Honors & Awards
Jump Start Award for Excellence in Research, Stanford University (2020)
Best Oral Presentation, Stanford University Postdoc Symposium (2019)
The Walter V. and Idun Berry Postdoctoral Fellowship, Stanford University (2018)
Stanford School of Medicine Dean’s Postdoctoral Fellowship, Stanford University (2018)
Stanford ChEM-H Postdocs at the Interface Postdoctoral Fellowship, Stanford University (2017)
Lawrence S. Dillion Distinguished Graduate Student Award, Texas A&M University (2016)
The Allied Genetics Conference Travel Award, Genetics Society of America (2016)
Best Graduate Student Oral Presentation, Texas A&M University (2015)
Best Graduate Student Oral Presentation, Southern Plains Zebrafish Meeting (2012)
Bachelor of Science, Bogazici University (2010)
Doctor of Philosophy, Texas A&M University College Station (2017)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
I am very interested in discovering the signals that glial cells and neurons use to communicate with each other, and understanding how these signals regulate neural function and myelination in the nervous system.
The Warburg Effect and lactate signaling augment Fgf-MAPK to promote sensory-neural development in the otic vesicle
Recent studies indicate that many developing tissues modify glycolysis to favor lactate synthesis (Agathocleous et al., 2012; Bulusu et al., 2017; Gu et al., 2016; Oginuma et al., 2017; Sá et al., 2017; Wang et al., 2014; Zheng et al., 2016), but how this promotes development is unclear. Using forward and reverse genetics in zebrafish, we show that disrupting the glycolytic gene phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (pgk1) impairs Fgf-dependent development of hair cells and neurons in the otic vesicle and other neurons in the CNS/PNS. Fgf-MAPK signaling underperforms in pgk1- / - mutants even when Fgf is transiently overexpressed. Wild-type embryos treated with drugs that block synthesis or secretion of lactate mimic the pgk1- / - phenotype, whereas pgk1- / - mutants are rescued by treatment with exogenous lactate. Lactate treatment of wild-type embryos elevates expression of Etv5b/Erm even when Fgf signaling is blocked. However, lactate's ability to stimulate neurogenesis is reversed by blocking MAPK. Thus, lactate raises basal levels of MAPK and Etv5b (a critical effector of the Fgf pathway), rendering cells more responsive to dynamic changes in Fgf signaling required by many developing tissues.
View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.56301
View details for Web of Science ID 000537689100001
View details for PubMedID 32338604
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7253172
Spemann organizer gene Goosecoid promotes delamination of neuroblasts from the otic vesicle
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2016; 113 (44): E6840–E6848
Neurons of the Statoacoustic Ganglion (SAG), which innervate the inner ear, originate as neuroblasts in the floor of the otic vesicle and subsequently delaminate and migrate toward the hindbrain before completing differentiation. In all vertebrates, locally expressed Fgf initiates SAG development by inducing expression of Neurogenin1 (Ngn1) in the floor of the otic vesicle. However, not all Ngn1-positive cells undergo delamination, nor has the mechanism controlling SAG delamination been elucidated. Here we report that Goosecoid (Gsc), best known for regulating cellular dynamics in the Spemann organizer, regulates delamination of neuroblasts in the otic vesicle. In zebrafish, Fgf coregulates expression of Gsc and Ngn1 in partially overlapping domains, with delamination occurring primarily in the zone of overlap. Loss of Gsc severely inhibits delamination, whereas overexpression of Gsc greatly increases delamination. Comisexpression of Ngn1 and Gsc induces ectopic delamination of some cells from the medial wall of the otic vesicle but with a low incidence, suggesting the action of a local inhibitor. The medial marker Pax2a is required to restrict the domain of gsc expression, and misexpression of Pax2a is sufficient to block delamination and fully suppress the effects of Gsc The opposing activities of Gsc and Pax2a correlate with repression or up-regulation, respectively, of E-cadherin (cdh1). These data resolve a genetic mechanism controlling delamination of otic neuroblasts. The data also elucidate a developmental role for Gsc consistent with a general function in promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
View details for PubMedID 27791112
Tfap2a Promotes Specification and Maturation of Neurons in the Inner Ear through Modulation of Bmp, Fgf and Notch Signaling
2015; 11 (3): e1005037
Neurons of the statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) transmit auditory and vestibular information from the inner ear to the hindbrain. SAG neuroblasts originate in the floor of the otic vesicle. New neuroblasts soon delaminate and migrate towards the hindbrain while continuing to proliferate, a phase known as transit amplification. SAG cells eventually come to rest between the ear and hindbrain before terminally differentiating. Regulation of these events is only partially understood. Fgf initiates neuroblast specification within the ear. Subsequently, Fgf secreted by mature SAG neurons exceeds a maximum threshold, serving to terminate specification and delay maturation of transit-amplifying cells. Notch signaling also limits SAG development, but how it is coordinated with Fgf is unknown. Here we show that transcription factor Tfap2a coordinates multiple signaling pathways to promote neurogenesis in the zebrafish inner ear. In both zebrafish and chick, Tfap2a is expressed in a ventrolateral domain of the otic vesicle that includes neurogenic precursors. Functional studies were conducted in zebrafish. Loss of Tfap2a elevated Fgf and Notch signaling, thereby inhibiting SAG specification and slowing maturation of transit-amplifying cells. Conversely, overexpression of Tfap2a inhibited Fgf and Notch signaling, leading to excess and accelerated SAG production. However, most SAG neurons produced by Tfap2a overexpression died soon after maturation. Directly blocking either Fgf or Notch caused less dramatic acceleration of SAG development without neuronal death, whereas blocking both pathways mimicked all observed effects of Tfap2a overexpression, including apoptosis of mature neurons. Analysis of genetic mosaics showed that Tfap2a acts non-autonomously to inhibit Fgf. This led to the discovery that Tfap2a activates expression of Bmp7a, which in turn inhibits both Fgf and Notch signaling. Blocking Bmp signaling reversed the effects of overexpressing Tfap2a. Together, these data support a model in which Tfap2a, acting through Bmp7a, modulates Fgf and Notch signaling to control the duration, amount and speed of SAG neural development.
View details for PubMedID 25781991
Focused ultrasound-induced inhibition of peripheral nerve fibers in an animal model of acute pain.
Regional anesthesia and pain medicine
Moderate-to-severe acute pain is prevalent in many healthcare settings and associated with adverse outcomes. Peripheral nerve blockade using traditional needle-based and local anesthetic-based techniques improves pain outcomes for some patient populations but has shortcomings limiting use. These limitations include its invasiveness, potential for local anesthetic systemic toxicity, risk of infection with an indwelling catheter, and relatively short duration of blockade compared with the period of pain after major injuries. Focused ultrasound is capable of inhibiting the peripheral nervous system and has potential as a pain management tool. However, investigations of its effect on peripheral nerve nociceptive fibers in animal models of acute pain are lacking. In an in vivo acute pain model, we investigated focused ultrasound's effects on behavior and peripheral nerve structure.Focused ultrasound was applied directly to the sciatic nerve of rats just prior to a hindpaw incision; three control groups (focused ultrasound sham only, hindpaw incision only, focused ultrasound sham+hindpaw incision) were also included. For all four groups (intervention and controls), behavioral testing (thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, hindpaw extension and flexion) took place for 4 weeks. Structural changes to peripheral nerves of non-focused ultrasound controls and after focused ultrasound application were assessed on days 0 and 14 using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.Compared with controls, after focused ultrasound application, animals had (1) increased mechanical nociceptive thresholds for 2 weeks; (2) sustained increase in thermal nociceptive thresholds for ≥4 weeks; (3) a decrease in hindpaw motor response for 0.5 weeks; and (4) a decrease in hindpaw plantar sensation for 2 weeks. At 14 days after focused ultrasound application, alterations to myelin sheaths and nerve fiber ultrastructure were observed both by light and electron microscopy.Focused ultrasound, using a distinct parameter set, reversibly inhibits A-delta peripheral nerve nociceptive, motor, and non-nociceptive sensory fiber-mediated behaviors, has a prolonged effect on C nociceptive fiber-mediated behavior, and alters nerve structure. Focused ultrasound may have potential as a peripheral nerve blockade technique for acute pain management. However, further investigation is required to determine C fiber inhibition duration and the significance of nerve structural changes.
View details for DOI 10.1136/rapm-2022-104060
View details for PubMedID 36822815
CNS myelination requires VAMP2/3-mediated membrane expansion in oligodendrocytes.
2022; 13 (1): 5583
Myelin is required for rapid nerve signaling and is emerging as a key driver of CNS plasticity and disease. How myelin is built and remodeled remains a fundamental question of neurobiology. Central to myelination is the ability of oligodendrocytes to add vast amounts of new cell membrane, expanding their surface areas by many thousand-fold. However, how oligodendrocytes add new membrane to build or remodel myelin is not fully understood. Here, we show that CNS myelin membrane addition requires exocytosis mediated by the vesicular SNARE proteins VAMP2/3. Genetic inactivation of VAMP2/3 in myelinating oligodendrocytes caused severe hypomyelination and premature death without overt loss of oligodendrocytes. Through live imaging, we discovered that VAMP2/3-mediated exocytosis drives membrane expansion within myelin sheaths to initiate wrapping and power sheath elongation. In conjunction with membrane expansion, mass spectrometry of oligodendrocyte surface proteins revealed that VAMP2/3 incorporates axon-myelin adhesion proteins that are collectively required to form nodes of Ranvier. Together, our results demonstrate that VAMP2/3-mediated membrane expansion in oligodendrocytes is indispensable for myelin formation, uncovering a cellular pathway that could sculpt myelination patterns in response to activity-dependent signals or be therapeutically targeted to promote regeneration in disease.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-022-33200-4
View details for PubMedID 36151203
Label-free optical detection of bioelectric potentials using electrochromic thin films.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Understanding how a network of interconnected neurons receives, stores, and processes information in the human brain is one of the outstanding scientific challenges of our time. The ability to reliably detect neuroelectric activities is essential to addressing this challenge. Optical recording using voltage-sensitive fluorescent probes has provided unprecedented flexibility for choosing regions of interest in recording neuronal activities. However, when recording at a high frame rate such as 500 to 1,000 Hz, fluorescence-based voltage sensors often suffer from photobleaching and phototoxicity, which limit the recording duration. Here, we report an approach called electrochromic optical recording (ECORE) that achieves label-free optical recording of spontaneous neuroelectrical activities. ECORE utilizes the electrochromism of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) thin films, whose optical absorption can be modulated by an applied voltage. Being based on optical reflection instead of fluorescence, ECORE offers the flexibility of an optical probe without suffering from photobleaching or phototoxicity. Using ECORE, we optically recorded spontaneous action potentials in cardiomyocytes, cultured hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion neurons, and brain slices. With minimal perturbation to cells, ECORE allows long-term optical recording over multiple days.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.2002352117
View details for PubMedID 32632007
Foxi transcription factors promote pharyngeal arch development by regulating formation of FGF signaling centers
2014; 390 (1): 1–13
The bones of the vertebrate face develop from transient embryonic branchial arches that are populated by cranial neural crest cells. We have characterized a mouse mutant for the Forkhead family transcription factor Foxi3, which is expressed in branchial ectoderm and endoderm. Foxi3 mutant mice are not viable and display severe branchial arch-derived facial skeleton defects, including absence of all but the most distal tip of the mandible and complete absence of the inner, middle and external ear structures. Although cranial neural crest cells of Foxi3 mutants are able to migrate, populate the branchial arches, and display some elements of correct proximo-distal patterning, they succumb to apoptosis from embryonic day 9.75 onwards. We show this cell death correlates with a delay in expression of Fgf8 in branchial arch ectoderm and a failure of neural crest cells in the arches to express FGF-responsive genes. Zebrafish foxi1 is also expressed in branchial arch ectoderm and endoderm, and morpholino knock-down of foxi1 also causes apoptosis of neural crest in the branchial arches. We show that heat shock induction of fgf3 in zebrafish arch tissue can rescue cell death in foxi1 morphants. Our results suggest that Foxi3 may play a role in the establishment of signaling centers in the branchial arches that are required for neural crest survival, patterning and the subsequent development of branchial arch derivatives.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ydbio.2014.03.004
View details for Web of Science ID 000334568200001
View details for PubMedID 24650709
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4013273
A Spatial and Temporal Gradient of Fgf Differentially Regulates Distinct Stages of Neural Development in the Zebrafish Inner Ear
2012; 8 (11): e1003068
Neuroblasts of the statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) initially form in the floor of the otic vesicle during a relatively brief developmental window. They soon delaminate and undergo a protracted phase of proliferation and migration (transit-amplification). Neuroblasts eventually differentiate and extend processes bi-directionally to synapse with hair cells in the inner ear and various targets in the hindbrain. Our studies in zebrafish have shown that Fgf signaling controls multiple phases of this complex developmental process. Moderate levels of Fgf in a gradient emanating from the nascent utricular macula specify SAG neuroblasts in laterally adjacent otic epithelium. At a later stage, differentiating SAG neurons express Fgf5, which serves two functions: First, as SAG neurons accumulate, increasing levels of Fgf exceed an upper threshold that terminates the initial phase of neuroblast specification. Second, elevated Fgf delays differentiation of transit-amplifying cells, balancing the rate of progenitor renewal with neuronal differentiation. Laser-ablation of mature SAG neurons abolishes feedback-inhibition and causes precocious neuronal differentiation. Similar effects are obtained by Fgf5-knockdown or global impairment of Fgf signaling, whereas Fgf misexpression has the opposite effect. Thus Fgf signaling renders SAG development self-regulating, ensuring steady production of an appropriate number of neurons as the larva grows.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003068
View details for Web of Science ID 000311891600052
View details for PubMedID 23166517
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3499369