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All Publications

  • Dynamics in a Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid from the Cation Perspective: 2D IR Vibrational Echo Spectroscopy. Journal of the American Chemical Society Yamada, S. A., Bailey, H. E., Tamimi, A., Li, C., Fayer, M. D. 2017; 139 (6): 2408-2420


    The dynamics of the room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BmimNTf2) were investigated with two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy and polarization selective pump-probe (PSPP) experiments. The CN stretch frequency of a modified Bmim(+) cation (2-SeCN-Bmim(+)), in which a SeCN moiety was substituted onto the C-2 position of the imidazolium ring, was used as a vibrational probe. A major result of the 2D IR experiments is the observation of a long time scale structural spectral diffusion component of 600 ps in addition to short and intermediate time scales similar to those measured for selenocyanate anion (SeCN(-)) dissolved in BmimNTf2. In contrast to 2-SeCN-Bmim(+), SeCN(-) samples its inhomogeneous line width nearly an order of magnitude faster than the complete structural randomization time of neat BmimNTf2 liquid (870 ± 20 ps) measured with optical heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) experiments. The orientational correlation function obtained from PSPP experiments on 2-SeCN-Bmim(+) exhibits two periods of restricted angular diffusion (wobbling-in-a-cone) followed by complete orientational randomization on a time scale of 900 ± 20 ps, significantly slower than observed for SeCN(-) but identical within experimental error to the complete structural randomization time of BmimNTf2. The experiments indicate that 2-SeCN-Bmim(+) is sensitive to local motions of the ionic region that influence the spectral diffusion and reorientation of small, anionic, and neutral molecules as well as significantly slower, longer-range fluctuations that are responsible for complete randomization of the liquid structure.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jacs.6b12011

    View details for PubMedID 28099808

  • Alkyl Chain Length Dependence of the Dynamics and Structure in the Ionic Regions of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids. journal of physical chemistry. B Tamimi, A., Bailey, H. E., Fayer, M. D. 2016; 120 (30): 7488-7501


    The dynamics of four 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) with carbon chain lengths of 2, 4, 6, and 10 were studied by measuring the orientational and spectral diffusion dynamics of the vibrational probe SeCN(-). Vibrational absorption spectra, two-dimensional infrared (2D IR), and polarization-selective pump-probe (PSPP) experiments were performed on the CN stretch. In addition, optical heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) experiments were performed on the bulk liquids. The PSPP experiments yielded triexponential anisotropy decays, which were analyzed with the wobbling-in-a-cone model. The slowest decay, the complete orientational randomization, slows with increasing chain length in a hydrodynamic trend consistent with the increasing viscosity. The shortest time scale wobbling motions are insensitive to chain length, while the intermediate time scale wobbling slows mildly as the chain length increases. The 2D IR spectra measured in parallel (⟨XXXX⟩) and perpendicular (⟨XXYY⟩) polarization configurations gave different decays, showing that reorientation-induced spectral diffusion (RISD) contributes to the dynamics. The spectral diffusion caused by the RTIL structural fluctuations was obtained by removing the RISD contributions. The faster structural fluctuations are relatively insensitive to chain length. The slowest structural fluctuations slow substantially when going from Emim (2 carbon chain) to Bmim (4 carbon chain) and slow further, but more gradually, as the chain length is increased. It was shown previously that K(+) causes local ion clustering in the Emim RTIL. The K(+) effect increases with increasing chain length. The OHD-OKE measured complete structural randomization times slow substantially with increasing chain length and are much slower than the dynamics experienced by the SeCN(-) located in the ionic regions of the RTILs.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b05397

    View details for PubMedID 27388422

  • Critical Slowing of Density Fluctuations Approaching the Isotropic-Nematic Transition in Liquid Crystals: 2D IR Measurements and Mode Coupling Theory. journal of physical chemistry. B Sokolowsky, K. P., Bailey, H. E., Hoffman, D. J., Andersen, H. C., Fayer, M. D. 2016; 120 (28): 7003-7015


    Two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) data are presented for a vibrational probe in three nematogens: 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl, 4-cyano-4'-octylbiphenyl, and 4-(trans-4-amylcyclohexyl)-benzonitrile. The spectral diffusion time constants in all three liquids in the isotropic phase are proportional to [T*/(T - T*)](1/2), where T* is 0.5-1 K below the isotropic-nematic phase transition temperature (TNI). Rescaling to a reduced temperature shows that the decays of the frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF) for all three nematogens fall on the same curve, suggesting a universal dynamic behavior of nematogens above TNI. Spectral diffusion is complete before significant orientational relaxation in the liquid, as measured by optically heterodyne detected-optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) spectroscopy, and before any significant orientational randomization of the probe measured by polarization selective IR pump-probe experiments. To interpret the OHD-OKE and FFCF data, we constructed a mode coupling theory (MCT) schematic model for the relationships among three correlation functions: ϕ1, a correlator for large wave vector density fluctuations; ϕ2, the orientational correlation function whose time derivative is the observable in the OHD-OKE experiment; and ϕ3, the FFCF for the 2D IR experiment. The equations for ϕ1 and ϕ2 match those in the previous MCT schematic model for nematogens, and ϕ3 is coupled to the first two correlators in a straightforward manner. Resulting models fit the data very well. Across liquid crystals, the temperature dependences of the coupling constants show consistent, nonmonotonic behavior. A remarkable change in coupling occurs at ∼5 K above TNI, precisely where the rate of spectral diffusion in 5CB was observed to deviate from that of a similar nonmesogenic liquid.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b04997

    View details for PubMedID 27363680

  • New divergent dynamics in the isotropic to nematic phase transition of liquid crystals measured with 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS Sokolowsky, K. P., Bailey, H. E., Fayer, M. D. 2014; 141 (19)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4901081

    View details for Web of Science ID 000345514700026

  • Length Scales and Structural Dynamics in Nematogen Pseudonematic Domains Measured with 2D IR Vibrational Echoes and Optical Kerr Effect Experiments. journal of physical chemistry. B Sokolowsky, K. P., Bailey, H. E., Fayer, M. D. 2014; 118 (28): 7856-7868


    Nematogen liquids in the isotropic phase are macroscopically homogeneous but on multinanometer length scales have pseudonematic domains with correlation lengths that grow as the isotropic to nematic phase transition temperature (TNI) is approached from above. Orientational relaxation of nematogens in the isotropic phase manifests as two fast power laws and a slow exponential decay when measured by optical heterodyne detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) experiments. The long time exponential relaxation is associated with complete randomization of pseudonematic domains. We examine the effect of local orientational correlation on spectral diffusion (structural evolution) experienced by a vibrational probe molecule within the pseudonematic domains of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) using two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy. The addition of low concentration 4-pentyl-4'-thiocyanobiphenyl (5SCB) as a long-lived vibrational probe to 5CB is shown to lower TNI of the sample slightly, but the fast power law dynamics and exponential decays observed by OHD-OKE spectroscopy are unchanged. We compare the complete orientational relaxation and spectral diffusion for samples of 5SCB in 5CB to 5SCB in 4-pentylbiphenyl (5B) at four temperatures above TNI. 5B has a molecular structure similar to 5CB but is not a nematogen. At all but the lowest temperature, the spectral diffusion in 5CB and 5B is described well as a triexponential decay with very similar time constants. The results demonstrate that the presence of local orientational order at temperatures well above TNI does not affect the spectral diffusion (structural evolution) within pseudonematic domains when the correlation lengths are short. However, when the temperature of the sample is held very close to TNI, the spectral diffusion in 5CB slows dramatically while that in 5B does not. It is only as the correlation length becomes very long that its presence impacts the spectral diffusion (structural fluctuations) sensed by the vibrational probes located in pseudonematic domains. The orientational relaxation is modeled with schematic mode coupling theory (MCT). Fitting with MCT provides density and orientational correlation functions. The density correlation decays are similar for 5B and 5CB, but the orientational correlation decays are much slower for 5CB. Additionally, the time dependence of the spectral diffusion in 5CB is strikingly similar to that of the density correlation function decay, while the orientational correlation function decay is far too slow to contribute to the spectral diffusion. Therefore, density fluctuations are likely the source of spectral diffusion at temperatures at least 5 K above TNI.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp500144p

    View details for PubMedID 24521155

  • Orientational Dynamics in a Lyotropic Room Temperature Ionic Liquid JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B Sturlaugson, A. L., Arima, A. Y., Bailey, H. E., Fayer, M. D. 2013; 117 (47): 14775-14784

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp407325b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330160100020

    View details for PubMedID 24171452

  • Orientational dynamics in a lyotropic room temperature ionic liquid. journal of physical chemistry. B Sturlaugson, A. L., Arima, A. Y., Bailey, H. E., Fayer, M. D. 2013; 117 (47): 14775-14784


    In a previous study of room temperature ionic liquid/water mixtures, the first clearly observed biexponential decays in optical heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) experiments on a liquid were reported, (Sturlaugson, A. L.; Fruchey, K. S.; Fayer, M. D. J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 1777), and it was suggested that the biexponential behavior is indicative of the approach to gelation. Here, new OHD-OKE experiments on mixtures of the room temperature ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride (OmimCl) with water are presented. The OmimCl/water system is shown to gel over the water mole fraction range of 0.69-0.81. In the OHD-OKE decays, the biexponential behavior becomes more distinct as the gelling concentration range is approached from either high or low water concentrations. The biexponential decays are analyzed in terms of the wobbling-in-a-cone model, and the resulting diffusion constants and "relative" order parameters and cone angles are reported. Comparison of the OmimCl/water data with the previously reported room temperature ionic liquid/water OHD-OKE decays supports the previous hypothesis that the biexponential dynamics are due to the approach to the liquid-gel transition and suggests that the order of the concentration-dependent phase transition can be tuned by the choice of anion.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/jp407325b

    View details for PubMedID 24171452