All Publications

  • Tunable Phonon Polariton Hybridization in a van der Waals Hetero-Bicrystal. Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) Wehmeier, L., Yu, S. J., Chen, X., Mayer, R. A., Xiong, L., Yao, H., Jiang, Y., Hu, J., Janzen, E., Edgar, J. H., Zheng, X., Heinz, T. F., Basov, D. N., Homes, C. C., Hu, G., Carr, G. L., Liu, M., Fan, J. A. 2024: e2401349


    Phonon polaritons, the hybrid quasiparticles resulting from the coupling of photons and lattice vibrations, have gained significant attention in the field of layered van der Waals heterostructures. Particular interest has been paid to hetero-bicrystals composed of molybdenum oxide (MoO3) and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), which feature polariton dispersion tailorable via avoided polariton mode crossings. In this work, we systematically study the polariton eigenmodes in MoO3-hBN hetero-bicrystals self-assembled on ultrasmooth gold using synchrotron infrared nanospectroscopy. We experimentally demonstrate that the spectral gap in bicrystal dispersion and corresponding regimes of negative refraction can be tuned by material layer thickness, and we quantitatively match these results with a simple analytic model. We also investigate polaritonic cavity modes and polariton propagation along "forbidden" directions in our microscale bicrystals, which arise from the finite in-plane dimension of the synthesized MoO3 micro-ribbons. Our findings shed light on the unique dispersion properties of polaritons in van der Waals heterostructures and pave the way for applications leveraging deeply sub-wavelength mid-infrared light matter interactions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adma.202401349

    View details for PubMedID 38657644

  • Hidden phonon highways promote photoinduced interlayer energy transfer in twisted transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures. Science advances Johnson, A. C., Georgaras, J. D., Shen, X., Yao, H., Saunders, A. P., Zeng, H. J., Kim, H., Sood, A., Heinz, T. F., Lindenberg, A. M., Luo, D., da Jornada, F. H., Liu, F. 2024; 10 (4): eadj8819


    Vertically stacked van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures exhibit unique electronic, optical, and thermal properties that can be manipulated by twist-angle engineering. However, the weak phononic coupling at a bilayer interface imposes a fundamental thermal bottleneck for future two-dimensional devices. Using ultrafast electron diffraction, we directly investigated photoinduced nonequilibrium phonon dynamics in MoS2/WS2 at 4° twist angle and WSe2/MoSe2 heterobilayers with twist angles of 7°, 16°, and 25°. We identified an interlayer heat transfer channel with a characteristic timescale of ~20 picoseconds, about one order of magnitude faster than molecular dynamics simulations assuming initial intralayer thermalization. Atomistic calculations involving phonon-phonon scattering suggest that this process originates from the nonthermal phonon population following the initial interlayer charge transfer and scattering. Our findings present an avenue for thermal management in vdW heterostructures by tailoring nonequilibrium phonon populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/sciadv.adj8819

    View details for PubMedID 38266081

  • Hyperbolic Polaritonic Rulers Based on van der Waals α-MoO3 Waveguides and Resonators. ACS nano Yu, S. J., Yao, H., Hu, G., Jiang, Y., Zheng, X., Fan, S., Heinz, T. F., Fan, J. A. 2023


    Low-dimensional, strongly anisotropic nanomaterials can support hyperbolic phonon polaritons, which feature strong light-matter interactions that can enhance their capabilities in sensing and metrology tasks. In this work, we report hyperbolic polaritonic rulers, based on microscale α-phase molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO3) waveguides and resonators suspended over an ultraflat gold substrate, which exhibit near-field polaritonic characteristics that are exceptionally sensitive to device geometry. Using scanning near-field optical microscopy, we show that these systems support strongly confined image polariton modes that exhibit ideal antisymmetric gap polariton dispersion, which is highly sensitive to air gap dimensions and can be described and predicted using a simple analytic model. Dielectric constants used for modeling are accurately extracted using near-field optical measurements of α-MoO3 waveguides in contact with the gold substrate. We also find that for nanoscale resonators supporting in-plane Fabry-Perot modes, the mode order strongly depends on the air gap dimension in a manner that enables a simple readout of the gap dimension with nanometer precision.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsnano.3c08735

    View details for PubMedID 37948673

  • Ultrahigh-Quality Infrared Polaritonic Resonators Based on Bottom-Up-Synthesized van der Waals Nanoribbons. ACS nano Yu, S., Jiang, Y., Roberts, J. A., Huber, M. A., Yao, H., Shi, X., Bechtel, H. A., Gilbert Corder, S. N., Heinz, T. F., Zheng, X., Fan, J. A. 1800


    van der Waals nanomaterials supporting phonon polariton quasiparticles possess extraordinary light confinement capabilities, making them ideal systems for molecular sensing, thermal emission, and subwavelength imaging applications, but they require defect-free crystallinity and nanostructured form factors to fully showcase these capabilities. We introduce bottom-up-synthesized alpha-MoO3 structures as nanoscale phonon polaritonic systems that feature tailorable morphologies and crystal qualities consistent with bulk single crystals. alpha-MoO3 nanoribbons serve as low-loss hyperbolic Fabry-Perot nanoresonators, and we experimentally map hyperbolic resonances over four Reststrahlen bands spanning the far- and mid-infrared spectral range, including resonance modes beyond the 10th order. The measured quality factors are the highest from phonon polaritonic van der Waals structures to date. We anticipate that bottom-up-synthesized polaritonic van der Waals nanostructures will serve as an enabling high-performance and low-loss platform for infrared optical and optoelectronic applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsnano.1c10489

    View details for PubMedID 35041379

  • Ultrahigh-quality van der Waals hyperbolic polariton resonators Yu, S., Jiang, Y., Roberts, J. A., Huber, M. A., Yao, H., Shi, X., Bechtel, H. A., Corder, S. G., Heinz, T. F., Zheng, X., Fan, J. A., Chang-Hasnain, C. J., Fan, J. A., Zhou, W. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2612301

    View details for Web of Science ID 000836330700010