Anatomically Defined and Functionally Distinct Dorsal Raphe Serotonin Sub-systems.
The dorsal raphe (DR) constitutes a major serotonergic input to the forebrain and modulates diverse functions and brain states, including mood, anxiety, and sensory and motor functions. Most functional studies to date have treated DR serotonin neurons as a single population. Using viral-genetic methods, we found that subcortical- and cortical-projecting serotonin neurons have distinct cell-body distributions within the DR and differentially co-express a vesicular glutamate transporter. Further, amygdala- and frontal-cortex-projecting DR serotonin neurons have largely complementary whole-brain collateralization patterns, receive biased inputs from presynaptic partners, and exhibit opposite responses to aversive stimuli. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments suggest that amygdala-projecting DR serotonin neurons promote anxiety-like behavior, whereas frontal-cortex-projecting neurons promote active coping in the face of challenge. These results provide compelling evidence that the DR serotonin system contains parallel sub-systems that differ in input and output connectivity, physiological response properties, and behavioral functions.
View details for PubMedID 30146164
Habenula "Cholinergic" Neurons Corelease Glutamate and Acetylcholine and Activate Postsynaptic Neurons via Distinct Transmission Modes
2011; 69 (3): 445-452
Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter, and the habenulo-interpeduncular projection is a major cholinergic pathway in the brain. To study the physiological properties of cholinergic transmission in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), we used a transgenic mouse line in which the light-gated cation channel ChannelRhodopsin-2 is selectively expressed in cholinergic neurons. Cholinergic axonal terminals were activated by light pulses, and postsynaptic responses were recorded from IPN neurons. Surprisingly, brief photostimulation produces fast excitatory postsynaptic currents that are mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors, suggesting wired transmission of glutamate. By contrast, tetanic photostimulation generates slow inward currents that are largely mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, suggesting volume transmission of acetylcholine. Finally, vesicular transporters for glutamate and acetylcholine are coexpressed on the same axonal terminals in the IPN. These results strongly suggest that adult brain "cholinergic" neurons can corelease glutamate and acetylcholine, but these two neurotransmitters activate postsynaptic neurons via different transmission modes.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.12.038
View details for Web of Science ID 000287609700007
View details for PubMedID 21315256
Single-cell transcriptomes and whole-brain projections of serotonin neurons in the mouse dorsal and median raphe nuclei.
Serotonin neurons of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DR, MR) collectively innervate the entire forebrain and midbrain, modulating diverse physiology and behavior. To gain a fundamental understanding of their molecular heterogeneity, we used plate-based single-cell RNA-sequencing to generate a comprehensive dataset comprising eleven transcriptomically distinct serotonin neuron clusters. Systematic in situ hybridization mapped specific clusters to the principal DR, caudal DR, or MR. These transcriptomic clusters differentially express a rich repertoire of neuropeptides, receptors, ion channels, and transcription factors. We generated novel intersectional viral-genetic tools to access specific subpopulations. Whole-brain axonal projection mapping revealed that DR serotonin neurons co-expressing vesicular glutamate transporter-3 preferentially innervate the cortex, whereas those co-expressing thyrotropin-releasing hormone innervate subcortical regions in particular the hypothalamus. Reconstruction of 50 individual DR serotonin neurons revealed diverse and segregated axonal projection patterns at the single-cell level. Together, these results provide a molecular foundation of the heterogenous serotonin neuronal phenotypes.
View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.49424
View details for PubMedID 31647409
Mapping Histological Slice Sequences to the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas Without 3D Reconstruction.
Frontiers in neuroinformatics
2018; 12: 93
Histological brain slices are widely used in neuroscience to study the anatomical organization of neural circuits. Systematic and accurate comparisons of anatomical data from multiple brains, especially from different studies, can benefit tremendously from registering histological slices onto a common reference atlas. Most existing methods rely on an initial reconstruction of the volume before registering it to a reference atlas. Because these slices are prone to distortions during the sectioning process and often sectioned with non-standard angles, reconstruction is challenging and often inaccurate. Here we describe a framework that maps each slice to its corresponding plane in the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas (2015) to build a plane-wise mapping and then perform 2D nonrigid registration to build a pixel-wise mapping. We use the L2 norm of the histogram of oriented gradients difference of two patches as the similarity metric for both steps and a Markov random field formulation that incorporates tissue coherency to compute the nonrigid registration. To fix significantly distorted regions that are misshaped or much smaller than the control grids, we train a context-aggregation network to segment and warp them to their corresponding regions with thin plate spline. We have shown that our method generates results comparable to an expert neuroscientist and is significantly better than reconstruction-first approaches. Code and sample dataset are available at sites.google.com/view/brain-mapping.
View details for PubMedID 30618698
Retrograde inhibition by a specific subset of interpeduncular alpha 5 nicotinic neurons regulates nicotine preference
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2017; 114 (49): 13012–17
Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse can produce adaptive changes that lead to the establishment of dependence. It has been shown that allelic variation in the α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene CHRNA5 is associated with higher risk of tobacco dependence. In the brain, α5-containing nAChRs are expressed at very high levels in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). Here we identified two nonoverlapping α5 + cell populations (α5- Amigo1 and α5- Epyc ) in mouse IPN that respond differentially to nicotine. Chronic nicotine treatment altered the translational profile of more than 1,000 genes in α5- Amigo1 neurons, including neuronal nitric oxide synthase (Nos1) and somatostatin (Sst). In contrast, expression of few genes was altered in the α5- Epyc population. We show that both nitric oxide and SST suppress optically evoked neurotransmitter release from the terminals of habenular (Hb) neurons in IPN. Moreover, in vivo silencing of neurotransmitter release from the α5- Amigo1 but not from the α5- Epyc population eliminates nicotine reward, measured using place preference. This loss of nicotine reward was mimicked by shRNA-mediated knockdown of Nos1 in the IPN. These findings reveal a proaddiction adaptive response to chronic nicotine in which nitric oxide and SST are released by a specific α5+ neuronal population to provide retrograde inhibition of the Hb-IPN circuit and thereby enhance the motivational properties of nicotine.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1717506114
View details for Web of Science ID 000417339700047
View details for PubMedID 29158387
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5724287
Quantitative Proteomics of Sleep-Deprived Mouse Brains Reveals Global Changes in Mitochondrial Proteins
2016; 11 (9)
Sleep is a ubiquitous, tightly regulated, and evolutionarily conserved behavior observed in almost all animals. Prolonged sleep deprivation can be fatal, indicating that sleep is a physiological necessity. However, little is known about its core function. To gain insight into this mystery, we used advanced quantitative proteomics technology to survey the global changes in brain protein abundance. Aiming to gain a comprehensive profile, our proteomics workflow included filter-aided sample preparation (FASP), which increased the coverage of membrane proteins; tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling, for relative quantitation; and high resolution, high mass accuracy, high throughput mass spectrometry (MS). In total, we obtained the relative abundance ratios of 9888 proteins encoded by 6070 genes. Interestingly, we observed significant enrichment for mitochondrial proteins among the differentially expressed proteins. This finding suggests that sleep deprivation strongly affects signaling pathways that govern either energy metabolism or responses to mitochondrial stress. Additionally, the differentially-expressed proteins are enriched in pathways implicated in age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Alzheimer's, hinting at possible connections between sleep loss, mitochondrial stress, and neurodegeneration.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0163500
View details for Web of Science ID 000384328500063
View details for PubMedID 27684481
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5042483
Viral-genetic tracing of the input-output organization of a central noradrenaline circuit
2015; 524 (7563): 88-U180
Deciphering how neural circuits are anatomically organized with regard to input and output is instrumental in understanding how the brain processes information. For example, locus coeruleus noradrenaline (also known as norepinephrine) (LC-NE) neurons receive input from and send output to broad regions of the brain and spinal cord, and regulate diverse functions including arousal, attention, mood and sensory gating. However, it is unclear how LC-NE neurons divide up their brain-wide projection patterns and whether different LC-NE neurons receive differential input. Here we developed a set of viral-genetic tools to quantitatively analyse the input-output relationship of neural circuits, and applied these tools to dissect the LC-NE circuit in mice. Rabies-virus-based input mapping indicated that LC-NE neurons receive convergent synaptic input from many regions previously identified as sending axons to the locus coeruleus, as well as from newly identified presynaptic partners, including cerebellar Purkinje cells. The 'tracing the relationship between input and output' method (or TRIO method) enables trans-synaptic input tracing from specific subsets of neurons based on their projection and cell type. We found that LC-NE neurons projecting to diverse output regions receive mostly similar input. Projection-based viral labelling revealed that LC-NE neurons projecting to one output region also project to all brain regions we examined. Thus, the LC-NE circuit overall integrates information from, and broadcasts to, many brain regions, consistent with its primary role in regulating brain states. At the same time, we uncovered several levels of specificity in certain LC-NE sub-circuits. These tools for mapping output architecture and input-output relationship are applicable to other neuronal circuits and organisms. More broadly, our viral-genetic approaches provide an efficient intersectional means to target neuronal populations based on cell type and projection pattern.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature14600
View details for Web of Science ID 000359002300037
View details for PubMedID 26131933
Presynaptic partners of dorsal raphe serotonergic and GABAergic neurons.
2014; 83 (3): 645-662
The serotonin system powerfully modulates physiology and behavior in health and disease, yet the circuit mechanisms underlying serotonin neuron activity are poorly understood. The major source of forebrain serotonergic innervation is from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), which contains both serotonin and GABA neurons. Using viral tracing combined with electrophysiology, we found that GABA and serotonin neurons in the DR receive excitatory, inhibitory, and peptidergic inputs from the same specific brain regions. Embedded in this overall similarity are important differences. Serotonin neurons are more likely to receive synaptic inputs from anterior neocortex while GABA neurons receive disproportionally higher input from the central amygdala. Local input mapping revealed extensive serotonin-serotonin as well as GABA-serotonin connectivity with a distinct spatial organization. Covariance analysis suggests heterogeneity of both serotonin and GABA neurons with respect to the inputs they receive. These analyses provide a foundation for further functional dissection of the serotonin system.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.06.024
View details for PubMedID 25102560
Natriuretic peptides block synaptic transmission by activating phosphodiesterase 2A and reducing presynaptic PKA activity
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2012; 109 (43): 17681-17686
The heart peptide hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) regulates blood pressure by stimulating guanylyl cyclase-A to produce cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). ANP and guanylyl cyclase-A are also expressed in many brain areas, but their physiological functions and downstream signaling pathways remain enigmatic. Here we investigated the physiological functions of ANP signaling in the neural pathway from the medial habenula (MHb) to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). Biochemical assays indicate that ANP increases cGMP accumulation in the IPN of mouse brain slices. Using optogenetic stimulation and electrophysiological recordings, we show that both ANP and brain natriuretic peptide profoundly block glutamate release from MHb neurons. Pharmacological applications reveal that this blockade is mediated by phosphodiesterase 2A (PDE2A) but not by cGMP-stimulated protein kinase-G or cGMP-sensitive cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. In addition, focal infusion of ANP into the IPN enhances stress-induced analgesia, and the enhancement is prevented by PDE2A inhibitors. PDE2A is richly expressed in the axonal terminals of MHb neurons, and its activation by cGMP depletes cyclic adenosine monophosphates. The inhibitory effect of ANP on glutamate release is reversed by selectively activating protein kinase A. These results demonstrate strong presynaptic inhibition by natriuretic peptides in the brain and suggest important physiological and behavioral roles of PDE2A in modulating neurotransmitter release by negative crosstalk between cGMP-signaling and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-signaling pathways.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1209185109
View details for Web of Science ID 000311147800073
View details for PubMedID 23045693