Jinxiao is a graduate student in the Psychology Department. His research interest generally lies in how the "emotion system" and the "cognition system" interplay with each other. Specifically, he is interested in how cognitive control can modulate emotion processes as well as how emotion can affect cognitive processes. He is also interested in how the emotion-cognition interaction relates to psychological health. He uses neuroimaging, physiological, eye-tracking, and behavioral methods to investigate these research questions. In his recent work, he studies how sleep influences emotion regulation and other emotional processes. He is a big fan of interdisciplinary research (psychological, biochemical, and computational) and open science practice.

All Publications

  • Individuals with insomnia misrecognize angry faces as fearful faces while missing the eyes: An eye-tracking study. Sleep Zhang, J., Chan, A. B., Lau, E. Y., Hsiao, J. H. 2018


    Individuals with insomnia have been found to have disturbed perception of facial expressions. Through eye movement examinations, here we test the hypothesis that this effect is due to impaired visual attention functions for retrieving diagnostic features in facial expression judgments. 23 individuals with insomnia symptoms and 23 controls without insomnia completed a task to categorize happy, sad, fearful, and angry facial expressions. The participants with insomnia were less accurate in recognizing angry faces and misidentified them as fearful faces more often than the controls. A hidden Markov modeling approach for eye movement data analysis revealed that when viewing facial expressions, more individuals with insomnia adopted a nose-mouth eye movement pattern focusing on the vertical face midline while more controls adopted an eyes-mouth pattern preferentially attending to lateral features, particularly the two eyes. As previous studies found that the primary diagnostic feature for recognizing angry faces is the eyes while the diagnostic features for other facial expressions involve the mouth region, missing the eye region may contribute to specific difficulties in recognizing angry facial expressions, consistent with our behavioral finding in participants with insomnia symptoms. Taken together, the findings suggest that impaired information selection through visual attention control may be related to the compromised emotion perception in individuals with insomnia.

    View details for PubMedID 30452735

  • Insomniacs misidentify angry faces as fearful faces because of missing the eyes: an eye-tracking study The 39th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society Zhang, J., Chan, A., Lau, E., Hsiao, J.
  • Sleep deprivation compromises resting-state emotional regulatory processes: An EEG study. Journal of sleep research Zhang, J., Lau, E. Y., Hsiao, J. H. 2018: e12671


    Resting-state spontaneous neural activities consume far more biological energy than stimulus-induced activities, suggesting their significance. However, existing studies of sleep loss and emotional functioning have focused on how sleep deprivation modulates stimulus-induced emotional neural activities. The current study aimed to investigate the impacts of sleep deprivation on the brain network of emotional functioning using electroencephalogram during a resting state. Two established resting-state electroencephalogram indexes (i.e. frontal alpha asymmetry and frontal theta/beta ratio) were used to reflect the functioning of the emotion regulatory neural network. Participants completed an 8-min resting-state electroencephalogram recording after a well-rested night or 24 hr sleep deprivation. The Sleep Deprivation group had a heightened ratio of the power density in theta band to beta band (theta/beta ratio) in the frontal area than the Sleep Control group, suggesting an affective approach with reduced frontal cortical regulation of subcortical drive after sleep deprivation. There was also marginally more left-lateralized frontal alpha power (left frontal alpha asymmetry) in the Sleep Deprivation group compared with the Sleep Control group. Besides, higher theta/beta ratio and more left alpha lateralization were correlated with higher sleepiness and lower vigilance. The results converged in suggesting compromised emotional regulatory processes during resting state after sleep deprivation. Our work provided the first resting-state neural evidence for compromised emotional functioning after sleep loss, highlighting the significance of examining resting-state neural activities within the affective brain network as a default functional mode in investigating the sleep-emotion relationship.

    View details for PubMedID 29493041

  • Using emotion regulation strategies after sleep deprivation: ERP and behavioral findings. Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience Zhang, J., Lau, E. Y., Hsiao, J. H. 2018


    Sleep deprivation is suggested to impact emotion regulation, but few studies have directly examined it. This study investigated the influence of sleep deprivation on three commonly used emotion regulation strategies (distraction, reappraisal, suppression) in Gross's (1998) process model of emotion regulation. Young healthy adults were randomly assigned to a sleep deprivation group (SD; n = 26, 13 males, age = 20.0 ± 1.7) or a sleep control group (SC; n = 25, 13 males, age = 20.2 ± 1.7). Following 24-h sleep deprivation or normal nighttime sleep, participants completed an emotion regulation task, in which they naturally viewed or applied a given emotion regulation strategy towards negative pictures, with electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. A reduction in the centroparietal late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes towards negative pictures from the naturally viewing condition to a regulated condition was calculated as an index of regulatory effects. Comparisons between the two groups indicated that sleep deprivation significantly impaired the regulatory effects of distraction and reappraisal on LPP amplitudes. Suppression did not reduce LPP amplitudes in either group. In addition, habitual sleep quality moderated the effect of sleep deprivation on subjective perception of emotional stimuli, such that sleep deprivation only made good sleepers perceive negative pictures as more unpleasant and more arousing, but it had no significant effect on poor sleepers' perception of negative pictures. Altogether, this study provides the first evidence that sleep deprivation may impair the effectiveness of applying adaptive emotion regulation strategies (distraction and reappraisal), creating potentially undesirable consequences to emotional well-being.

    View details for PubMedID 30460483

  • Sleep-related daytime consequences mediated the neuroticism-depression link SLEEP AND BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS Wong, M., Zhang, J., Wing, Y., Lau, E. 2017; 15 (1): 21–30