All Publications

  • An emergent population code in primary auditory cortex supports selective attention to spectral and temporal sound features. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience Downer, J. D., Verhein, J. R., Rapone, B. C., O'Connor, K. N., Sutter, M. L. 2021


    Textbook descriptions of primary sensory cortex (PSC) revolve around single neurons' representation of low-dimensional sensory features, such as visual object orientation in V1, location of somatic touch in S1, and sound frequency in A1. Typically, studies of PSC measure neurons' responses along few (1 or 2) stimulus and/or behavioral dimensions. However, real-world stimuli usually vary along many feature dimensions and behavioral demands change constantly. In order to illuminate how A1 supports flexible perception in rich acoustic environments, we recorded from A1 neurons while rhesus macaques (one male, one female) performed a feature-selective attention task. We presented sounds that varied along spectral and temporal feature dimensions (carrier bandwidth and temporal envelope, respectively). Within a block, subjects attended to one feature of the sound in a selective change detection task. We found that single neurons tend to be high-dimensional, in that they exhibit substantial mixed selectivity for both sound features, as well as task context. We found no overall enhancement of single-neuron coding of the attended feature, as attention could either diminish or enhance this coding. However, a population-level analysis reveals that ensembles of neurons exhibit enhanced encoding of attended sound features, and this population code tracks subjects' performance. Importantly, surrogate neural populations with intact single-neuron tuning but shuffled higher-order correlations among neurons fail to yield attention- related effects observed in the intact data. These results suggest that an emergent population code not measurable at the single-neuron level might constitute the functional unit of sensory representation in PSC.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe ability to adapt to a dynamic sensory environment promotes a range of important natural behaviors. We recorded from single neurons in monkey primary auditory cortex while subjects attended to either the spectral or temporal features of complex sounds. Surprisingly, we found no average increase in responsiveness to, or encoding of, the attended feature across single neurons. However, when we pooled the activity of the sampled neurons via targeted dimensionality reduction, we found enhanced population-level representation of the attended feature and suppression of the distractor feature. This dissociation of the effects of attention at the level of single neurons vs. the population highlights the synergistic nature of cortical sound encoding and enriches our understanding of sensory cortical function.

    View details for DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0693-20.2021

    View details for PubMedID 34210783

  • Decoding and perturbing decision states in real time. Nature Peixoto, D., Verhein, J. R., Kiani, R., Kao, J. C., Nuyujukian, P., Chandrasekaran, C., Brown, J., Fong, S., Ryu, S. I., Shenoy, K. V., Newsome, W. T. 2021


    In dynamic environments, subjects often integrate multiple samples of a signal and combine them to reach a categorical judgment1. The process of deliberation can be described by a time-varying decision variable (DV), decoded from neural population activity, that predicts a subject's upcoming decision2. Within single trials, however, there are large moment-to-moment fluctuations in the DV, the behavioural significance of which is unclear. Here, using real-time, neural feedback control of stimulus duration, we show that within-trial DV fluctuations, decoded from motor cortex, are tightly linked to decision statein macaques, predicting behavioural choices substantially better than the condition-averaged DV or the visual stimulus alone. Furthermore, robust changes in DV sign have the statistical regularities expected from behavioural studies of changes of mind3. Probing the decision process on single trials with weak stimulus pulses, we find evidence for time-varying absorbing decision bounds, enabling us to distinguish between specific models of decision making.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-020-03181-9

    View details for PubMedID 33473215