Doctor of Philosophy, Ludwig Maximilian Universitat Munchen (2014)
Master of Arts, Ludwig Maximilian Universitat Munchen (2010)
Bachelor of Arts, Oklahoma State University (2007)
James Gross, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
The Influence of Counterfactual Comparison on Fairness in Gain-Loss Contexts
FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY
Fairness perceptions may be affected by counterfactual comparisons. Although certain studies using a two-player ultimatum game (UG) have shown that comparison with the proposers influences the responders' fairness perceptions in a gain context, the effect of counterfactual comparison in a UG with multiple responders or proposers remains unclear, especially in a loss context. To resolve these issues, this study used a modified three-player UG with multiple responders in Experiment 1 and multiple proposers in Experiment 2 to examine the influence of counterfactual comparison on fairness-related decision-making in gain and loss contexts. The two experiments consistently showed that regardless of the gain or loss context, the level of inequality of the offer and counterfactual comparison influenced acceptance rates (ARs), response times (RTs), and fairness ratings (FRs). If the offers that were received were better than the counterfactual offers, unequal offers were more likely to be accepted than equal offers, and participants were more likely to report higher FRs and to make decisions more quickly. In contrast, when the offers they received were worse than the counterfactual offers, participants were more likely to reject unequal offers than equal offers, reported lower FRs, and made decisions more slowly. These results demonstrate that responders' fairness perceptions are influenced by not only comparisons of the absolute amount of money that they would receive but also specific counterfactuals from other proposers or responders. These findings improve our understanding of fairness perceptions.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00683
View details for Web of Science ID 000401223800001
View details for PubMedID 28536542
- Teachers' emotions and emotion management: integrating emotion regulation theory with emotional labor research SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION 2016; 19 (4): 843-863
Problematic Internet Users Show Impaired Inhibitory Control and Risk Taking with Losses: Evidence from Stop Signal and Mixed Gambles Tasks
FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY
According to the balance model of self-regulation, dysfunction of the inhibitory control and reward processing might be a behavioral marker for addiction and problematic behaviors. Although several studies have separately examined the inhibitory control or reward processing of individuals exhibiting problematic Internet use (PIU), no study has explored these two functions simultaneously to examine the potential imbalance of these functions. This study aimed to investigate whether the self-regulatory failure of PIU individuals results from deficits in both inhibitory control [indexed with the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) in a stop signal task] and risk taking with losses (measured as the acceptance rates of risky gables or the ratio of win/loss in a mixed gambles task). The results revealed that PIU individuals, compared with controls, showed decreased SSRT and increased error rates as well as reduced risk taking with losses. Correlational analyses revealed a significant positive relationship between the SSRT and risk taking with losses. These findings suggest that both the inhibitory control and reward functions are impaired in PIU individuals and reveal an association between these two systems. These results strengthen the balance model of self-regulation theory's argument that deficits in inhibitory control and risk taking with losses may assist in identifying risk markers for early diagnosis, progression, and prediction of PIU.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00370
View details for Web of Science ID 000372084500001
View details for PubMedID 27014170
Problematic Internet Users' Discounting Behaviors Reflect an Inability to Delay Gratification, Not Risk Taking.
Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking
2016; 19 (3): 172-178
The relationship between impulse control disorder (ICD) behaviors and problematic Internet use (PIU) has been established in the literature. Our aim was to further investigate whether the ICDs of individuals suffering from PIU primarily involve an inability to delay gratification or a tendency to take risks. Using delay and probability discounting tasks, we compared the subjective value of discounting between PIU individuals and controls in conditions of gaining or losing different monetary amounts. The results of the present study revealed a significant positive relationship between PIU and impulsivity scores. PIU individuals discounted delayed amounts more steeply than controls, regardless of the reward sign and monetary amount. Conversely, there were no significant group differences in the probability discounting task. These findings suggest that PIU individuals may be more impulsive than controls when impulsivity is framed as insensitivity to delayed outcomes rather than as a tendency to take risks, which is inconsistent with the view of impulsivity as a general trait.
View details for DOI 10.1089/cyber.2015.0295
View details for PubMedID 26894438