon relevant to battery fast charging and low-temperature cycling. Our development presents an avenue toward a thorough understanding of the correlation among multiscale structures, chemomechanical degradation, and electrochemical behavior of industry-scale battery pouch cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.2203199119

    View details for PubMedID 35858350

  • Structural, Dynamic, and Chemical Complexities in Zinc Anode of an Operating Aqueous Zn-Ion Battery ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS Qian, G., Zan, G., Li, J., Lee, S., Wang, Y., Zhu, Y., Gul, S., Vine, D. J., Lewis, S., Yun, W., Ma, Z., Pianetta, P., Lee, J., Li, L., Liu, Y. 2022
  • In Situ Visualization of Li-Whisker with Grating-Interferometry-Based Tricontrast X-ray Microtomography ACS MATERIALS LETTERS Zan, G., Qian, G., Gul, S., Pan, H., Li, Q., Li, J., Vine, D. J., Lewis, S., Yun, W., Pianetta, P., Li, H., Yu, X., Liu, Y. 2021; 3 (12): 1786-1792
  • The role of structural defects in commercial lithium-ion batteries CELL REPORTS PHYSICAL SCIENCE Qian, G., Monaco, F., Meng, D., Lee, S., Zan, G., Li, J., Karpov, D., Gul, S., Vine, D., Stripe, B., Zhang, J., Lee, J., Ma, Z., Yun, W., Pianetta, P., Yu, X., Li, L., Cloeten, P., Liu, Y. 2021; 2 (9)
  • High-resolution multicontrast tomography with an X-ray microarray anode-structured target source. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Zan, G., Gul, S., Zhang, J., Zhao, W., Lewis, S., Vine, D. J., Liu, Y., Pianetta, P., Yun, W. 2021; 118 (25)


    Multicontrast X-ray imaging with high resolution and sensitivity using Talbot-Lau interferometry (TLI) offers unique imaging capabilities that are important to a wide range of applications, including the study of morphological features with different physical properties in biological specimens. The conventional X-ray TLI approach relies on an absorption grating to create an array of micrometer-sized X-ray sources, posing numerous limitations, including technical challenges associated with grating fabrication for high-energy operations. We overcome these limitations by developing a TLI system with a microarray anode-structured target (MAAST) source. The MAAST features an array of precisely controlled microstructured metal inserts embedded in a diamond substrate. Using this TLI system, tomography of a Drum fish tooth with high resolution and tri-contrast (absorption, phase, and scattering) reveals useful complementary structural information that is inaccessible otherwise. The results highlight the exceptional capability of high-resolution multicontrast X-ray tomography empowered by the MAAST-based TLI method in biomedical applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.2103126118

    View details for PubMedID 34140413

  • Fast Li Plating Behavior Probed by X-ray Computed Tomography. Nano letters Pan, H., Fu, T., Zan, G., Chen, R., Yao, C., Li, Q., Pianetta, P., Zhang, K., Liu, Y., Yu, X., Li, H. 2021


    Uneven lithium plating/stripping is an essential issue that inhibits stable cycling of a lithium metal anode and thus hinders its practical applications. The investigation of this process is challenging because it is difficult to observe lithium in an operating device. Here, we demonstrate that the microscopic lithium plating behavior can be observed in situ in a close-to-practical cell setup using X-ray computed tomography. The results reveal the formation of porous structure and its progressive evolution in space over the charging process with a large current. The elaborated analysis indicates that the microstructure of deposited lithium makes a significant impact on the subsequent lithium plating, and the impact of structural inhomogeneity, further exaggerated by the large-current charging, can lead to severely uneven lithium plating and eventually cell failure. Therefore, a codesign strategy involving delicate controls of microstructure and electrochemical conditions could be a necessity for the next-generation battery with lithium metal anode.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01389

    View details for PubMedID 34105964

  • Understanding multi-scale battery degradation with a macro-to-nano zoom through its hierarchy JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A Zan, G., Zhang, J., Monaco, F., Gul, S., Qian, G., Li, J., Vine, D. J., Cloetens, P., Yun, W., Pianetta, P., Liu, Y. 2021

    View details for DOI 10.1039/d1ta02262h

    View details for Web of Science ID 000660244800001