- Design Rules for High-Valent Redox in Intercalation Electrodes JOULE 2020; 4 (7): 1369–97
- Ab initio molecular dynamics study of SiO2 lithiation CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS 2020; 739
Facile diamond synthesis from lower diamondoids.
2020; 6 (8): eaay9405
Carbon-based nanomaterials have exceptional properties that make them attractive for a variety of technological applications. Here, we report on the use of diamondoids (diamond-like, saturated hydrocarbons) as promising precursors for laser-induced high-pressure, high-temperature diamond synthesis. The lowest pressure and temperature (P-T) conditions that yielded diamond were 12 GPa (at ~2000 K) and 900 K (at ~20 GPa), respectively. This represents a substantially reduced transformation barrier compared with diamond synthesis from conventional (hydro)carbon allotropes, owing to the similarities in the structure and full sp3 hybridization of diamondoids and bulk diamond. At 20 GPa, diamondoid-to-diamond conversion occurs rapidly within <19 μs. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that once dehydrogenated, the remaining diamondoid carbon cages reconstruct themselves into diamond-like structures at high P-T. This study is the first successful mapping of the P-T conditions and onset timing of the diamondoid-to-diamond conversion and elucidates the physical and chemical factors that facilitate diamond synthesis.
View details for DOI 10.1126/sciadv.aay9405
View details for PubMedID 32128417
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7034983
- Coulombically-stabilized oxygen hole polarons enable fully reversible oxygen redox arXiv 2020
- Solid Electrolyte Interphase on Native Oxide-Terminated Silicon Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries JOULE 2019; 3 (3): 762–81
Geometry Distortion and Small Polaron Binding Energy Changes with Ionic Substitution in Halide Perovskites
JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS
2018; 9 (24): 7130–36
Halide perovskites have demonstrated remarkable performance in optoelectronic applications. Despite extraordinary progress, questions remain about device stability. We report an in-depth computational study of small polaron formation, electronic structure, charge density, and reorganization energies of several experimentally relevant halide perovskites using isolated clusters. Local lattice symmetry, electronic structure, and electron-phonon coupling are interrelated in polaron formation in these materials. To illustrate this, first principles calculations are performed on (MA/Cs/FA)Pb(I/Br)3 and MASnI3. Across the materials studied, electron small polaron formation is manifested by Jahn-Teller like distortions in the central octahedron, with apical PbI bonds expanding significantly more than the equatorial bonds. In contrast, hole polarons cause the central octahedron to uniformly contract. This difference in manifestation of electron and hole polaron formation can be a tool to determine what is taking place in individual systems to systematically control performance. Other trends as the anion and cations are changed, are established for optimization in specific optoelectronic applications.
View details for PubMedID 30523689
Fluoroethylene Carbonate Induces Ordered Electrolyte Interface on Silicon and Sapphire Surfaces as Revealed by Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy and X-ray Reflectivity
2018; 18 (3): 2105–11
The cyclability of silicon anodes in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is affected by the reduction of the electrolyte on the anode surface to produce a coating layer termed the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). One of the key steps for a major improvement of LIBs is unraveling the SEI's structure-related diffusion properties as charge and discharge rates of LIBs are diffusion-limited. To this end, we have combined two surface sensitive techniques, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, and X-ray reflectivity (XRR), to explore the first monolayer and to probe the first several layers of electrolyte, respectively, for solutions consisting of 1 M lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) salt dissolved in ethylene carbonate (EC) or fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and their mixtures (EC/FEC 7:3 and 1:1 wt %) on silicon and sapphire surfaces. Our results suggest that the addition of FEC to EC solution causes the first monolayer to rearrange itself more perpendicular to the anode surface, while subsequent layers are less affected and tend to maintain their, on average, surface-parallel arrangements. This fundamental understanding of the near-surface orientation of the electrolyte molecules can aid operational strategies for designing high-performance LIBs.
View details for PubMedID 29451803
Robust NaO2 Electrochemistry in Aprotic Na-O-2 Batteries Employing Ethereal Electrolytes with a Protic Additive
JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS
2016; 7 (12): 2164-2169
Aprotic metal-oxygen batteries, such as Li-O2 and Na-O2 batteries, are of topical research interest as high specific energy alternatives to state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. In particular, Na-O2 batteries with NaO2 as the discharge product offer higher practical specific energy with better rechargeability and round-trip energy efficiency when compared to Li-O2 batteries. In this work, we show that the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of NaO2 in Na-O2 batteries is unperturbed by trace water impurities in Na-O2 battery electrolytes, which is desirable for practical battery applications. We find no evidence for the formation of other discharge products such as Na2O2·H2O. Furthermore, the electrochemical efficiency during charge remains near ideal in the presence of trace water in electrolytes. Although sodium anodes react with trace water leading to the formation of a high-impedance solid electrolyte interphase, the increase in discharge overpotential is only ∼100 mV when compared to cells employing nominally anhydrous electrolytes.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.jpclett.6b00856
View details for Web of Science ID 000378196000002
View details for PubMedID 27214400