Justin Du Bois, Doctoral Dissertation Advisor (AC)
Rh2(II,III) Catalysts with Chelating Carboxylate and Carboxamidate Supports: Electronic Structure and Nitrene Transfer Reactivity.
Journal of the American Chemical Society
2016; 138 (7): 2327-2341
Dirhodium-catalyzed C-H amination is hypothesized to proceed via Rh2-nitrene intermediates in either the Rh2(II,II) or Rh2(II,III) redox state. Herein, we report joint theoretical and experimental studies of the ground electronic state (GES), redox potentials, and C-H amination of [Rh2(II,III)(O2CCH3)4(L)n](+) (1_L) (L = none, Cl(-), and H2O), [Rh2(esp)2](+) (2), and Rh2(espn)2Cl (3) (esp = α,α,α',α'-tetramethyl-1,3-benzenedipropanoate and espn = α,α,α',α'-tetramethyl-1,3-benzenedipropanamidate). CASSCF calculations on 1_L yield a wave function with two closely weighted configurations, (δ*)(2)(π1*)(2)(π2*)(1) and (δ*)(2)(π1*)(1)(π2*)(2), consistent with reported EPR g values [ Chem. Phys. Lett. 1986 , 130 , 20 - 23 ]. In contrast, EPR spectra of 2 show g values consistent with the DFT-computed (π*)(4)(δ*)(1) GES. EPR spectra and Cl K-edge XAS for 3 are consistent with a (π*)(4)(δ*)(1) GES, as supported by DFT. Nitrene intermediates 2N_L and 3N_L are also examined by DFT (the nitrene is an NSO3R species). DFT calculations suggest a doublet GES for 2N_L and a quartet GES for 3N_L. CASSCF calculations describe the GES of 2N as Rh2(II,II) with a coordinated nitrene radical cation, (π*)(4)(δ*)(2)(πnitrene,1)(1)(πnitrene,2)(0). Conversely, the GES of 3N is Rh2(II,III) with a coordinated triplet nitrene, (π*)(4)(δ*)(1)(πnitrene,1)(1)(πnitrene,2)(1). Quartet transition states ((4)TSs) are found to react via a stepwise radical mechanism, whereas (2)TSs are found to react via a concerted mechanism that is lower in energy compared to (4)TSs for both 2N_L and 3N_L. The experimental (determined by intramolecular competition) and (2)TS-calculated kinetic isotopic effect (KIE) shows a KIE ∼ 3 for both 2N and 3N, which is consistent with a concerted mechanism.
View details for DOI 10.1021/jacs.5b12790
View details for PubMedID 26820386