Persistence and evolution of allergen-specific IgE repertoires during subcutaneous specific immunotherapy
JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY
2016; 137 (5): 1535-1544
Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only treatment with proved long-term curative potential in patients with allergic disease. Allergen-specific IgE is the causative agent of allergic disease, and antibodies contribute to SIT, but the effects of SIT on aeroallergen-specific B-cell repertoires are not well understood.We sought to characterize the IgE sequences expressed by allergen-specific B cells and track the fate of these B-cell clones during SIT.We used high-throughput antibody gene sequencing and identification of allergen-specific IgE with combinatorial antibody fragment library technology to analyze immunoglobulin repertoires of blood and the nasal mucosa from aeroallergen-sensitized subjects before and during the first year of subcutaneous SIT.Of 52 distinct allergen-specific IgE heavy chains from 8 allergic donors, 37 were also detected by using high-throughput antibody gene sequencing of blood samples, nasal mucosal samples, or both. The allergen-specific clones had increased persistence, higher likelihood of belonging to clones expressing other switched isotypes, and possibly larger clone size than the rest of the IgE repertoire. Clone members in nasal tissue showed close mutational relationships.In the future, combining functional binding studies, deep antibody repertoire sequencing, and information on clinical outcomes in larger studies might aid assessment of SIT mechanisms and efficacy.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.09.027
View details for Web of Science ID 000376180200030
View details for PubMedID 26559321
- Human B-cell isotype switching origins of IgE JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY 2016; 137 (2): 579-?
Single B-cell deconvolution of peanut-specific antibody responses in allergic patients
JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY
2016; 137 (1): 157-167
The frequencies, cellular phenotypes, epitope specificity, and clonal diversity of allergen-specific B cells in patients with food allergy are not fully understood but are of major pathogenic and therapeutic significance.We sought to characterize peanut allergen-specific B-cell populations and the sequences and binding activities of their antibodies before and during immunotherapy.B cells binding fluorescently labeled Ara h 1 or Ara h 2 were phenotyped and isolated by means of flow cytometric sorting from 18 patients at baseline and 13 patients during therapy. Fifty-seven mAbs derived from allergen-binding single B cells were evaluated by using ELISA, Western blotting, and peptide epitope mapping. Deep sequencing of the B-cell repertoires identified additional members of the allergen-specific B-cell clones.Median allergen-binding B-cell frequencies were 0.0097% (Ara h 1) or 0.029% (Ara h 2) of B cells in baseline blood from allergic patients and approximately 3-fold higher during immunotherapy. Five of 57 allergen-specific cells belonged to clones containing IgE-expressing members. Almost all allergen-specific antibodies were mutated, and binding to both conformational and linear allergen epitopes was detected. Increasing somatic mutation of IgG4 members of a clone was seen in immunotherapy, whereas IgE mutation levels in the clone did not increase.Most peanut allergen-binding B cells isolated by means of antigen-specific flow sorting express mutated and isotype-switched antibodies. Immunotherapy increases their frequency in the blood, and even narrowly defined allergen epitopes are recognized by numerous distinct B-cell clones in a patient. The results also suggest that oral immunotherapy can stimulate somatic mutation of allergen-specific IgG4.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.05.029
View details for Web of Science ID 000367724300006
Human B-cell isotype switching origins of IgE.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
B cells expressing IgE contribute to immunity against parasites and venoms and are the source of antigen specificity in allergic patients, yet the developmental pathways producing these B cells in human subjects remain a subject of debate. Much of our knowledge of IgE lineage development derives from model studies in mice rather than from human subjects.We evaluate models for isotype switching to IgE in human subjects using immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) mutational lineage data.We analyzed IGH repertoires in 9 allergic and 24 healthy adults using high-throughput DNA sequencing of 15,843,270 IGH rearrangements to identify clonal lineages of B cells containing members expressing IgE. Somatic mutations in IGH inherited from common ancestors within the clonal lineage are used to infer the relationships between B cells.Data from 613,641 multi-isotype B-cell clonal lineages, of which 592 include an IgE member, are consistent with indirect switching to IgE from IgG- or IgA-expressing lineage members in human subjects. We also find that these inferred isotype switching frequencies are similar in healthy and allergic subjects.We found evidence that secondary isotype switching of mutated IgG1-expressing B cells is the primary source of IgE in human subjects, with lesser contributions from precursors expressing other switched isotypes and rarely IgM or IgD, suggesting that IgE is derived from previously antigen-experienced B cells rather than naive B cells that typically express low-affinity unmutated antibodies. These data provide a basis from which to evaluate allergen-specific human antibody repertoires in healthy and diseased subjects.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.07.014
View details for PubMedID 26309181
Comprehensive whole-genome sequencing of an early-stage primary myelofibrosis patient defines low mutational burden and non-recurrent candidate genes.
2013; 98 (11): 1689-1696
In order to identify novel somatic mutations associated with classic BCR/ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms, we performed high-coverage genome sequencing of DNA from peripheral blood granulocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts from a patient with MPL W515K-positive primary myelofibrosis. The primary myelofibrosis genome had a low somatic mutation rate, consistent with that observed in similar hematopoietic tumor genomes. Interfacing of whole-genome DNA sequence data with RNA expression data identified three somatic mutations of potential functional significance: a nonsense mutation in CARD6, implicated in modulation of NF-kappaB activation; a 19-base pair deletion involving a potential regulatory region in the 5'-untranslated region of BRD2, implicated in transcriptional regulation and cell cycle control; and a non-synonymous point mutation in KIAA0355, an uncharacterized protein. Additional mutations in three genes (CAP2, SOX30, and MFRP) were also evident, albeit with no support for expression at the RNA level. Re-sequencing of these six genes in 178 patients with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelofibrosis did not identify recurrent somatic mutations in these genes. Finally, we describe methods for reducing false-positive variant calls in the analysis of hematologic malignancies with a low somatic mutation rate. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01108159).
View details for DOI 10.3324/haematol.2013.092379
View details for PubMedID 23872309
The ELF4-ELF3-LUX complex links the circadian clock to diurnal control of hypocotyl growth
2011; 475 (7356): 398-U161
The circadian clock is required for adaptive responses to daily and seasonal changes in environmental conditions. Light and the circadian clock interact to consolidate the phase of hypocotyl cell elongation to peak at dawn under diurnal cycles in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we identify a protein complex (called the evening complex)--composed of the proteins encoded by EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), ELF4 and the transcription-factor-encoding gene LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX; also known as PHYTOCLOCK 1)--that directly regulates plant growth. ELF3 is both necessary and sufficient to form a complex between ELF4 and LUX, and the complex is diurnally regulated, peaking at dusk. ELF3, ELF4 and LUX are required for the proper expression of the growth-promoting transcription factors encoded by PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PIF5 (also known as PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3-LIKE 6) under diurnal conditions. LUX targets the complex to the promoters of PIF4 and PIF5 in vivo. Mutations in PIF4 and/or PIF5 are epistatic to the loss of the ELF4-ELF3-LUX complex, suggesting that regulation of PIF4 and PIF5 is a crucial function of the complex. Therefore, the evening complex underlies the molecular basis for circadian gating of hypocotyl growth in the early evening.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature10182
View details for Web of Science ID 000292911200047
View details for PubMedID 21753751