Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, Columbia University (2016)
  • Master of Philosophy, Columbia University (2015)

Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Mechanically tunable conductive interpenetrating network hydrogels that mimic the elastic moduli of biological tissue. Nature communications Feig, V. R., Tran, H., Lee, M., Bao, Z. 2018; 9 (1): 2740


    Conductive and stretchable materials that match the elastic moduli of biological tissue (0.5-500kPa) are desired for enhanced interfacial and mechanical stability. Compared with inorganic and dry polymeric conductors, hydrogels made with conducting polymers are promising soft electrode materials due to their high water content. Nevertheless, most conducting polymer-based hydrogels sacrifice electronic performance to obtain usefulmechanical properties. Here we report a method that overcomes this limitation using two interpenetrating hydrogel networks, one of which is formed by the gelation of the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS. Due to the connectivity of the PEDOT:PSS network, conductivities up to 23Sm-1 are achieved, a record for stretchable PEDOT:PSS-based hydrogels. Meanwhile, the low concentration of PEDOT:PSS enables orthogonal control over the composite mechanical properties using a secondary polymer network. We demonstrate tunability of the elastic modulus over three biologically relevant orders of magnitude without compromising stretchability (>100%) or conductivity (>10Sm-1).

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-018-05222-4

    View details for PubMedID 30013027

  • Skin-Inspired Electronics: An Emerging Paradigm ACCOUNTS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH Wang, S., Oh, J., Xu, J., Tran, H., Bao, Z. 2018; 51 (5): 1033–45


    Future electronics will take on more important roles in people's lives. They need to allow more intimate contact with human beings to enable advanced health monitoring, disease detection, medical therapies, and human-machine interfacing. However, current electronics are rigid, nondegradable and cannot self-repair, while the human body is soft, dynamic, stretchable, biodegradable, and self-healing. Therefore, it is critical to develop a new class of electronic materials that incorporate skinlike properties, including stretchability for conformable integration, minimal discomfort and suppressed invasive reactions; self-healing for long-term durability under harsh mechanical conditions; and biodegradability for reducing environmental impact and obviating the need for secondary device removal for medical implants. These demands have fueled the development of a new generation of electronic materials, primarily composed of polymers and polymer composites with both high electrical performance and skinlike properties, and consequently led to a new paradigm of electronics, termed "skin-inspired electronics". This Account covers recent important advances in skin-inspired electronics, from basic material developments to device components and proof-of-concept demonstrations for integrated bioelectronics applications. To date, stretchability has been the most prominent focus in this field. In contrast to strain-engineering approaches that extrinsically impart stretchability into inorganic electronics, intrinsically stretchable materials provide a direct route to achieve higher mechanical robustness, higher device density, and scalable fabrication. The key is the introduction of strain-dissipation mechanisms into the material design, which has been realized through molecular engineering (e.g., soft molecular segments, dynamic bonds) and physical engineering (e.g., nanoconfinement effect, geometric design). The material design concepts have led to the successful demonstrations of stretchable conductors, semiconductors, and dielectrics without sacrificing their electrical performance. Employing such materials, innovative device design coupled with fabrication method development has enabled stretchable sensors and displays as input/output components and large-scale transistor arrays for circuits and active matrixes. Strategies to incorporate self-healing into electronic materials are the second focus of this Account. To date, dynamic intermolecular interactions have been the most effective approach for imparting self-healing properties onto polymeric electronic materials, which have been utilized to fabricate self-healing sensors and actuators. Moreover, biodegradability has emerged as an important feature in skin-inspired electronics. The incorporation of degradable moieties along the polymer backbone allows for degradable conducting polymers and the use of bioderived materials has led to the demonstration of biodegradable functional devices, such as sensors and transistors. Finally, we highlight examples of skin-inspired electronics for three major applications: prosthetic e-skins, wearable electronics, and implantable electronics.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000432418000006

    View details for PubMedID 29693379

  • Biodegradable Polymeric Materials in Degradable Electronic Devices ACS CENTRAL SCIENCE Feig, V. R., Tran, H., Bao, Z. 2018; 4 (3): 337–48


    Biodegradable electronics have great potential to reduce the environmental footprint of devices and enable advanced health monitoring and therapeutic technologies. Complex biodegradable electronics require biodegradable substrates, insulators, conductors, and semiconductors, all of which comprise the fundamental building blocks of devices. This review will survey recent trends in the strategies used to fabricate biodegradable forms of each of these components. Polymers that can disintegrate without full chemical breakdown (type I), as well as those that can be recycled into monomeric and oligomeric building blocks (type II), will be discussed. Type I degradation is typically achieved with engineering and material science based strategies, whereas type II degradation often requires deliberate synthetic approaches. Notably, unconventional degradable linkages capable of maintaining long-range conjugation have been relatively unexplored, yet may enable fully biodegradable conductors and semiconductors with uncompromised electrical properties. While substantial progress has been made in developing degradable device components, the electrical and mechanical properties of these materials must be improved before fully degradable complex electronics can be realized.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acscentsci.7b00595

    View details for Web of Science ID 000428801200008

    View details for PubMedID 29632879

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5879474