A pathway for Parkinson's Disease LRRK2 kinase to block primary cilia and Sonic hedgehog signaling in the brain.
Parkinson's disease-associated LRRK2 kinase phosphorylates multiple Rab GTPases, including Rab8A and Rab10. We show here that LRRK2 kinase interferes with primary cilia formation in cultured cells, human LRRK2 G2019S iPS cells and in the cortex of LRRK2 R1441C mice. Rab10 phosphorylation strengthens its intrinsic ability to block ciliogenesis by enhancing binding to RILPL1. Importantly, the ability of LRRK2 to interfere with ciliogenesis requires both Rab10 and RILPL1 proteins. Pathogenic LRRK2 influences the ability of cells to respond to cilia-dependent, Hedgehog signaling as monitored by Gli1 transcriptional activation. Moreover, cholinergic neurons in the striatum of LRRK2 R1441C mice show decreased ciliation, which will decrease their ability to sense Sonic hedgehog in a neuro-protective circuit that supports dopaminergic neurons. These data reveal a molecular pathway for regulating cilia function that likely contributes to Parkinson's disease-specific pathology.Editorial note: This article has been through an editorial process in which the authors decide how to respond to the issues raised during peer review. The Reviewing Editor's assessment is that all the issues have been addressed (see decision letter).
View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.40202
View details for PubMedID 30398148
MYO5B, STX3, and STXBP2 mutations reveal a common disease mechanism that unifies a subset of congenital diarrheal disorders: A mutation update
2018; 39 (3): 333–44
Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a rare but fatal autosomal recessive congenital diarrheal disorder caused by MYO5B mutations. In 2013, we launched an open-access registry for MVID patients and their MYO5B mutations (www.mvid-central.org). Since then, additional unique MYO5B mutations have been identified in MVID patients, but also in non-MVID patients. Animal models have been generated that formally prove the causality between MYO5B and MVID. Importantly, mutations in two other genes, STXBP2 and STX3, have since been associated with variants of MVID, shedding new light on the pathogenesis of this congenital diarrheal disorder. Here, we review these additional genes and their mutations. Furthermore, we discuss recent data from cell studies that indicate that the three genes are functionally linked and, therefore, may constitute a common disease mechanism that unifies a subset of phenotypically linked congenital diarrheal disorders. We present new data based on patient material to support this. To congregate existing and future information on MVID geno-/phenotypes, we have updated and expanded the MVID registry to include all currently known MVID-associated gene mutations, their demonstrated or predicted functional consequences, and associated clinical information.
View details for DOI 10.1002/humu.23386
View details for Web of Science ID 000424807600002
View details for PubMedID 29266534
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5838515
Rab29 activation of the Parkinson's disease-associated LRRK2 kinase
2018; 37 (1): 1–18
Parkinson's disease predisposing LRRK2 kinase phosphorylates a group of Rab GTPase proteins including Rab29, within the effector-binding switch II motif. Previous work indicated that Rab29, located within the PARK16 locus mutated in Parkinson's patients, operates in a common pathway with LRRK2. Here, we show that Rab29 recruits LRRK2 to the trans-Golgi network and greatly stimulates its kinase activity. Pathogenic LRRK2 R1441G/C and Y1699C mutants that promote GTP binding are more readily recruited to the Golgi and activated by Rab29 than wild-type LRRK2. We identify conserved residues within the LRRK2 ankyrin domain that are required for Rab29-mediated Golgi recruitment and kinase activation. Consistent with these findings, knockout of Rab29 in A549 cells reduces endogenous LRRK2-mediated phosphorylation of Rab10. We show that mutations that prevent LRRK2 from interacting with either Rab29 or GTP strikingly inhibit phosphorylation of a cluster of highly studied biomarker phosphorylation sites (Ser910, Ser935, Ser955 and Ser973). Our data reveal that Rab29 is a master regulator of LRRK2, controlling its activation, localization, and potentially biomarker phosphorylation.
View details for DOI 10.15252/embj.201798099
View details for Web of Science ID 000419328600001
View details for PubMedID 29212815
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5753036
Systematic proteomic analysis of LRRK2-mediated Rab GTPase phosphorylation establishes a connection to ciliogenesis
We previously reported that Parkinson's disease (PD) kinase LRRK2 phosphorylates a subset of Rab GTPases on a conserved residue in their switch-II domains (Steger et al., 2016) (PMID: 26824392). Here, we systematically analyzed the Rab protein family and found 14 of them (Rab3A/B/C/D, Rab5A/B/C, Rab8A/B, Rab10, Rab12, Rab29, Rab35 and Rab43) to be specifically phosphorylated by LRRK2, with evidence for endogenous phosphorylation for ten of them (Rab3A/B/C/D, Rab8A/B, Rab10, Rab12, Rab35 and Rab43). Affinity enrichment mass spectrometry revealed that the primary ciliogenesis regulator, RILPL1 specifically interacts with the LRRK2-phosphorylated forms of Rab8A and Rab10, whereas RILPL2 binds to phosphorylated Rab8A, Rab10, and Rab12. Induction of primary cilia formation by serum starvation led to a two-fold reduction in ciliogenesis in fibroblasts derived from pathogenic LRRK2-R1441G knock-in mice. These results implicate LRRK2 in primary ciliogenesis and suggest that Rab-mediated protein transport and/or signaling defects at cilia may contribute to LRRK2-dependent pathologies.
View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.31012
View details for Web of Science ID 000415750400001
View details for PubMedID 29125462
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5695910
Myosin Vb and Rab11a regulate phosphorylation of ezrin in enterocytes
JOURNAL OF CELL SCIENCE
2014; 127 (5): 1007-1017
Microvilli at the apical surface of enterocytes allow the efficient absorption of nutrients in the intestine. Ezrin activation by its phosphorylation at T567 is important for microvilli development, but how such ezrin phosphorylation is controlled is not well understood. We demonstrate that a subset of kinases that phosphorylate ezrin closely co-distributes with apical recycling endosome marker Rab11a in the subapical domain. Expression of dominant-negative Rab11a mutant or depletion of the Rab11a-binding motor protein myosin Vb prevents the subapical enrichment of Rab11a and these kinases and inhibits ezrin phosphorylation and microvilli development, without affecting the polarized distribution of ezrin itself. We observe a similar loss of the subapical enrichment of Rab11a and the kinases and reduced phosphorylation of ezrin in microvillus inclusion disease, which is associated with MYO5B mutations, intestinal microvilli atrophy and malabsorption. Thus, part of the machinery for ezrin activation depends on recycling endosomes controlled by myosin Vb and Rab11a which, we propose, might act as subapical signaling platforms that enterocytes use to regulate development of microvilli and maintain human intestinal function.
View details for DOI 10.1242/jcs.137273
View details for Web of Science ID 000332116300009
View details for PubMedID 24413175
An Overview and Online Registry of Microvillus Inclusion Disease Patients and their MYO5B Mutations
2013; 34 (12): 1597-1605
Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is one of the most severe congenital intestinal disorders and is characterized by neonatal secretory diarrhea and the inability to absorb nutrients from the intestinal lumen. MVID is associated with patient-, family-, and ancestry-unique mutations in the MYO5B gene, encoding the actin-based motor protein myosin Vb. Here, we review the MYO5B gene and all currently known MYO5B mutations and for the first time methodologically categorize these with regard to functional protein domains and recurrence in MYO7A associated with Usher syndrome and other myosins. We also review animal models for MVID and the latest data on functional studies related to the myosin Vb protein. To congregate existing and future information on MVID geno-/phenotypes and facilitate its quick and easy sharing among clinicians and researchers, we have constructed an online MOLGENIS-based international patient registry (www.MVID-central.org). This easily accessible database currently contains detailed information of 137 MVID patients together with reported clinical/phenotypic details and 41 unique MYO5B mutations, of which several unpublished. The future expansion and prospective nature of this registry is expected to improve disease diagnosis, prognosis, and genetic counseling.
View details for DOI 10.1002/humu.22440
View details for Web of Science ID 000326864200002
View details for PubMedID 24014347