Bachelor of Arts and Science, University of California Davis (2006)
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis (2014)
Master of Public Health, University of California Davis (2015)
Effects of Human Management Events on Conspecific Aggression in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABORATORY ANIMAL SCIENCE
2017; 56 (2): 122-130
Conspecific aggression in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at primate research facilities is a leadingsource of trauma and can potentially influence animal wellbeing and research quality. Although aggression between macaquesis a normal part of daily social interactions, human presence might affect the frequency of various behaviors and instigateincreases in conspecific aggression. We sought to determine how and which human management events affect conspecificaggression both immediately after an event and throughout the course of a day. From June 2008 through December 2009, werecorded agonistic encounters among macaques living in 7 social groups in large outdoor field cages. Behavioral data werethen synchronized with specific management events (for example, feeding, enclosure cleaning, animal catching) that occurredwithin or near the enclosure. By using an Information Theoretical approach, 2 generalized linear mixed models were developedto estimate the effects of human management events on 1) aggression after individual management events and 2) dailylevels of aggression. Univariate analysis revealed an increase in the rate of aggression after a management event occurred.The best predictor of aggression in a cage was the type of management event that occurred. Various factors including thenumber of daily management events, the total time of management events, the technicians involved, reproductive season,and their interactions also showed significant associations with daily aggression levels. Our findings demonstrate that humanmanagement events are associated with an increase in conspecific aggression between rhesus macaques and thus haveimplications regarding how humans manage primates in research facilities.
View details for Web of Science ID 000397172600002
View details for PubMedID 28256188
Efficient Cooperative Restraint Training With Rhesus Macaques
JOURNAL OF APPLIED ANIMAL WELFARE SCIENCE
2013; 16 (2): 98-117
It is sometimes necessary for nonhuman primates to be restrained during biomedical and psychosocial research. Such restraint is often accomplished using a "primate chair." This article details a method for training adult rhesus macaques to cooperate with a chair restraint procedure using positive and negative reinforcement. Successful training was accomplished rapidly in approximately 14 training days. The success of this training technique suggests that this method represents a refinement to traditional techniques. Further, this method worked effectively for animals previously deemed unfit for traditional pole-and-collar training.
View details for DOI 10.1080/10888705.2013.768897
View details for Web of Science ID 000316909100002
View details for PubMedID 23544752
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3692558
Cryptic seedling herbivory by nocturnal introduced generalists impacts survival, performance of native and exotic plants
2009; 90 (2): 419-429
Although much of the theory on the success of invasive species has been geared at escape from specialist enemies, the impact of introduced generalist invertebrate herbivores on both native and introduced plant species has been underappreciated. The role of nocturnal invertebrate herbivores in structuring plant communities has been examined extensively in Europe, but less so in North America. Many nocturnal generalists (slugs, snails, and earwigs) have been introduced to North America, and 96% of herbivores found during a night census at our California Central Valley site were introduced generalists. We explored the role of these herbivores in the distribution, survivorship, and growth of 12 native and introduced plant species from six families. We predicted that introduced species sharing an evolutionary history with these generalists might be less vulnerable than native plant species. We quantified plant and herbivore abundances within our heterogeneous site and also established herbivore removal experiments in 160 plots spanning the gamut of microhabitats. As 18 collaborators, we checked 2000 seedling sites every day for three weeks to assess nocturnal seedling predation. Laboratory feeding trials allowed us to quantify the palatability of plant species to the two dominant nocturnal herbivores at the site (slugs and earwigs) and allowed us to account for herbivore microhabitat preferences when analyzing attack rates on seedlings. The relationship between local slug abundance and percent cover of five common plant taxa at the field site was significantly negatively associated with the mean palatability of these taxa to slugs in laboratory trials. Moreover, seedling mortality of 12 species in open-field plots was positively correlated with mean palatability of these taxa to both slugs and earwigs in laboratory trials. Counter to expectations, seedlings of native species were neither more vulnerable nor more palatable to nocturnal generalists than those of introduced species. Growth comparison of plants within and outside herbivore exclosures also revealed no differences between native and introduced plant species, despite large impacts of herbivores on growth. Cryptic nocturnal predation on seedlings was common and had large effects on plant establishment at our site. Without intensive monitoring, such predation could easily be misconstrued as poor seedling emergence.
View details for Web of Science ID 000263570800017
View details for PubMedID 19323226