Methodologic considerations of household-level methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus decolonization among persons living with HIV.
American journal of infection control
People living with HIV (PLWH) have a higher prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization and likelihood of recurrent infection than the general population. Simultaneously treating MRSA-colonized household members may improve success with MRSA decolonization strategies. This article describes a pilot trial testing household-level MRSA decolonization and documents methodologic and pragmatic challenges of this approach.We conducted a randomized controlled trial of individual versus individual-plus-household MRSA decolonization to reduce recurrent MRSA. PLWH with a history of MRSA who are patients of an urban HIV clinic received a standard MRSA decolonization regimen. MRSA colonization at 6 months was the primary outcome.One hundred sixty-six patients were referred for MRSA screening; 77 (46%) enrolled. Of those, 28 (36%) were colonized with MRSA and identified risk factors consistent with the published literature. Eighteen were randomized and 13 households completed the study.This is the first study to report on a household-level MRSA decolonization among PLWH. Challenges included provider referral, HIV stigma, confidentiality concerns over enrolling households, and dynamic living situations. Although simultaneous household MRSA decolonization may reduce recolonization, recruitment and retention challenges specific to PLWH limit the ability to conduct household-level research. Efforts to minimize these barriers are needed to inform evidence-based practice.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajic.2017.05.010
View details for PubMedID 28684128
Cytokine signature associated with disease severity in chronic fatigue syndrome patients.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
2017; 114 (34): E7150–E7158
Although some signs of inflammation have been reported previously in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), the data are limited and contradictory. High-throughput methods now allow us to interrogate the human immune system for multiple markers of inflammation at a scale that was not previously possible. To determine whether a signature of serum cytokines could be associated with ME/CFS and correlated with disease severity and fatigue duration, cytokines of 192 ME/CFS patients and 392 healthy controls were measured using a 51-multiplex array on a Luminex system. Each cytokine's preprocessed data were regressed on ME/CFS severity plus covariates for age, sex, race, and an assay property of newly discovered importance: nonspecific binding. On average, TGF-β was elevated (P = 0.0052) and resistin was lower (P = 0.0052) in patients compared with controls. Seventeen cytokines had a statistically significant upward linear trend that correlated with ME/CFS severity: CCL11 (Eotaxin-1), CXCL1 (GROα), CXCL10 (IP-10), IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17F, leptin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, LIF, NGF, SCF, and TGF-α. Of the 17 cytokines that correlated with severity, 13 are proinflammatory, likely contributing to many of the symptoms experienced by patients and establishing a strong immune system component of the disease. Only CXCL9 (MIG) inversely correlated with fatigue duration.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1710519114
View details for PubMedID 28760971
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5576836