Counting down while time flies: implications of age-related time acceleration for goal pursuit across adulthood.
Current opinion in psychology
2018; 26: 85–89
Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) is a life-span theory of motivation grounded in the subjective awareness of human mortality. The cardinal postulate is that time horizons shape the relative priority placed on emotionally meaningful and knowledge-seeking goals. Because goals are always set in temporal contexts, and time left in life is inversely related to chronological age, SST predicts systematic age differences in goal pursuit. The theory has garnered considerable empirical support. In this paper, we consider the role of age-related time acceleration on goal setting and argue that it may interact with the more gradual age-related changes in time horizons presumed in SST. If so, the favoring of emotionally meaningful goals may follow an exponential (as opposed to linear) function across adulthood.
View details for PubMedID 30048830
Age Differences in Age Perceptions and Developmental Transitions
FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY
2018; 9: 67
Is 50 considered "old"? When do we stop being considered "young"? If individuals could choose to be any age, what would it be? In a sample of 502,548 internet respondents ranging in age from 10 to 89, we examined age differences in aging perceptions (e.g., how old do you feel?) and estimates of the timing of developmental transitions (e.g., when does someone become an older adult?). We found that older adults reported older perceptions of aging (e.g., choosing to be older, feeling older, being perceived as older), but that these perceptions were increasingly younger than their current age. The age to which individuals hope to live dramatically increased after age 40. We also found that older adults placed the age at which developmental transitions occurred later in the life course. This latter effect was stronger for transitions involving middle-age and older adulthood compared to transitions involving young adulthood. The current study constitutes the largest study to date of age differences in age perceptions and developmental timing estimates and yielded novel insights into how the aging process may affect judgments about the self and others.
View details for PubMedID 29449823
Age Differences in Explicit and Implicit Age Attitudes Across the Life Span.
2017; 57 (suppl_2): S169–S177
Biased judgments about others can operate both within and outside of our conscious awareness. However, little attention has been paid to how implicit and explicit attitudes differ across the life span, particularly with respect to age bias. In the current study, we examined age differences in implicit and explicit attitudes towards older individuals.Participants (N = 704,151) ranging from age 15 to 94 completed the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures of bias against older adults. The associations between age bias and several demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, education) were also examined.A preference for younger people was found among participants of all ages; however, implicit and explicit attitudes showed divergent associations with age. Implicit preference for younger people was highest among older adults; explicit preference for younger people was lowest among older adults.Examining age differences in implicit and explicit attitudes sheds light into the development and complexities of aging perceptions in different age groups. The current study's findings are discussed in the context of applications to and implications of reducing prejudice toward older adults.
View details for DOI 10.1093/geront/gnx058
View details for PubMedID 28854609
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5881761
Age Group Differences in Perceived Age Discrimination: Associations With Self-Perceptions of Aging.
2017; 57 (suppl_2): S160–S168
From midlife onwards, age stereotypes increasingly underlie social judgments and contribute to age-based discrimination. Whereas many studies compare differences between young and older adults in reports of age discrimination or sensitivity to age stereotypes, few consider age group differences among adults over 50. We form subgroups corresponding to social age group membership (early midlife, late midlife, young old, oldest old) and examine differences in reported experiences of everyday age discrimination and associations with self-perceptions of aging.Using cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS: N = 15,071; M Age = 68, range 50-101), multivariate logistic regression was used to examine experiences of everyday discrimination attributed to age, and associations between age discrimination and self-perceptions of aging, in four age groups: early midlife, late midlife, young old, oldest old.People in the early midlife group (aged 50-59) reported more experiences of unfair treatment than the older age groups but were less likely to attribute their experiences to age discrimination. After controlling for covariates, individuals in all age groups who perceived their own aging positively were less likely to report experiences of age discrimination. The magnitude of this effect, however, was greatest in the early midlife group.Findings support proposals that midlife is a pivotal life period when individuals adjust to life events and social role transitions. Future longitudinal studies will provide further insight into whether positive self-perceptions of aging are especially important in this phase of the life course.
View details for DOI 10.1093/geront/gnx070
View details for PubMedID 28854611
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5881655
Satisfaction with aging and use of preventive health services
2014; 69: 176–80
Preventive health service use is relatively low among older age groups. We hypothesized that aging satisfaction would be associated with increased use of preventive health services four years later.We conducted multiple logistic regression analyses on a sample of 6177 people from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative study of U.S. adults over the age of 50 (M age=70.6; women n=3648; men n=2529).Aging satisfaction was not associated with obtaining flu shots. However, in fully-adjusted models, each standard deviation increase in aging satisfaction was associated with higher odds of reporting service use for cholesterol tests (OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.00-1.20). Further, women with higher aging satisfaction were more likely to obtain a mammogram/x-ray (OR=1.17, 95% CI=1.06-1.29) or Pap smear (OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.00-1.21). Among men, the odds of obtaining a prostate exam increased with higher aging satisfaction (OR=1.20 95% CI=1.09-1.34).These results suggest that aging satisfaction potentially influences preventive health service use after age 50.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.09.008
View details for Web of Science ID 000346221600032
View details for PubMedID 25240763
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4424793
Gender Differences Among Veterans Deployed in Support of the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq
JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE
2013; 28: S556–S562
The changing scope of women's roles in combat operations has led to growing interest in women's deployment experiences and post-deployment adjustment.To quantify the gender-specific frequency of deployment stressors, including sexual and non-sexual harassment, lack of social support and combat exposure. To quantify gender-specific post-deployment mental health conditions and associations between deployment stressors and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to inform the care of Veterans returning from the current conflicts.National mail survey of OEF/OIF Veterans randomly sampled within gender, with women oversampled.The community.In total, 1,207 female and 1,137 male Veterans from a roster of all Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans. Response rate was 48.6 %.Deployment stressors (including combat and harassment stress), PTSD, depression, anxiety and alcohol use, all measured via self-report.Women were more likely to report sexual harassment (OR = 8.7, 95% CI: 6.9, 11) but less likely to report combat (OR = 0.62, 95 % CI: 0.50, 0.76). Women and men were equally likely to report symptoms consistent with probable PTSD (OR = 0.87, 95 % CI: 0.70, 1.1) and symptomatic anxiety (OR = 1.1, 9 5% CI: 0.86, 1.3). Women were more likely to report probable depression (OR = 1.3, 95 % CI: 1.1, 1.6) and less likely to report problematic alcohol use (OR = 0.59, 9 5% CI: 0.47, 0.72). With a five-point change in harassment stress, adjusted odds ratios for PTSD were 1.36 (95 % CI: 1.23, 1.52) for women and 1.38 (95 % CI: 1.19, 1.61) for men. The analogous associations between combat stress and PTSD were 1.31 (95 % CI: 1.24, 1.39) and 1.31 (95 % CI: 1.26, 1.36), respectively.Although there are important gender differences in deployment stressors-including women's increased risk of interpersonal stressors-and post-deployment adjustment, there are also significant similarities. The post-deployment adjustment of our nation's growing population of female Veterans seems comparable to that of our nation's male Veterans.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-013-2333-4
View details for Web of Science ID 000321910900013
View details for PubMedID 23807065
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3695273
Predictors of Mental Health Care Use Among Male and Female Veterans Deployed in Support of the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq
2013; 10 (2): 145–51
What factors predict whether Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans who need mental health care receive that care? The present research examined factors associated with a need for care, sociodemographic characteristics, deployment experiences, and perceptions of care as gender-specific predictors of overall mental health care use and Veterans Affairs (VA) mental health care use for male and female OEF/OIF veterans (N = 1,040). Only veterans with a probable need for mental health care, as determined by scores on self-report measures of mental health symptomatology, were included in the sample. Overall, predictors of service use were similar for women and men. A notable exception was the finding that lower income predicted use of both overall and VA mental health care for women, but not men. In addition, sexual harassment was a unique predictor of VA service use for women, whereas non-White race was predictive of VA service use for men only. Knowledge regarding the factors that are associated with use of mental health care (broadly and at VA) is critical to ensuring that veterans who need mental health care receive it.
View details for DOI 10.1037/a0032088
View details for Web of Science ID 000319802300002
View details for PubMedID 23730960
Testing the Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing as a Weight Reduction Strategy for Obese Cardiac Patients: A Pilot Study
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE
2013; 20 (1): 77–81
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the USA and is a particular threat to those with coronary disease. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centered, directive method for enhancing intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving ambivalence about altering behavior.This study examined the efficacy of MI compared to nutritional counseling for weight loss in a small sample of obese cardiac patients.Participants were assigned to either MI or to nutrition counseling and followed up over 3 months. Trained undergraduate students delivered the MI intervention.There were significant reductions in weight in women in the MI intervention, but not in men.The results suggest that MI may be effective for obese female cardiac patients, in particular, even when delivered by nonprofessional interviewers. Limitations of the study include a small sample size, nonrandomized assignment to conditions, and attrition over time.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s12529-011-9219-9
View details for Web of Science ID 000315271400011
View details for PubMedID 22328443
Suicide Attempts and Suicide among Marines: A Decade of Follow-up
SUICIDE AND LIFE-THREATENING BEHAVIOR
2013; 43 (1): 39–49
Suicidal behavior among military personnel is of paramount public health importance because of the increased risk of death from suicide in this population. Pre- and post-Marine recruit training risk factors for suicide attempts among current and former Marines were examined in 10 years following recruit training. The characteristics of the subsample of current and former Marines who died by suicide during this time are also described. Stressful and traumatic life events (e.g., childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, sexual harassment during recruit training) and pre-recruit training suicide attempts emerged as having strong associations with post-recruit training attempts. Half of those who died by suicide in the 10 years following recruit training endorsed at least one significant life stressor prior to joining the Marines. This study highlights the importance of screening for stressful and potentially traumatic experiences occurring both before and during military service as part of a comprehensive suicide risk assessment in military samples.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1943-278X.2012.00126.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000314180600003
View details for PubMedID 23082753