Evolution and Diversity of Assembly-Line Polyketide Synthases
2019; 119 (24): 12524–47
Assembly-line polyketide synthases (PKSs) are among the most complex protein machineries known in nature, responsible for the biosynthesis of numerous compounds used in the clinic. Their present-day diversity is the result of an evolutionary path that has involved the emergence of a multimodular architecture and further diversification of assembly-line PKSs. In this review, we provide an overview of previous studies that investigated PKS evolution and propose a model that challenges the currently prevailing view that gene duplication has played a major role in the emergence of multimodularity. We also analyze the ensemble of orphan PKS clusters sequenced so far to evaluate how large the entire diversity of assembly-line PKS clusters and their chemical products could be. Finally, we examine the existing techniques to access the natural PKS diversity in natural and heterologous hosts and describe approaches to further expand this diversity through engineering.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.chemrev.9b00525
View details for Web of Science ID 000505627700009
View details for PubMedID 31838842
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6935866
- Discovery and Characterization of a Thioesterase-Specific Monoclonal Antibody That Recognizes the 6-Deoxyerythronolide B Synthase BIOCHEMISTRY 2018; 57 (43): 6201–8
Discovery and Characterization of a Thioesterase-Specific Monoclonal Antibody That Recognizes the 6-Deoxyerythronolide B Synthase.
Assembly line polyketide synthases (PKSs) are large multimodular enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse antibiotics in bacteria. Structural and mechanistic analysis of these megasynthases can benefit from the discovery of reagents that recognize individual domains or linkers in a site-specific manner. Monoclonal antibodies not only have proven themselves as premier tools in analogous applications but also have the added benefit of constraining the conformational flexibility of their targets in unpredictable but often useful ways. Here we have exploited a library based on the naive human antibody repertoire to discover a Fab (3A6) that recognizes the terminal thioesterase (TE) domain of the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase with high specificity. Biochemical assays were used to verify that 3A6 binding does not inhibit enzyme turnover. The co-crystal structure of the TE-3A6 complex was determined at 2.45 A resolution, resulting in atomic characterization of this protein-protein recognition mechanism. Fab binding had minimal effects on the structural integrity of the TE. In turn, these insights were used to interrogate via small-angle X-ray scattering the solution-phase conformation of 3A6 complexed to a catalytically competent PKS module and bimodule. Altogether, we have developed a high-affinity monoclonal antibody tool that recognizes the TE domain of the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase while maintaining its native function.
View details for PubMedID 30289692
SIRPA-Inhibited, Marrow-Derived Macrophages Engorge, Accumulate, and Differentiate in Antibody-Targeted Regression of Solid Tumors
2017; 27 (14): 2065-+
Marrow-derived macrophages are highly phagocytic, but whether they can also traffic into solid tumors and engulf cancer cells is questionable, given the well-known limitations of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Here, SIRPα on macrophages from mouse and human marrow was inhibited to block recognition of its ligand, the "marker of self" CD47 on all other cells. These macrophages were then systemically injected into mice with fluorescent human tumors that had been antibody targeted. Within days, the tumors regressed, and single-cell fluorescence analyses showed that the more the macrophages engulfed, the more they accumulated within regressing tumors. Human-marrow-derived macrophages engorged on the human tumors, while TAMs were minimally phagocytic, even toward CD47-knockdown tumors. Past studies had opsonized tumors in situ with antibody and/or relied on mouse TAMs but had not injected SIRPα-inhibited cells; also, unlike past injections of anti-CD47, blood parameters remained normal and safe. Consistent with tumor-selective engorge-and-accumulate processes in vivo, phagocytosis in vitro inhibited macrophage migration through micropores that mimic features of dense 3D tissue. Accumulation of SIRPα-inhibited macrophages in tumors favored tumor regression for 1-2 weeks, but donor macrophages quickly differentiated toward non-phagocytic, high-SIRPα TAMs. Analyses of macrophages on soft (like marrow) or stiff (like solid tumors) collagenous gels demonstrated a stiffness-driven, retinoic-acid-modulated upregulation of SIRPα and the mechanosensitive nuclear marker lamin-A. Mechanosensitive differentiation was similarly evident in vivo and likely limited the anti-tumor effects, as confirmed by re-initiation of tumor regression by fresh injections of SIRPα-inhibited macrophages. Macrophage motility, phagocytosis, and differentiation in vivo are thus coupled.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2017.06.005
View details for Web of Science ID 000406178400019
View details for PubMedID 28669759
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5846676
"Marker of Self" CD47 on lentiviral vectors decreases macrophage-mediated clearance and increases delivery to SIRPA-expressing lung carcinoma tumors.
Molecular therapy. Methods & clinical development
2016; 3: 16080
Lentiviruses infect many cell types and are now widely used for gene delivery in vitro, but in vivo uptake of these foreign vectors by macrophages is a limitation. Lentivectors are produced here from packaging cells that overexpress "Marker of Self" CD47, which inhibits macrophage uptake of cells when prophagocytic factors are also displayed. Single particle analyses show "hCD47-Lenti" display properly oriented human-CD47 for interactions with the macrophage's inhibitory receptor SIRPA. Macrophages derived from human and NOD/SCID/Il2rg-/- (NSG) mice show a SIRPA-dependent decrease in transduction, i.e., transgene expression, by hCD47-Lenti compared to control Lenti. Consistent with known "Self" signaling pathways, macrophage transduction by control Lenti is decreased by drug inhibition of Myosin-II to the same levels as hCD47-Lenti. In contrast, human lung carcinoma cells express SIRPA and use it to enhance transduction by hCD47-Lenti- as illustrated by more efficient gene deletion using CRISPR/Cas9. Intravenous injection of hCD47-Lenti into NSG mice shows hCD47 prolongs circulation, unless a blocking anti-SIRPA is preinjected. In vivo transduction of spleen and liver macrophages also decreases for hCD47-Lenti while transduction of lung carcinoma xenografts increases. hCD47 could be useful when macrophage uptake is limiting on other viral vectors that are emerging in cancer treatments (e.g., Measles glycoprotein-pseudotyped lentivectors) and also in targeting various SIRPA-expressing tumors such as glioblastomas.
View details for DOI 10.1038/mtm.2016.80
View details for PubMedID 28053997
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5148596