Instructor, Pediatrics - Endocrinology and Diabetes
Fellowship: Stanford University Pediatric Endocrinology Fellowship (2019) CA
Internship: Phoenix Children's Hospital (2015) AZ
PhD Training: Arizona State University Registrar (2015) AZ
Internship, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Clinical Psychology (2015)
Insul-In This Together Program for Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes and Their Parents
The "Insul-In This Together" intervention is designed for teens with Type 1 Diabetes and their parents. This study seeks to evaluate an evidence-based family intervention for teens with type 1 diabetes and their parents to offset the psychosocial and diabetes self-management risks. This information will provide a more in-depth understanding of family-based program efficacy for teens with adolescents and provide more judicious and streamlined intervention options to be offered in diabetes clinics in the future.
Do Youth Want Psychosocial Screenings in Diabetes Clinic? Profiles of Acceptability.
Journal of pediatric psychology
AIMS: Psychosocial screenings are recommended and increasingly common in pediatric subspecialty clinics, though little is known about their acceptability. This study seeks to uncover profiles of acceptability and assess demographic and clinical correlates among adolescents with diabetes.METHODS: A sample of 124 adolescents (57.7% female) ages 12-21years (M=16.2±2.3) completed screenings during routine diabetes appointments. K-means clustering of responses to acceptability items derived profiles; Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square tests assessed correlates.RESULTS: Adolescents with the most common profile (72.6%) placed high importance on medical providers' awareness of their emotions and reported no difficulties/discomfort with the screener. These youth had moderate depressive symptoms, low diabetes distress, and low A1c. Those who fit a less common profile (18.5%) were uncomfortable with the screener and had the highest depressive symptoms and lowest A1c. Youth who fit a smaller profile (6.5%) endorsed technical difficulties and had high depressive symptoms and lowest diabetes distress. The smallest profile (2.4%, N=3) had difficulty understanding and experienced discomfort with the screening and had the lowest depressive symptoms and the highest diabetes distress and A1c. These differences in depressive symptoms (F=3.54, p=.017), A1c values (F=4.03, p=.009), and diabetes distress (F=3.27, p=.036) were significant though differences in age, gender, and diabetes duration were not.CONCLUSIONS: Most youth responded favorably to in-clinic psychosocial screenings. Youth who were less satisfied were at increased risk for psychosocial and medical complications. Findings highlight areas of need, such as enhanced support with and an emphasized rationale for screenings, which may improve patient experience in subspecialty care.
View details for DOI 10.1093/jpepsy/jsaa112
View details for PubMedID 33316061
Parental Perspectives: Identifying Profiles of Parental Attitudes and Barriers Related to Diabetes Device Use.
Diabetes technology & therapeutics
BACKGROUND: Despite the demonstrated benefits of diabetes device use, uptake of insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) remains quite low. The current study aimed to identify profiles of parents of youth with type 1 diabetes based on their attitudes toward diabetes-specific technology and barriers to diabetes technology uptake.METHODS: Online survey data were collected from 471 parents in the T1D Exchange Clinic Network (child's age=12.0±3.2 years; diabetes duration=7.0±2.9 years; A1c=8.4%±1.3; 75% using insulin pump; 27% using CGM).RESULTS: K-means cluster analyses revealed 5 parent profiles: Embracers (50.7%), Burdened (15.7%), Hopeful but Hassled (14.2%), Distrusting (12.7%), and Data Minimalists (6.6%). ANOVAs and Chi-square tests identified differences between groups based on diabetes distress, worry over hypoglycemia, device use, and demographic characteristics.CONCLUSIONS: Providers encouraging device uptake may benefit from tailoring their approaches based on these distinct groups and their corresponding concerns and needs.
View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2019.0492
View details for PubMedID 31971451
Depression and family arguments: disentangling reciprocal effects for women and men.
2020; 37 (1): 49–55
Depression is a debilitating condition that affects the individual and the family.This study sought to identify potential reciprocal influences between family arguments and depressive symptoms among clinically depressed patients over a 23-year span.The present study employed a longitudinal, observational design with 424 depressed patients. Separate cross-lagged path models examined longitudinal associations for women and men over 23 years while adjusting for age, income, and marital and parental status.Among depressed men, more severe baseline depressive symptoms predicted more family arguments 10 years later. Among depressed women, more severe baseline depressive symptoms predicted fewer family arguments 1 year later, while more severe depressive symptoms at 10-year follow-up predicted more family arguments at 23-year follow-up. More family arguments predicted more severe depressive symptoms among women and men, with some variation in the time intervals of these associations.These findings suggest that while depressive symptoms may temporarily diminish family arguments among women, such symptoms were associated with more family arguments over longer time intervals. Moreover, family arguments put depressed men and women at risk for more severe depressive symptoms. These results support the use of screening for family arguments and interventions to help depressed individuals develop skills to manage interpersonal conflict.
View details for DOI 10.1093/fampra/cmz048
View details for PubMedID 32076721
Monetary reinforcement for self-monitoring of blood glucose among young people with type 1 diabetes: evaluating effects on psychosocial functioning
To explore the auxiliary psychosocial effects of a monetary reinforcement intervention targeting self-monitoring of blood glucose among young people with Type 1 diabetes.Sixty young people with Type 1 diabetes, HbA1c concentrations between 58 and 119 mmol/mol (7.5-13.0%), and average self-monitoring of blood glucose <4 times per day were randomized to either enhanced usual care or a 24-week intervention of monetary rewards for self-monitoring of blood glucose and associated behaviours (e.g. uploading glucose meters). Data were collected from the young people and their parents at baseline, during the intervention (6, 12 and 24 weeks) and after the intervention (36 weeks).Linear mixed models were used to evaluate the intervention effects on psychosocial outcomes, adjusting for corresponding baseline levels and potential moderation by baseline level. The intervention reduced diabetes distress at week 6 among young people who had average and high baseline distress. It also reduced diabetes distress at weeks 12 and 24 among those with low baseline distress. The intervention also reduced young person-reported diabetes-related family conflict and diabetes-related interference among those with high baseline scores in these areas; however, the intervention worsened young person-reported diabetes interference among those with low baseline interference. Effects were medium-sized and time-limited.Findings indicate predominantly positive impacts of monetary reinforcement interventions on psychosocial outcomes, although effects varied by outcome and time point. Whereas early improvements in diabetes distress were observed for all who received the intervention, improvements in other areas varied according to the level of psychosocial challenge at baseline. Incorporating psychosocial interventions may bolster and maintain effects over time.
View details for DOI 10.1111/dme.14174
View details for Web of Science ID 000497174800001
View details for PubMedID 31701566
Correlates of health care use among White and minority men and women with diabetes: An NHANES study.
Diabetes research and clinical practice
AIMS: The current study sought to identify patient-level factors related to health care use among White and minority men and women with diabetes.METHODS: A sample of 447 of non-pregnant individuals with diabetes, ages 18-64, was drawn from the 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys dataset. Poisson regression models tested associations between health care use and self-rated health, depression, medical comorbidities, body mass index, marital status, number of children, income, insurance coverage, and age, stratified by gender and racial/ethnic minority status.RESULTS: Poorer self-rated health was the only significant correlate of increased health care use among White men with diabetes whereas income and insurance were significant correlates of increased use among minority men. Among White and minority women, higher levels of depression and being single were correlated with greater health care use. Comorbid medical conditions and insurance coverage were also related to use among minority women.CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with diabetes, health care use among White men appeared to be driven by subjective health whereas financial factors were critical among minority men. Family structure and mental health were instrumentally associated with health care use among all women. These factors can be targeted to promote equitable access to care.
View details for PubMedID 30844470
Depression in Context: Important Considerations for Youth with Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes.
Youth with diabetes are at increased risk for depression. However, severity and correlates of depressive symptoms may differ by diabetes type.Associations of depressive symptoms with global health, diabetes duration, and gender were compared between youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.A sample of 149 youth ages 12-21 diagnosed with either type 1 (n = 122) or type 2 (n = 27) diabetes were screened during routine clinic appointments. Regression models were constructed to examine differences by diabetes type.Adolescents with type 2 diabetes had significantly higher depressive symptom scores (4.89 vs 2.99, P = 0.025) than those with type 1 diabetes. A significant interaction between global health and diabetes type on depressive symptoms revealed inverse associations between global health and depressive symptoms that was stronger among youth with type 2 diabetes (β = -0.98, P < 0.001) than type 1 (β = -0.48, P < 0.001). Further probing revealed that among youth with better global health, adolescents with type 1 had more depressive symptoms than those with type 2 diabetes (β = 0.33, P = 0.035). Diabetes duration and depressive symptoms were positively associated among individuals with type 2 (β = 0.86, P = 0.043), but not type 1 diabetes. No gender differences were detected.These findings suggest that correlates of depressive symptoms in youth with diabetes differ by diabetes type. Global health appears to be an important correlate among youth with both types, whereas diabetes duration was only a significant factor among those with type 2 diabetes. The current findings can inform future psychosocial intervention efforts within both these populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for DOI 10.1111/pedi.12939
View details for PubMedID 31644828
Depression and Healthcare Utilization in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Journal of Crohn's & colitis
Background: Depression frequently co-occurs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is a driver in health care costs and utilization.Aim: This study examined the associations between depression and total health care costs, emergency department (ED) visits, computed tomography (CT) scans during ED/inpatient visits, and IBD-related surgery among IBD patients.Methods: Our sample included 331,772 IBD patients from a national administrative claims database (Truven Health MarketScan Database). Gamma and Poisson regression analyses assessed differences related to depression controlling for key variables.Results: Approximately 16% of the IBD cohort was classified as having depression. Depression was associated with a $17,706 (95% CI [$16,892, 18,521]) increase in mean annual IBD-related health care costs and an increased incidence of ED visits (aIRR of 1.5; 95% CI [1.5, 1.6]). Among patients who had ≥1 ED/inpatient visits, depression was associated with an increased probability of receiving repeated CT scans (1-4 CT scans aOR of 1.6; 95% CI [1.5, 1.7]; ≥5 CT scans aOR 4.6; 95% CI [2.9, 7.3]) and increased odds of undergoing an IBD-related surgery (aOR of 1.2; 95% CI [1.1, 1.2]). Secondary analysis with a pediatric subsample revealed approximately 12% of this cohort was classified as having depression, and depression was associated with increased costs and incidence rates of ED visits and CT scans, but not IBD-related surgery.Conclusion: Quantifiable differences in healthcare costs and patterns of utilization exist among patients with IBD and depression. Integration of mental health services within IBD care may improve overall health outcomes and costs of care.
View details for PubMedID 30256923
Effect of Middle School Interventions on Alcohol Misuse and Abuse in Mexican American High School Adolescents Five-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Clinical Trial
2018; 75 (5): 429–37
Substance abuse preventive interventions frequently target middle school students and demonstrate efficacy to prevent early onset and use of alcohol and illicit drugs. However, evidence of sustained results to prevent later patterns of alcohol misuse and more serious alcohol abuse disorders has been lacking, particularly for US Latino populations.To test whether a universal middle school prevention program can reduce the frequency of alcohol misuse and rates of alcohol use disorder 5 years after implementation with a Mexican American sample.A previous randomized clinical trial was conducted with 516 Mexican American 7th graders and at least 1 parent who identified as having Mexican origin. Three annual cohorts of families were recruited from rosters of 4 middle schools and randomized to the 9-session Bridges/Puentes family-focused group intervention or a workshop control condition. Recruitment, screening, pretest, and randomization occurred in the same academic year for each cohort: 2003-2004, 2004-2005, and 2005-2006. Data acquisition for the follow-up assessments of late-adolescent alcohol misuse and abuse, which were not included in the initial randomized clinical trial, was conducted from September 2009 to September 2014; analysis was conducted between August 2016 and July 2017. In this assessment, 420 children (81.4%) of the sample were included, when the majority were in their final year of high school.The 9-session Bridges/Puentes intervention integrated youth, parent, and family intervention sessions that were delivered in the spring semester at each school, with separate groups for English-dominant vs Spanish-dominant families. The control workshop was offered during the same semester at each school, also in English and Spanish.Primary outcomes were diagnostic assessment of lifetime alcohol use disorder in the 12th grade, 5 years after the intervention, based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and past-year frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, and drunkenness based on the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.Of the 420 participants, 215 (51.2%) were girls (mean [SD] age, 17.9 [0.62] years). The intervention reduced the likelihood of having an alcohol use disorder (β = -.93; SE, 0.47; P = .047; odds ratio, 0.39). Intervention associations with past-year alcohol use frequency, binge drinking, and drunkenness were moderated by baseline substance use. The intervention reduced the frequency of alcohol use (β = -.51; SE, 0.24; P = .04; Cohen d = 0.43) and drunkenness (β = -.51; SE, 0.26; P = .049; Cohen d = 0.41) among youth who reported any previous substance use at baseline (T1 initiators) but not among those who had not initiated any substance use (T1 abstainers) at baseline. For past-year binge drinking, the intervention finding did not reach statistical significance among T1 initiators (β = -.40; SE, 0.23; P = .09) or T1 abstainers (β = .23; SE, 0.14; P = .11).Study results support an association between a universal middle school intervention and alcohol misuse and alcohol use disorders among Mexican American high school students and implementation of universal middle school interventions to reach Latino communities.
View details for PubMedID 29562080
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5875338
Mental Health Service Needs in Children and Adolescents With Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Other Chronic Gastrointestinal Disorders.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
View details for PubMedID 29509635
Democratizing type 1 diabetes specialty care in the primary care setting to reduce health disparities: project extension for community healthcare outcomes (ECHO) T1D.
BMJ open diabetes research & care
2021; 9 (1)
INTRODUCTION: Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) is a tele-education outreach model that seeks to democratize specialty knowledge to reduce disparities and improve health outcomes. Limited utilization of endocrinologists forces many primary care providers (PCPs) to care for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) without specialty support. Accordingly, an ECHO T1D program was developed and piloted in Florida and California. Our goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ECHO program focused on T1D and improve PCPs' abilities to manage patients with T1D.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Health centers (ie, spokes) were recruited into the ECHO T1D pilot through an innovative approach, focusing on Federally Qualified Health Centers and through identification of high-need catchment areas using the Neighborhood Deprivation Index and provider geocoding. Participating spokes received weekly tele-education provided by the University of Florida and Stanford University hub specialty team through virtual ECHO clinics, real-time support with complex T1D medical decision-making, access to a diabetes support coach, and access to an online repository of diabetes care resources. Participating PCPs completed pre/post-tests assessing diabetes knowledge and confidence and an exit survey gleaning feedback about overall ECHO T1D program experiences.RESULTS: In Florida, 12 spoke sites enrolled with 67 clinics serving >1000 patients with T1D. In California, 11 spoke sites enrolled with 37 clinics serving >900 patients with T1D. During the 6-month intervention, 27 tele-education clinics were offered and n=70 PCPs (22 from Florida, 48 from California) from participating spoke sites completed pre/post-test surveys assessing diabetes care knowledge and confidence in diabetes care. There was statistically significant improvement in diabetes knowledge (p≤0.01) as well as in diabetes confidence (p≤0.01).CONCLUSIONS: The ECHO T1D pilot demonstrated proof of concept for a T1D-specific ECHO program and represents a viable model to reach medically underserved communities which do not use specialists.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjdrc-2021-002262
View details for PubMedID 34244218
Cost considerations for adoption of diabetes technology are pervasive: a qualitative study of persons living with type 1 diabetes and their families.
Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
BACKGROUND: Cost is a major consideration in the uptake and continued use of diabetes technology. With increasing use of automated insulin delivery systems, it is important to understand the specific cost-related barriers to technology adoption. In this qualitative analysis, we were interested in understanding and examining the decision-making process around cost and diabetes technology use.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four raters coded transcripts of four stakeholder groups using inductive coding for each stakeholder group to establish relevant themes/nodes. We applied the Social Ecological Model in the interpretation of five thematic levels of cost.RESULTS: We identified five thematic levels of cost: policy, organizational, insurance, interpersonal, and individual. Equitable diabetes technology access was an important policy-level theme. The insurance-level theme had multiple sub-themes which predominantly carried a negative valence. Participants also emphasized the psychosocial burden of cost specifically identifying diabetes costs to their families, the guilt of diabetes related costs, and frustration in the time and involvement required to ensure insurance coverage.CONCLUSION: We found broad consensus in how cost is experienced by stakeholder groups. Cost considerations for diabetes technology uptake extended beyond finances to include time, cost to society, morality, and interpersonal relationships. Cost also reflected an important moral principle tied to the shared desire for equitable access to diabetes technology. Knowledge of these considerations can help clinicians and researchers promote equitable device uptake while anticipating barriers for all persons living with type 1 diabetes and their families.
View details for DOI 10.1111/dme.14575
View details for PubMedID 33794006
Barriers to Continuous Glucose Monitoring in People With Type 1 Diabetes: Clinician Perspectives.
Diabetes spectrum : a publication of the American Diabetes Association
2020; 33 (4): 324–30
The purpose of this study was to determine clinician attitudes about the distinct barriers to uptake of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) among people with diabetes. Survey data were collected measuring individual barriers, prerequisites to CGM, confidence in addressing barriers, and clinic staff resources. Results show that clinicians commonly report barriers to using CGM among people with diabetes in their clinic. Furthermore, clinicians who report a high number of barriers do not feel confident in overcoming the barriers to CGM. Interventions that attempt to empower clinicians to address concerns about CGM among people with diabetes may be warranted because low uptake does not appear to be directly related to available resources or prerequisites to starting CGM.
View details for DOI 10.2337/ds19-0039
View details for PubMedID 33223770
Are Common Sense Model constructs and self-efficacy simultaneously correlated with self-management behaviors and health outcomes: A systematic review.
Health psychology open
2020; 7 (1): 2055102919898846
This systematic review answered two questions among adults with chronic conditions: When included in the same statistical model, are Common Sense Model constructs and self-efficacy both associated with (1) self-management behaviors and (2) health outcomes? We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and included 29 articles. When included in the same statistical model, Common Sense Model constructs and self-efficacy were both correlated with outcomes. Self-efficacy was more consistently associated with self-management behaviors, and Common Sense Model constructs were more consistently associated with health outcomes. Findings support the continued inclusion and integration of both frameworks to understand and/or improve chronic illness self-management and outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1177/2055102919898846
View details for PubMedID 32030192
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6978827
Cost, Hassle, and On-Body Experience: Barriers to Diabetes Device Use in Adolescents and Potential Intervention Targets.
Diabetes technology & therapeutics
Adolescents with diabetes have the highest A1cs of all age group. Diabetes devices (insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors [CGM]) can improve glycemic outcomes, and though uptake of devices have increased, they remain underutilized in this population. This study characterizes adolescent-reported barriers to diabetes device use to determine targets for clinician intervention.We surveyed 411 adolescents with type 1 diabetes (mean age 16.302.25 years) on barriers to diabetes device use, technology use attitudes (general and diabetes-specific), benefits and burdens of CGM, self-efficacy for diabetes care, diabetes distress, family conflict, and depression. We characterize barriers to device uptake; assess demographic and psychosocial differences in device users, discontinuers, and non-users; and determine differences in device use by gender and age.The majority of adolescents used an insulin pump (n=307, 75%) and more than half used CGM (n=225, 55%). Cost/insurance-related concerns were the most commonly endorsed barrier category (61%) followed by wear-related issues (58.6%) which includes hassle of wearing the device (38%), and dislike of device on body (33%). Adolescents who endorsed more barriers also reported more diabetes distress (p=0.003), family conflict (p=0.003), and depressive symptoms (p=0.014). Pump and CGM discontinuers both endorsed more barriers and more negative perceptions of technology than current users, but reported no difference from device users in diabetes distress, family conflict, or depression. Gender was not related to perceptions of devices.Clinicians can proactively assess attitudes toward diabetes technology and perceptions of benefits/burdens to encourage device uptake and potentially prevent device discontinuation among adolescents.
View details for DOI 10.1089/dia.2019.0509
View details for PubMedID 32163719
The role of depression course on life functioning and coping outcomes from baseline through 23-year follow-up.
Journal of mental health (Abingdon, England)
Although studies have examined how depressed patients' baseline characteristics predict depression course, still needed are studies of how depression course is associated with modifiable long-term outcomes.This study examined six outcomes of three groups representing distinct depression courses (low baseline severity, rapid decline; moderate baseline severity, rapid decline; and high baseline severity, slow decline): medical functioning, coping patterns, family functioning, social functioning, employment, and work functioning.Adults with depression at baseline (N = 382; 56% women) were followed for 23 years on self-reported outcomes (79% response rate). Data from the baseline assessment and follow-ups (1, 4, 10, and 23 years) were used in a longitudinal analysis to examine associations between depression course and outcomes.All depression course groups declined on medical and social functioning and employment over follow-up. The high- and moderate-severity depression course groups reported poorer coping patterns than the low-severity group. The high-severity depression course group reported poorer family functioning than the moderate-severity group, and had the poorest work functioning outcome, followed by the moderate-severity and then the low-severity groups.Patients with a high- or moderate-severity depression course may benefit from treatment that manages coping patterns and improves family and work functioning.
View details for DOI 10.1080/09638237.2020.1793127
View details for PubMedID 32667276
Diabetes-Specific Self-Compassion: A New Measure for Parents of Youth With Type 1 Diabetes.
Journal of pediatric psychology
Given the high daily demands of managing type 1 diabetes (T1D), parents of youth with T1D can experience high levels of emotional distress, burden, and self-criticism, with implications for parent and child well-being and parent self-efficacy for managing diabetes. Diabetes-specific self-compassion (SC), or being kind to oneself when facing challenges related to managing diabetes, may serve as protective for parents. This study aimed to create and assess the psychometric properties of a new tool, the diabetes-specific Self-Compassion Scale (SCS-Dp), to assess diabetes-specific SC in parents of youth with T1D.We adapted a parent diabetes-specific SC measure; surveyed parents (N = 198; parent: 88% female; 95% non-Hispanic White; M age = 44 ± 8.9; child: 46% female; M age = 13 ± 3.4, range 2-18 years; 83% insulin pump users; 40% continuous glucose monitor (CGM) users; HbA1c from clinic data available for 76 participants: M HbA1c = 8.1 ± 1.3%) and conducted confirmatory factor analysis, and reliability and construct validity analyses. Validity measures included diabetes distress, diabetes empowerment, diabetes numeracy, and HbA1c.A bifactor structure provided the best fit, with one general factor and two wording-related group factors (positively and negatively worded items). The final 19-item SCS-Dp demonstrated excellent internal consistency (α =.94; range of item-total correlations: .52-.81) and good construct validity. As predicted, greater SC was associated with lower distress (r = -.68, p < .001) and greater empowerment (r = .43, p < .001) and was not associated with diabetes numeracy (p = .61). Diabetes-specific Self-Compassion Scale was not associated with HbA1c (p = .28).Results provide initial evidence of good reliability and validity of the SCS-Dp to assess diabetes-specific SC in parents.
View details for DOI 10.1093/jpepsy/jsaa011
View details for PubMedID 32196093
An exploratory assessment of pediatric patient and parent needs after implantable cardioverter defibrillator implant.
Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE
Placement of an ICD is often accompanied by psychological adjustment issues in pediatric patients and their parents. While anxiety, depression, and lowered QOL have been seen in these patients, no studies have investigated patient or parent reported needs. This exploratory study describes the needs of pediatric ICD patients and parents and assesses whether patient factors of age, gender, depression, and anxiety are associated with specific needs.ICD patients ages 8-21 and their parents completed a needs analysis survey assessing various domains of functioning. Patients also completed self-reported measures of depression and anxiety.Thirty-two patients (28% female) and their parents (72% mothers) completed the survey. Patients' most frequently endorsed needs involved educational issues: understanding their cardiac event/diagnosis (34%), medications (34%), and how the ICD would change their lifestyle (31%). Parents' most frequently endorsed needs involved family issues; almost half of parents (47%) were concerned about their children's frustration with their overprotectiveness and 28% were concerned with their child feeling depressed or anxious. Patients who reported feeling overprotected (12.1 ± 3.4 vs 17.4 ± 3.5 years, p = .001) were significantly younger than those who did not. Experiencing peer issues was more frequently endorsed by females than males (33% of females vs 4% of males, p = .026).ICD patients and parents endorsed markedly different needs. Patients focused on understanding their ICD, while parents were more focused on their children's emotional needs. Novel ways of educating patients about their device and clinic based screenings of emotional functioning may serve to meet these needs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for DOI 10.1111/pace.13876
View details for PubMedID 31971265
Weight Perceptions and Weight Loss Attempts: Military Service Matters.
INTRODUCTION: People who do not perceive themselves as overweight or obese are less likely to use weight loss treatments. However, little is known about weight perceptions and their association with weight loss attempts among people who have served in the military. They represent a special population with regard to weight perceptions as military personnel must meet strict weight standards to remain in military service.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using data from the U.S.-based 2013-2014 and 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, we fit logistic regression models to determine whether people with overweight or obesity were: (1) more or less likely to underestimate their weight if they reported military service and (2) less likely to attempt weight loss if they underestimated their weight (stratifying by military status). Estimates were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, including objective weight class, gender, age, race/ethnicity, income ratio, comorbidities, and education. This work received exempt status from the Stanford University institutional review board.RESULTS: Among 6,776 participants, those reporting military service had higher odds of underestimating their weight compared to those not reporting military service [OR (odds ratio): 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15, 1.79]. Underestimating weight was associated with lower odds of attempting weight loss among those reporting military service (OR: 0.20; CI: 0.11, 0.36) and those not reporting military service (OR: 0.27; CI: 0.22, 0.34).CONCLUSIONS: This study offers the new finding that underestimating weight is more likely among people reporting military service compared to those not reporting military service. Findings are consistent with past work demonstrating that underestimating weight is associated with a lower likelihood of pursuing weight loss. To combat weight misperceptions, clinicians may need to spend additional time discussing weight-related perceptions and beliefs with patients. The present findings suggest such conversations may be especially important for people reporting military service. Future research should be designed to understand the effects of correcting weight misperceptions. This work would advance the science of weight management and offer ways to increase weight loss treatment engagement, prevent chronic conditions, and improve health outcomes, especially among people reporting military service.
View details for DOI 10.1093/milmed/usz413
View details for PubMedID 31822913
- Correlates of health care use among White and minority men and women with diabetes: An NHANES study DIABETES RESEARCH AND CLINICAL PRACTICE 2019; 150: 122–28
- Depression and Health Care Use in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease JOURNAL OF CROHNS & COLITIS 2019; 13 (1): 19–26
- Receipt of Pharmacotherapy for Alcohol Use Disorder by Male Justice-Involved U.S. Veterans Health Administration Patients Criminal justice policy review 2018; 29 (9): 875–90
- Barriers and Facilitators to Implementation of Pharmacotherapy for Opioid Use Disorders in VHA Residential Treatment Programs JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL AND DRUGS 2018; 79 (6): 909–17
Barriers and Facilitators to Implementation of Pharmacotherapy for Opioid Use Disorders in VHA Residential Treatment Programs.
Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs
2018; 79 (6): 909–17
OBJECTIVE: Despite evidence of effectiveness, pharmacotherapy-methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone-is prescribed to less than 35% of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients diagnosed with opioid use disorder (OUD). Among veterans whose OUD treatment is provided in VHA residential programs, factors influencing pharmacotherapy implementation are unknown. We examined barriers to and facilitators of pharmacotherapy for OUD among patients diagnosed with OUD in VHA residential programs to inform the development of implementation strategies to improve medication receipt.METHOD: VHA electronic health records and program survey data were used to describe pharmacotherapy provided to a national cohort of VHA patients with OUD in residential treatment programs (N = 4,323, 6% female). Staff members (N = 63, 57% women) from 44 residential programs (response rate = 32%) participated in interviews. Barriers to and facilitators of pharmacotherapy for OUD were identified from transcripts using thematic analysis.RESULTS: Across all 97 residential treatment programs, the average rate of pharmacotherapy for OUD was 21% (range: 0%-67%). Reported barriers included provider or program philosophy against pharmacotherapy, a lack of care coordination with nonresidential treatment settings, and provider perceptions of low patient interest or need. Facilitators included having a prescriber on staff, education and training for patients and staff, and support from leadership.CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to our hypothesis, barriers to and facilitators of pharmacotherapy for OUD in VHA residential treatment programs were consistent with prior research in outpatient settings. Intensive educational programs, such as academic detailing, and policy changes such as mandating buprenorphine waiver training for VHA providers, may help improve receipt of pharmacotherapy for OUD.
View details for PubMedID 30573022
- Starting Young: Trends in Opioid Therapy Among US Adolescents and Young Adults With Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the Truven MarketScan Database Between 2007 and 2015 INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES 2018; 24 (10): 2093–2103
- Nationwide Trends in Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis Among Privately Insured Children and Non-Elderly Adults in the United States, 2007-2014 GASTROENTEROLOGY 2018; 155 (2): 469-+
Exclusion criteria and generalizability in bipolar disorder treatment trials
CONTEMPORARY CLINICAL TRIALS COMMUNICATIONS
2018; 9: 130–34
The current paper reviews the English-language research on exclusion criteria in bipolar disorder treatment trials and discusses how study samples compare to the general bipolar patient population.& Results: Across 8 identified studies of exclusion criteria and their impact, between 55% and 96% of people with bipolar disorder would be excluded from treatment research. The number of exclusion criteria varies across bipolar disorder treatment research, with one study estimate of a median of 7 criteria used across studies. The criteria that excluded the greatest number of potential participants were comorbid substance use disorder, suicidal risk, and comorbid medical conditions. Both studies that compared treatment responses among participants who met and did not meet exclusion criteria found no statistically significant differences.Most potential participants are excluded from outcome research, which creates challenges for recruitment and limits generalizability of study findings. Common exclusionary practices lead to unrepresentative samples that limit generalizability and reduce the confidence of clinicians that findings can be translated to front-line practice with bipolar disorder patients.
View details for PubMedID 29696235
Nationwide Trends in Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis Among Privately Insured Children and Non-Elderly Adults in the United States, 2007-2014.
Epidemiologic analyses of acute and chronic pancreatitis (AP and CP) provide insight into causes and strategies for prevention, and affect allocation of resources to its study and treatment. We sought to determine current and accurate incidences of AP and CP, along with the prevalence of CP, in children and adults in the United States.We collected data from the Truven MarketScan Research Databases of commercial inpatient and outpatient insurance claims in the United States from 2007 through 2014 (patients 0-64 years old). We calculated the incidences of AP and CP, and prevalence of CP, based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes. Children were defined as 18 years or younger and adults as 19 to 64 years old.The incidence of pediatric AP was stable from 2007 through 2014, remaining at 12.3/100,000 persons in 2014. Meanwhile the incidence for adult AP decreased from 123.7/100,000 persons in 2007 to 111.2/100,000 persons in 2014. The incidence of CP decreased over time in children (2.2/100,000 persons in 2007 to 1.9/100,000 persons in 2014) and adults (31.7/100,000 persons in 2007 to 24.7/100,000 persons in 2014). The prevalence of pediatric and adult CP was 5.8/100,000 persons and 91.9/100,000 persons, respectively in 2014. Incidences of AP and CP increased with age; we found little change in incidence during the first decade of life, but linear increases starting in the second decade.We performed a comprehensive epidemiologic analysis of privately insured non-elderly adults and children with AP and CP in the United States. Changes in gallstone formation, smoking, and alcohol consumption, along with advances in pancreatitis management, may be responsible for the stabilization and even decrease in the incidences of AP and CP.
View details for PubMedID 29660323
Receipt of Pharmacotherapy for Alcohol Use Disorder by Male Justice-Involved U.S. Veterans Health Administration Patients.
Criminal justice policy review
2018; 29 (9): 875–90
This study examined whether, among Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients, veterans with recent or current justice involvement have equal receipt of pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder compared to veterans with no justice involvement. Using national VHA records, we calculated the overall and facility rates of receipt as the number of patients who received pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder divided by the number of patients diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder. Using a mixed-effects logistic regression model, we tested whether justice involvement was associated with pharmacotherapy receipt. Male veterans with jail/court involvement had significantly higher odds of receiving pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder compared to other male veterans. Justice-involved veterans had equal or better receipt of pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder compared to veterans with no justice involvement. Pharmacotherapy rates are low overall, suggesting that more work can be done to connect veterans to these medications.
View details for PubMedID 30393426
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4852381
Predicting Substance Use Patterns Among Rural Adults: The Roles of Mothers, Fathers, and Parenthood.
This study examined the role of parenthood and parental influences on substance use patterns for 710 stimulant users age 18-61 living in the rural Midwest and Mid-south U.S. Longitudinal growth analyses showed that a maternal history of drug use was associated with increased baseline drug use severity, lesser declines in severity, and greater plateau of drug use severity over time. Parental conflict was associated with lesser declines in drug use severity, and drug use severity declined more steeply for participants who were themselves parents. Participants with two parents having a history of alcohol use had a greater baseline severity of alcohol use, with paternal history of drug use associated with lower baseline alcohol use severity. These findings demonstrate the importance of identifying parental influences in evaluating adult substance use, and point to the inclusion of parents in efforts to prevent and treat substance use disorders.
View details for PubMedID 29663337
Starting Young: Trends in Opioid Therapy Among US Adolescents and Young Adults With Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the Truven MarketScan Database Between 2007 and 2015.
Inflammatory bowel diseases
Opioids are commonly prescribed for relief in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Emerging evidence suggests that adolescents and young adults are a vulnerable population at particular risk of becoming chronic opioid users and experiencing adverse effects.This study evaluates trends in the prevalence and persistence of chronic opioid therapy in adolescents and young adults with IBD in the United States.A longitudinal retrospective cohort analysis was conducted with the Truven MarketScan Database from 2007 to 2015. Study subjects were 15-29 years old with ≥2 IBD diagnoses (Crohn's: 555/K50; ulcerative colitis: 556/K51). Opioid therapy was identified with prescription claims within the Truven therapeutic class 60: opioid agonists. Persistence of opioid use was evaluated by survival analysis for patients who remained in the database for at least 3 years following index chronic opioid therapy use.In a cohort containing 93,668 patients, 18.2% received chronic opioid therapy. The annual prevalence of chronic opioid therapy increased from 9.3% in 2007 to 10.8% in 2015 (P < 0.01), peaking at 12.2% in 2011. Opioid prescriptions per patient per year were stable (approximately 5). Post hoc Poisson regression analyses demonstrated that the number of opioid pills dispensed per year increased with age and was higher among males. Among the 2503 patients receiving chronic opioid therapy and followed longitudinally, 30.5% were maintained on chronic opioid therapy for 2 years, and 5.3% for all 4 years.Sustained chronic opioid use in adolescents and young adults with IBD is increasingly common, underscoring the need for screening and intervention for this vulnerable population.
View details for PubMedID 29986015
Barriers to and facilitators of pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder in VA residential treatment programs.
Journal of substance abuse treatment
2017; 77: 38-43
Among US military veterans, alcohol use disorder (AUD) is prevalent and in severe cases patients need intensive AUD treatment beyond outpatient care. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) delivers intensive, highly structured addiction and psychosocial treatment through residential programs. Despite the evidence supporting pharmacotherapy among the effective treatments for AUD, receipt of these medications (e.g., naltrexone, acamprosate) among patients in residential treatment programs varies widely. In order to better understand this variation, the current study examined barriers and facilitators to use of pharmacotherapy for AUD among patients in VA residential treatment programs. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with residential program management and staff were conducted and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research was used to guide coding and analysis of interview transcripts. Barriers to use of pharmacotherapy for AUD included cultural norms or philosophy against prescribing, lack of access to willing prescribers, lack of interest from leadership, and perceived lack of patient interest or need. Facilitators included cultural norms of openness or active promotion of pharmacotherapy; education for patients, program staff and prescribers; having prescribers on staff, and care coordination within residential treatment and with other clinic settings in and outside VA. Developing and testing improvement strategies to increase care coordination and consistent support from leadership may also yield increases in the use of pharmacotherapy for AUD among residential patients.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jsat.2017.03.005
View details for PubMedID 28476269
FIVE-YEAR DIABETES COMPLICATION PROGRESSION LESS SEVERE IN VETERANS WITH MENTAL HEALTH CONDITIONS
SPRINGER. 2017: S824
View details for Web of Science ID 000398947201082
Criminogenic Needs, Substance Use, and Offending among Rural Stimulant Users.
Rural mental health
2017; 41 (2): 110–22
There is a need to understand the determinants of both substance use and criminal activity in rural areas in order to design appropriate treatment interventions for these linked problems. The present study drew on a predominant model used to assess and treat offenders -- the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model -- to examine risk factors for substance use and criminal activity in a rural drug using sample. This study extends the RNR model's focus on offenders to assessing rural-dwelling individuals using stimulants (N=462). We examined substance use and criminal justice outcomes at 6-month (91%) and 3-year (79%) follow-ups, and used Generalized Estimating Equations to examine the extent to which RNR criminogenic need factors at baseline predicted outcomes at follow-ups. Substance use and criminal justice outcomes improved at six months, and even more at three years, post-baseline. As expected, higher risk was associated with poorer outcomes. Antisocial personality patterns and procriminal attitudes at baseline predicted poorer legal and drug outcomes measured at subsequent follow-ups. In contrast, less connection to antisocial others and fewer work difficulties predicted lower alcohol problem severity, but more frequent alcohol use. Engagement in social-recreational activities was associated with fewer subsequent arrests and less severe alcohol and drug problems. The RNR model's criminogenic need factors predicted drug use and crime-related outcomes among rural residents. Services adapted to rural settings that target these factors, such as telehealth and other technology-based resources, may hasten improvement on both types of outcomes among drug users.
View details for PubMedID 29051795
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5642975
Parenting Intervention Effects on Parental Depressive Symptoms: Examining the Role of Parenting and Child Behavior
JOURNAL OF FAMILY PSYCHOLOGY
2014; 28 (3): 267–77
Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior.
View details for DOI 10.1037/a0036622
View details for Web of Science ID 000349170500001
View details for PubMedID 24798817
Father Enrollment and Participation in a Parenting Intervention: Personal and Contextual Predictors
2013; 52 (3): 440–54
Fathers are an important, though often underrepresented, population in family interventions. Notably, the inclusion of ethnic minority fathers is particularly scarce. An understanding of factors that promote and hinder father participation may suggest strategies by which to increase fathers' presence in studies designed to engage the family unit. The current research examined Mexican origin (MO) fathers' involvement in a family-focused intervention study. Participants included 495 fathers from eligible two-parent MO families with an adolescent child. Individual, familial, and culturally relevant predictors based on father, mother, and/or child report data were collected through pretest interviews and included in two separate logistic regression analyses that predicted the following: (1) father enrollment in the study and (2) father participation in the intervention. Results indicated that higher levels of maternal education and lower levels of economic stress and interparental conflict were associated with increased father enrollment in the study. Rates of father participation in the intervention were higher among families characterized by lower levels of interparental conflict, economic stress, and Spanish language use. Results highlight the relevancy of the familial and environmental context to MO fathers' research participation decisions. These findings as well as their implications for future research and practice are discussed.
View details for DOI 10.1111/famp.12024
View details for Web of Science ID 000324411300008
View details for PubMedID 24033241
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5889082