An Update on Fatalities Due to Venomous and Nonvenomous Animals in the United States (2008-2015).
Wilderness & environmental medicine
To review recent (2008-2015) United States mortality data from deaths caused by nonvenomous and venomous animals and compare with historical data.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research database was queried to return all animal-related fatalities between 2008 and 2015. Mortality frequencies for animal-related fatalities were calculated using the estimated 2011 United States population. Inclusion criteria included all mortalities that were a consequence of bite, contact, attack, or envenomation (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision codes W53-W59 and X20-X29).There were 1610 animal-related fatalities, with the majority from nonvenomous animals (2.8 deaths per 10 million persons). The largest proportion of animal-related fatalities was due to "other mammals," largely composed of horses and cattle. Deaths attributable to Hymenoptera (hornets, wasps, and bees) account for 29.7% of the overall animal-related fatalities and have been steady over the last 20 years. Dog-related fatality frequencies are stable, although the fatality frequency of 4.6 deaths per 10 million persons among children 4 years of age or younger was nearly 4-fold greater than in the other age groups.Appropriate education and prevention measures aimed at decreasing injury from animals should be directed at the high-risk groups of agricultural workers and young children with dogs. Public policy and treatment pricing should align to ensure adequate available medication for those at risk of anaphylaxis from stings from Hymenoptera.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wem.2017.10.004
View details for PubMedID 29373216
Development of a Surgical Infection Surveillance Program at a Tertiary Hospital in Ethiopia: Lessons Learned from Two Surveillance Strategies.
2018; 19 (1): 25–32
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a leading cause of post-operative morbidity and mortality. We developed Clean Cut, a surgical infection prevention program, with two goals: (1) Increase adherence to evidence-based peri-operative infection prevention standards and (2) establish sustainable surgical infection surveillance. Here we describe our infection surveillance strategy.Clean Cut was piloted and evaluated at a 523 bed tertiary hospital in Ethiopia. Infection prevention standards included: (1) Hand and surgical site decontamination; (2) integrity of gowns, drapes, and gloves; (3) instrument sterility; (4) prophylactic antibiotic administration; (5) surgical gauze tracking; and (6) checklist compliance. Primary outcome measure was SSI, with secondary outcomes including other infection, re-operation, and length of stay. We prospectively observed all post-surgical wounds in obstetrics over a 12 day period and separately recorded post-operative complications using chart review. Simultaneously, we reviewed the written hospital charts after patient discharge for all patients whose peri-operative adherence to infection prevention standards was captured.Fifty obstetric patients were followed prospectively with recorded rates of SSI 14%, re-operation 6%, and death 2%. Compared with direct observation, chart review alone had a high loss to follow-up (28%) and decreased capture of infectious complications (SSI [n = 2], endometritis [n = 3], re-operations [n = 2], death [n = 1]); further, documentation inconsistencies failed to capture two complications (SSI [n = 1], mastitis [n = 1]). Concurrently, 137 patients were observed for peri-operative infection prevention standard adherence. Of these, we were able to successfully review 95 (69%) patient charts with recorded rates of SSI 5%, re-operation 1%, and death 1%.Patient loss to follow-up and poor documentation of infections underestimated overall infectious complications. Direct, prospective follow-up is possible but requires increased time, clinical skill, and training. For accurate surgical infection surveillance, direct follow-up of patients during hospitalization is essential, because chart review does not accurately reflect post-operative complications.
View details for DOI 10.1089/sur.2017.136
View details for PubMedID 29135348
Sex disparities among persons receiving operative care during armed conflicts.
Armed conflict increasingly involves civilian populations, and health care needs may be immense. We hypothesized that sex disparities may exist among persons receiving operative care in conflict zones and sought to describe predictors of disparity.We performed a retrospective analysis of operative interventions performed between 2008 and 2014 at Médecins Sans Frontières Operation Center Brussels conflict projects. A Médecins Sans Frontières Operation Center Brussels conflict project was defined as a program established in response to human conflict, war, or social unrest. Intervention- and country-level variables were evaluated. For multivariate analysis, multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression was used with random-effect modeling to account for clustering and population differences in conflict zones.Between 2008 and 2014, 49,715 interventions were performed in conflict zones by Médecins Sans Frontières Operation Center Brussels. Median patient age was 24 years (range: 1-105 years), and 34,436 (69%) were men. Patient-level variables associated with decreased interventions on women included: American Society of Anesthesiologists score (P = .003), degree of urgency (P = .02), mechanism (P < .0001), and a country's predominant religion (P = .006). Men were 1.7 times more likely to have an operative intervention in a predominantly Muslim country (P = .006).Conflict is an unfortunate consequence of humanity in a world with limited resources. For most operative interventions performed in conflict zones, men were more commonly represented. Predominant religion was the greatest predictor of increased disparity between sexes, irrespective of the number of patients presenting as a result of traumatic injury. It is critical to understand what factors may underlie this disparity to ensure equitable and appropriate care for all patients in an already tragic situation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2017.03.001
View details for PubMedID 28400124
Impact of Surgical Lighting on Intraoperative Safety in Low-Resource Settings: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Surgical Providers.
World journal of surgery
Safe surgery requires high-quality, reliable lighting of the surgical field. Little is reported on the quality or potential safety impact of surgical lighting in low-resource settings, where power failures are common and equipment and resources are limited.Members of the Lifebox Foundation created a novel, non-mandatory, 18-item survey tool using an iterative process. This was distributed to surgical providers practicing in low-resource settings through surgical societies and mailing lists.We received 100 complete responses, representing a range of surgical centres from 39 countries. Poor-quality surgical field lighting was reported by 40% of respondents, with 32% reporting delayed or cancelled operations due to poor lighting and 48% reporting electrical power failures at least once per week. Eighty per cent reported the quality of their surgical lighting presents a patient safety risk with 18% having direct experience of poor-quality lighting leading to negative patient outcomes. When power outages occur, 58% of surgeons rely on a backup generator and 29% operate by mobile phone light. Only 9% of respondents regularly use a surgical headlight, with the most common barriers reported as unaffordability and poor in-country suppliers.In our survey of surgeons working in low-resource settings, a majority report poor surgical lighting as a major risk to patient safety and nearly one-third report delayed or cancelled operations due to poor lighting. Developing and distributing robust, affordable, high-quality surgical headlights could provide an ideal solution to this significant surgical safety issue.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00268-017-4293-z
View details for PubMedID 29051968
- Hernia Surgery Pocket Journal Club: Essential Articles in General Surgery edited by Mazer, L. M., Lagisetty, K., Butler, K. L. McGraw Hill. 2017: 157–169
Using the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist to Direct Perioperative Quality Improvement at a Surgical Hospital in Cambodia: The Importance of Objective Confirmation of Process Completion.
World journal of surgery
The WHO surgical safety checklist (SSC) is known to prevent postoperative complications; however, strategies for effective implementation are unclear. In addition to cultural and organizational barriers faced by high-income countries, resource-constrained settings face scarcity of durable and consumable goods. We used the SSC to better understand barriers to improvement at a trauma hospital in Battambang, Cambodia.We introduced the SSC and trained data collectors to observe surgical staff performing the checklist. Members of the research team observed cases and data collection. After 3 months, we modified the data collection tool to focus on infection prevention and elicit more accurate responses.Over 16 months we recorded data on 695 operations (304 cases using the first tool and 391 cases with the modified tool). The first tool identified five items as being in high compliance, which were then excluded from further assessment. Two items-instrument sterility confirmation and sponge counting-were identified as being misinterpreted by the data collectors' tool. These items were reworded to capture objective assessment of task completion. Confirmation of instrument sterility was initially never performed but rectified to >95% compliance; sponge counting and prophylactic antibiotic administration were consistently underperformed.Staff complied with communication elements of the SSC and quickly adopted process improvements. The wording of our data collection tool affected interpretation of compliance with standards. Material resources are not the primary barrier to checklist implementation in this setting, and future work should focus on clarification of protocols and objective confirmation of tasks.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00268-017-4198-x
View details for PubMedID 29038828
- Trends in Country-Specific Surgical Randomized Clinical Trial Publications. JAMA surgery 2017
- Hernia Mesh Repair and Global Surgery-Reply. JAMA surgery 2016
- Surgical Mesh Should Be Made Affordable to Low- and Middle-Income Countries JAMA SURGERY 2016; 151 (6): 499-500
- Self-reported Determinants of Access to Surgical Care in 3 Developing Countries JAMA SURGERY 2016; 151 (3): 257-263
- First case of mesh infection due to Coccidioides spp. and literature review of fungal mesh infections after hernia repair. Mycoses 2015; 58 (10): 582-587
Twelve Tips for Improving the General Surgery Resident Night Float Experience.
WMJ : official publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
2015; 114 (3): 110-115
Restriction of resident duty hours has resulted in the implementation of night float systems in surgical and medical programs. Many papers have examined the benefits and structure of night float, but few have addressed patient safety issues, quality patient care, and the impact on the residency education system. The objective of this review is to provide practical tips to optimize the night float experience for resident training while continuing to emphasize patient care. The tips provided are based on the experiences and reflections of residents, supervising staff, group discussions, and the available literature in a hospital-based general surgery residency program. Utilizing these resources, we concluded that the night float system addresses resident work hour restrictions; however, it ultimately creates new issues. Adaptations will help achieve a balance between resident education and patient safety.
View details for PubMedID 27073829
Fatalities From Venomous and Nonvenomous Animals in the United States (1999-2007)
WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE
2012; 23 (2): 146-152
To review recent (1999-2007) US mortality data from deaths caused by nonvenomous and venomous animals and compare recent data with historic data.The CDC WONDER Database was queried to return all animal-related fatalities between 1999 and 2007. Rates for animal-related fatalities were calculated using the estimated 2003 US population. Inclusion criteria included all mortalities that were a consequence of bite, contact, attack, or envenomation (ICD-10 codes W53-W59 and X20-X29).There were 1802 animal-related fatalities with the majority coming from nonvenomous animals (60.4%). The largest percentage (36.4%) of animal-related fatalities was attributable to "other mammals," which is largely composed of farm animals. Deaths attributable to Hymenoptera (hornets, wasps, and bees) have increased during the past 60 years in the United States and now account for more than 79 fatalities per year and 28.2% of the total animal-related fatalities from 1999 to 2007. Dog-related fatalities have increased in the United States, accounting for approximately 28 fatalities per year and 13.9% of the total animal-related fatalities.Prevention measures aimed at minimizing injury from animals should be directed at certain high-risk groups such as farmworkers, agricultural workers, and parents of children with dogs.
View details for Web of Science ID 000305098100010
View details for PubMedID 22656661