Jinxiao is a graduate student in the Psychology Department. His research interest generally lies in how the "emotion system" and the "cognition system" interplay with each other. Specifically, he is interested in how cognitive control can modulate emotion processes as well as how emotion can affect cognitive processes. He is also interested in how the emotion-cognition interaction relates to psychological health. He uses neuroimaging, physiological, eye-tracking, and behavioral methods to investigate these research questions. In his recent work, he studies how sleep influences emotion regulation and other emotional processes. He is a big fan of interdisciplinary research (psychological, biochemical, and computational) and open science practice.

All Publications

  • Frontoparietal and Default Mode Network Contributions to Self-Referential Processing in Social Anxiety Disorder. Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience Dixon, M. L., Moodie, C. A., Goldin, P. R., Farb, N., Heimberg, R. G., Zhang, J., Gross, J. J. 2021


    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by negative self-referential processing, which triggers excessive emotional reactivity. In healthy individuals, positive self-views typically predominate and are supported by regions of the default mode network (DMN) that represent self-related information and regions of the frontoparietal control network (FPCN) that contribute to metacognitive awareness and emotion regulation. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine patterns of DMN and FPCN activation during positive and negative self-referential judgments in SAD patients (N = 97) and controls (N = 34). As expected, SAD patients demonstrated a striking difference in self-beliefs compared with non-anxious healthy controls, endorsing fewer positive traits and more negative traits. However, SAD patients and controls demonstrated largely similar patterns of DMN and FPCN recruitment during self-referential judgements. No significant group differences were observed. However, equivalence testing identified numerous regions demonstrating effect sizes that were not small enough to conclude that they were practically equivalent to zero, despite the nonsignificant null hypothesis test. These regions may be key targets to investigate in future studies using larger samples.

    View details for DOI 10.3758/s13415-021-00933-6

    View details for PubMedID 34341966

  • Individual Differences in Perceived Sleep Quality Do Not Predict Negative Affect Reactivity or Regulation. Biological psychology Zhang, J., Ten Brink, M., Kreibig, S. D., Gilam, G., Goldin, P. R., Manber, R., Mackey, S., Gross, J. J. 2021: 108149


    Do people who have low-quality sleep tend to have more negative affect? This question is of great public interest, and many would assume the answer is "yes." However, previous findings have been mixed, possibly due to differing measures of sleep and affect, or to a failure to separately examine negative affect reactivity and regulation. Across two studies, we assessed adults' perceived sleep quality for at least two weeks and tested their negative affect reactivity and regulation in response to unpleasant pictures (Study 1) or painful thermal stimulation (Study 2) using both self-report and physiological measures. The relationships between perceived sleep quality, on the one hand, and negative affect reactivity and regulation, on the other, were non-significant. Furthermore, a Bayesian approach unanimously favored the null hypothesis. These results suggest that individual differences in perceived sleep quality may not predict negative affect reactivity or regulation across adult individuals.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2021.108149

    View details for PubMedID 34284070

  • Sleep Deprivation Undermines the Link Between Identity and Intergroup Bias. Sleep Zhang, J., Yang, Y., Hong, Y. 2019


    This research seeks to bridge two findings - on the one hand, top-down controlled processes inhibit display of intergroup bias; on the other one hand, sleep deprivation impairs cognitive control processes. Connecting these two proven statements, begs the question: would sleep deprivation also influence intergroup bias? This intriguing link has hardly been explored in extant literature. To fill this gap, we theorize through the lens of social identity. Previous research has shown that individuals who share a common identity with an outgroup are more motivated to inhibit biases toward the outgroup than do their counterparts who do not endorse such common identity. We predicted that this motivated inhibition would be compromised by sleep deprivation. Across two studies, as predicted, we found that only when an individual has adequate sleep did common ingroup identity attenuate the display of intergroup bias, whereas individuals with short habitual sleep (Study 1) or after one-night sleep deprivation (Study 2) displayed equally high levels of intergroup bias regardless of their high or low levels of common ingroup identity. In the global context of incessant intergroup bias and diminishing sleep time, our findings offer new insights for understanding and handling intergroup bias.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/sleep/zsz213

    View details for PubMedID 31552407

  • Sleep deprivation compromises resting-state emotional regulatory processes: An EEG study JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH Zhang, J., Lau, E., Hsiao, J. H. 2019; 28 (3)

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jsr.12671

    View details for Web of Science ID 000474808000009

  • Individuals with insomnia misrecognize angry faces as fearful faces while missing the eyes: an eye-tracking study SLEEP Zhang, J., Chan, A. B., Lau, E., Hsiao, J. H. 2019; 42 (2)
  • Using emotion regulation strategies after sleep deprivation: ERP and behavioral findings. Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience Zhang, J. n., Lau, E. Y., Hsiao, J. H. 2018


    Sleep deprivation is suggested to impact emotion regulation, but few studies have directly examined it. This study investigated the influence of sleep deprivation on three commonly used emotion regulation strategies (distraction, reappraisal, suppression) in Gross's (1998) process model of emotion regulation. Young healthy adults were randomly assigned to a sleep deprivation group (SD; n = 26, 13 males, age = 20.0 ± 1.7) or a sleep control group (SC; n = 25, 13 males, age = 20.2 ± 1.7). Following 24-h sleep deprivation or normal nighttime sleep, participants completed an emotion regulation task, in which they naturally viewed or applied a given emotion regulation strategy towards negative pictures, with electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. A reduction in the centroparietal late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes towards negative pictures from the naturally viewing condition to a regulated condition was calculated as an index of regulatory effects. Comparisons between the two groups indicated that sleep deprivation significantly impaired the regulatory effects of distraction and reappraisal on LPP amplitudes. Suppression did not reduce LPP amplitudes in either group. In addition, habitual sleep quality moderated the effect of sleep deprivation on subjective perception of emotional stimuli, such that sleep deprivation only made good sleepers perceive negative pictures as more unpleasant and more arousing, but it had no significant effect on poor sleepers' perception of negative pictures. Altogether, this study provides the first evidence that sleep deprivation may impair the effectiveness of applying adaptive emotion regulation strategies (distraction and reappraisal), creating potentially undesirable consequences to emotional well-being.

    View details for PubMedID 30460483

  • Sleep-related daytime consequences mediated the neuroticism-depression link SLEEP AND BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS Wong, M., Zhang, J., Wing, Y., Lau, E. 2017; 15 (1): 21–30
  • Insomniacs misidentify angry faces as fearful faces because of missing the eyes: an eye-tracking study The 39th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society Zhang, J., Chan, A., Lau, E., Hsiao, J. 2017