Fluid-structure interaction modeling of blood flow in the pulmonary arteries using the unified continuum and variational multiscale formulation.
Mechanics research communications
In this work, we present a computational fluid-structure interaction (FSI) study for a healthy patient-specific pulmonary arterial tree using the unified continuum and variational multiscale (VMS) formulation we previously developed. The unified framework is particularly well-suited for FSI, as the fluid and solid sub-problems are addressed in essentially the same manner and can thus be uniformly integrated in time with the generalized-alpha method. In addition, the VMS formulation provides a mechanism for large-eddy simulation in the fluid sub-problem and pressure stabilization in the solid sub-problem. The FSI problem is solved in a quasi-direct approach, in which the pressure and velocity in the unified continuum body are first solved, and the solid displacement is then obtained via a segregated algorithm and prescribed as a boundary condition for the mesh motion. Results of the pulmonary arterial FSI simulation are presented and compared against those of a rigid wall simulation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mechrescom.2020.103556
View details for PubMedID 32773906
Infant skull fracture risk for low height falls.
International journal of legal medicine
2019; 133 (3): 847–62
Skull fractures are common injuries in young children, typically caused by accidental falls and child abuse. The paucity of detailed biomechanical data from real-world trauma in children has hampered development of biomechanical thresholds for skull fracture in infants. The objectives of this study were to identify biomechanical metrics to predict skull fracture, determine threshold values associated with fracture, and develop skull fracture risk curves for low-height falls in infants. To achieve these objectives, we utilized an integrated approach consisting of case evaluation, anthropomorphic reconstruction, and finite element simulation. Four biomechanical candidates for predicting skull fracture were identified (first principal stress, first principal strain, shear stress, and von Mises stress) and evaluated against well-witnessed falls in infants (0-6 months). Among the predictor candidates, first principal stress and strain correlated best with the occurrence of parietal skull fracture. The principal stress and strain thresholds associated with 50 and 95% probability of parietal skull fracture were 25.229 and 36.015 MPa and 0.0464 and 0.0699, respectively. Risk curves using these predictors determined that infant falls from 0.3 m had a low probability (0-54%) to result in parietal skull fracture, particularly with carpet impact (0-1%). Head-first falls from 0.9 m had a high probability of fracture (86-100%) for concrete impact and a moderate probability (34-81%) for carpet impact. Probabilities of fracture in 0.6 m falls were dependent on impact surface. Occipital impacts from 0.9 m onto the concrete also had the potential (27-90% probability) to generate parietal skull fracture. These data represent a multi-faceted biomechanical assessment of infant skull fracture risk and can assist in the differential diagnosis for head trauma in children.
View details for PubMedID 30194647