Clinical Focus


  • Infectious Disease

Academic Appointments


Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Senior Fellow, Center for Innovation in Global Health (CIGH) at Stanford University School of Medicine (2015 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Fellowship, Stanford University Medical Center, Infectious Diseases, Adult (2015)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Infectious Disease (2013)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine (2012)
  • Residency: Stanford University Medical Center (2011) CA
  • Internship: Stanford University Medical Center (2009) CA
  • Medical Education: University of Pennsylvania (2008) PA

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


I am interested in the intersection between infectious disease and ecology and my current research is on detecting emerging zoonotic pathogens. Zoonotic disease represents a major burden to human health: from the bubonic plague of the middle ages, to the 1918 flu pandemic that infected one third of the world’s population, to the modern Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic which affects 34 million people living today. My current work aims to detect viral spillover events from animals to humans with the hope of eventually understanding the ecology that drives this process and better defining the steps that will be required to stop the emergence of these pathogens. I currently work in Bangladesh, China, and Costa Rica.

Projects


  • Detection of Emerging Zoonotic Pathogens in Humans, Bangladesh

    A surveillance platform for the detection of novel pathogens and emerging infectious diseases. Currently the platform is running throughout Bangladesh and has collected hundreds of samples from high-risk acutely ill individuals. Collaboration with Stanford University, the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and Columbia University.

    Location

    Bangladesh

  • Developing Interventions to End Cycles of Poverty Caused by Taenia solium and Neurocysticercosis, China

    Neurocysticercosis is a neglected infectious disease caused by larval forms of the pig tapeworm, Taenia solium, infecting people's brains. In our exploratory work in impoverished areas of Western China focusing on disease prevalence and burden in children, we have identified widespread disease, including brain infections and resulting cognitive deficits. We hope to identify transmission pathways and pilot interventions that will reduce transmission.

    Location

    China

  • Spillover of Zoonotic Diseases in a Fragmented Landscape, Costa Rica

    Location

    Costa Rica

2021-22 Courses


All Publications


  • Monitoring of diverse enteric pathogens across environmental and host reservoirs with TaqMan array cards and standard qPCR: a methodological comparison study LANCET PLANETARY HEALTH Lappan, R., Henry, R., Chown, S. L., Luby, S. P., Higginson, E. E., Bata, L., Jirapanjawat, T., Schang, C., Openshaw, J. J., O'Toole, J., Lin, A., Tela, A., Turagabeci, A., Wong, T. F., French, M. A., Brown, R. R., Leder, K., Greening, C., McCarthy, D. 2021; 5 (5): E297-E308
  • Study design, rationale and methods of the Revitalising Informal Settlements and their Environments (RISE) study: a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate environmental and human health impacts of a water-sensitive intervention in informal settlements in Indonesia and Fiji. BMJ open Leder, K., Openshaw, J. J., Allotey, P., Ansariadi, A., Barker, S. F., Burge, K., Clasen, T. F., Chown, S. L., Duffy, G. A., Faber, P. A., Fleming, G., Forbes, A. B., French, M., Greening, C., Henry, R., Higginson, E., Johnston, D. W., Lappan, R., Lin, A., Luby, S. P., McCarthy, D., O'Toole, J. E., Ramirez-Lovering, D., Reidpath, D. D., Simpson, J. A., Sinharoy, S. S., Sweeney, R., Taruc, R. R., Tela, A., Turagabeci, A. R., Wardani, J., Wong, T., Brown, R., RISE Consortium, Awaluddin, F., Batagol, B., Bata, L., Bulachi, D., Cahan, B., Davis, B., El-Sioufi, M., Jovanovic, D., Prescott, M. F., Ramsay, E., Rogersh, B., Saifuddaolah, M., Schang, C., Tseng, C., Vamosi, R., Vilsoni, S., Vakarewa, I., Zulkifli, A. 2021; 11 (1): e042850

    Abstract

    INTRODUCTION: Increasing urban populations have led to the growth of informal settlements, with contaminated environments linked to poor human health through a range of interlinked pathways. Here, we describe the design and methods for the Revitalising Informal Settlements and their Environments (RISE) study, a transdisciplinary randomised trial evaluating impacts of an intervention to upgrade urban informal settlements in two Asia-Pacific countries.METHODS AND ANALYSIS: RISE is a cluster randomised controlled trial among 12 settlements in Makassar, Indonesia, and 12 in Suva, Fiji. Six settlements in each country have been randomised to receive the intervention at the outset; the remainder will serve as controls and be offered intervention delivery after trial completion. The intervention involves a water-sensitive approach, delivering site-specific, modular, decentralised infrastructure primarily aimed at improving health by decreasing exposure to environmental faecal contamination. Consenting households within each informal settlement site have been enrolled, with longitudinal assessment to involve health and well-being surveys, and human and environmental sampling. Primary outcomes will be evaluated in children under 5 years of age and include prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal pathogens, abundance and diversity of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes in gastrointestinal microorganisms and markers of gastrointestinal inflammation. Diverse secondary outcomes include changes in microbial contamination; abundance and diversity of pathogens and AMR genes in environmental samples; impacts on ecological biodiversity and microclimates; mosquito vector abundance; anthropometric assessments, nutrition markers and systemic inflammation in children; caregiver-reported and self-reported health symptoms and healthcare utilisation; and measures of individual and community psychological, emotional and economic well-being. The study aims to provide proof-of-concept evidence to inform policies on upgrading of informal settlements to improve environments and human health and well-being.ETHICS: Study protocols have been approved by ethics boards at Monash University, Fiji National University and Hasanuddin University.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12618000633280; Pre-results.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042850

    View details for PubMedID 33419917

  • Monitoring of diverse enteric pathogens across environmental and host reservoirs with TaqMan array cards and standard qPCR: a methodological comparison study. The Lancet. Planetary health Lappan, R. n., Henry, R. n., Chown, S. L., Luby, S. P., Higginson, E. E., Bata, L. n., Jirapanjawat, T. n., Schang, C. n., Openshaw, J. J., O'Toole, J. n., Lin, A. n., Tela, A. n., Turagabeci, A. n., Wong, T. H., French, M. A., Brown, R. R., Leder, K. n., Greening, C. n., McCarthy, D. n. 2021; 5 (5): e297–e308

    Abstract

    Multiple bacteria, viruses, protists, and helminths cause enteric infections that greatly impact human health and wellbeing. These enteropathogens are transmited via several pathways through human, animal, and environmental reservoirs. Individual qPCR assays have been extensively used to detect enteropathogens within these types of samples, whereas the TaqMan array card (TAC), which allows simultaneous detection of multiple enteropathogens, has only previously been validated in human clinical samples.In this methodological comparison study, we compared the performance of a custom 48-singleplex TAC relative to standard qPCR. We established the sensitivity and specificity of each method for the detection of eight enteric targets, by using spiked samples with varying levels of PCR inhibition. We then tested the prevalence and abundance of pathogens in wastewater from Melbourne (Australia), and human, animal, and environmental samples from informal settlements in Suva, Fiji using both TAC and qPCR.Both methods exhibited similarly h specificity (TAC 100%, qPCR 94%), sensitivity (TAC 92%, qPCR 100%), and quantitation accuracy (TAC 91%, qPCR 99%) in non-inhibited sample matrices with spiked gene fragments. PCR inhibitors substantially affected detection via TAC, though this issue was alleviated by ten-fold sample dilution. Among samples from informal settlements, the two techniques performed similarly for detection (89% agreement) and quantitation (R2 0·82) for the eight enteropathogen targets. The TAC additionally included 38 other enteric targets, enabling detection of diverse faecal pathogens and extensive environmental contamination that would be prohibitively labour intensive to assay by standard qPCR.The two techniques produced similar results across diverse sample types, with qPCR prioritising greater sensitivity and quantitation accuracy, and TAC trading small reductions in these for a cost-effective larger enteropathogen panel enabling a greater number of enteric pathogens to be analysed concurrently, which is beneficial given the abundance and variety of enteric pathogens in environments such as urban informal settlements. The ability to monitor multiple enteric pathogens across diverse reservoirs could allow better resolution of pathogen exposure pathways, and the design and monitoring of interventions to reduce pathogen load.Wellcome Trust Our Planet, Our Health programme.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S2542-5196(21)00051-6

    View details for PubMedID 33964239

  • Inadequate Minority Representation within SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Trials. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene Craft, J. F., Travassos, M. A., Foppiano Palacios, C., Openshaw, J. J. 2020

    Abstract

    Minority communities have borne the brunt of COVID-19 disease in the United States. Nonwhites have contracted most of the SARS-CoV-2 infections; COVID-19 mortality rates for Black Americans are more than twice those for whites. Given this, studying the most effective ways to prevent and treat SARS-CoV-2 in these populations should be a research priority, particularly with respect to vaccine trials. Federal guidelines from the National Institutes of Health and Food and Drug Administration emphasize the need for inclusion of minority groups in these trials, but none of the publicly available SARS-CoV-2 vaccine trial protocols require representative sampling of minorities. This piece emphasizes the importance of adequate inclusion of minority communities in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine trials, and the implications of this inclusion for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine distribution.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.20-1294

    View details for PubMedID 33200726

  • Population-scale longitudinal mapping of COVID-19 symptoms, behaviour and testing. Nature human behaviour Allen, W. E., Altae-Tran, H., Briggs, J., Jin, X., McGee, G., Shi, A., Raghavan, R., Kamariza, M., Nova, N., Pereta, A., Danford, C., Kamel, A., Gothe, P., Milam, E., Aurambault, J., Primke, T., Li, W., Inkenbrandt, J., Huynh, T., Chen, E., Lee, C., Croatto, M., Bentley, H., Lu, W., Murray, R., Travassos, M., Coull, B. A., Openshaw, J., Greene, C. S., Shalem, O., King, G., Probasco, R., Cheng, D. R., Silbermann, B., Zhang, F., Lin, X. 2020

    Abstract

    Despite the widespread implementation of public health measures, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread in the United States. To facilitate an agile response to the pandemic, we developed How We Feel, a web and mobile application that collects longitudinal self-reported survey responses on health, behaviour and demographics. Here, we report results from over 500,000 users in the United States from 2 April 2020 to 12 May 2020. We show that self-reported surveys can be used to build predictive models to identify likely COVID-19-positive individuals. We find evidence among our users for asymptomatic or presymptomatic presentation; show a variety of exposure, occupational and demographic risk factors for COVID-19 beyond symptoms; reveal factors for which users have been SARS-CoV-2 PCR tested; and highlight the temporal dynamics of symptoms and self-isolation behaviour. These results highlight the utility of collecting a diverse set of symptomatic, demographic, exposure and behavioural self-reported data to fight the COVID-19 pandemic.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41562-020-00944-2

    View details for PubMedID 32848231

  • COVID-19, Quarantines, Sheltering-in-Place, and Human Rights: The Developing Crisis. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene Openshaw, J. J., Travassos, M. A. 2020

    Abstract

    As COVID-19 has spread across the globe, quarantines and sheltering-in-place orders have become important public health tools but, as currently implemented, have eroded human rights, particularly for the marginalized, including essential workers, detainees, women, and children. Quarantines and sheltering-in-place orders must include explicit guarantees of human rights protections. We outline protections for the quarantined that communities and governments should strive to guarantee.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0528

    View details for PubMedID 32504462

  • Influenza in U.S. Detention Centers - The Desperate Need for Immunization. The New England journal of medicine Foppiano Palacios, C., Openshaw, J. J., Travassos, M. A. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMp1916894

    View details for PubMedID 31995681

  • COVID-19 outbreaks in U.S. immigrant detention centers: the urgent need to adopt CDC guidelines for prevention and evaluation. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Openshaw, J. J., Travassos, M. A. 2020

    Abstract

    There have been several significant outbreaks of COVID-19 in federal immigrant detention centers, which lack clear and consistent guidelines across Department of Homeland Security (DHS) agencies to limit the spread of COVID-19. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued detailed guidelines for the control, prevention, and evaluation of COVID-19 in detention facilities. While the DHS's Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency has stated that it complies with CDC recommendations, its policies significantly differ from these CDC guidelines, placing detainees at risk for contracting COVID-19. This submission urges the adoption of CDC guidelines across DHS-associated facilities. Such a policy change has the potential to protect and save the lives of the most vulnerable populations under the auspices of the federal government.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/ciaa692

    View details for PubMedID 32474574

  • Hospital-based zoonotic disease surveillance in Bangladesh: design, field data and difficulties. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences Das, P., Sazzad, H. M., Aleem, M. A., Rahman, M. Z., Rahman, M., Anthony, S. J., Lipkin, W. I., Gurley, E. S., Luby, S. P., Openshaw, J. J. 2019; 374 (1782): 20190019

    Abstract

    Early detection of zoonotic diseases allows for the implementation of early response measures, reducing loss of human life and economic disruption. We implemented a surveillance system in hospitals in Bangladesh to screen acutely ill hospitalized patients with severe respiratory infection and meningoencephalitis for zoonotic exposures. Patients were screened for the risk of zoonotic exposures with five questions covering vocational exposures, sick domestic animal and wild animal contact, and date palm sap consumption in the three weeks preceding illness onset. Patients giving at least one positive response were considered a potential zoonotic exposure. From September 2013 to March 2017, a total of 11 429 hospitalized patients across 14 participating hospitals were screened for exposures. Overall, 2% of patients reported a potential zoonotic exposure in the three-week period prior to becoming ill. Sixteen per cent of hospitalized patients with reported exposures died. After routine surveillance diagnostic testing, 88% of patients admitted to the hospital after a potential zoonotic exposure did not have a laboratory diagnosed aetiology for their illness. Hospital-based surveillance systems such as the Bangladeshi example presented here could play an important future role in the early detection of zoonotic spillover diseases. This article is part of the theme issue 'Dynamic and integrative approaches to understanding pathogen spillover'.

    View details for DOI 10.1098/rstb.2019.0019

    View details for PubMedID 31401956

  • Impact of Silver Ion Laundry Treatment on Athletic Gear and Environmental Pathogens and Athlete Health Balachandran, P., Openshaw, J. J. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2019: 604
  • Impact of Silver Ion Laundry Treatment on Athletic Gear and Environmental Pathogens and Athlete Health Balachandran, P., Openshaw, J. J. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2019: 286
  • Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) of Cysticercosis in School-Aged Children in Tibetan Rural Farming Areas of Western China: Implications for Intervention Planning. International journal of environmental research and public health Zhou, H., Wang, Q., Zhou, J., Li, T., Medina, A., Felt, S. A., Rozelle, S., Openshaw, J. J. 2019; 16 (5)

    Abstract

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) significantly contributes to morbidity in developing countries. We recently published a study of prevalence and risk factors in school-aged children in three mountainous areas in Sichuan province of western China. Using structural equation modeling (SEM) on data from that study to guide intervention planning, here we examine risk factors grouped into three broad interventional categories: sociodemographics, human behavior, and sources of pork and pig husbandry. Because neuroimaging is not easily available, using SEM allows for the use of multiple observed variables (serological tests and symptoms) to represent probable NCC cases. Data collected from 2608 students was included in this analysis. Within this group, seroprevalence of cysticercosis IgG antibodies was 5.4%. SEM results showed that sociodemographic factors (beta = 0.33, p < 0.05), sources of pork and pig husbandry (beta = 0.26, p < 0.001), and behavioral factors (beta = 0.33, p < 0.05) were all directly related to probable NCC in school-aged children. Sociodemographic factors affected probable NCC indirectly via sources of pork and pig husbandry factors (beta = 0.07, p < 0.001) and behavioral variables (beta = 0.07, p < 0.001). Both sociodemographic factors (beta = 0.07, p < 0.05) and sources of pork and pig husbandry factors (beta = 0.10, p < 0.01) affected probable NCC indirectly via behavioral variables. Because behavioral variables not only had a large direct effect but also served as a critical bridge to strengthen the effect of sociodemographics and sources of pork and pig husbandry on probable NCC, our findings suggest that interventions targeting behavioral factors may be the most effective in reducing disease.

    View details for PubMedID 30836642

  • Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) of Cysticercosis in School-Aged Children in Tibetan Rural Farming Areas of Western China: Implications for Intervention Planning INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH Zhou, H., Wang, Q., Zhou, J., Li, T., Medina, A., Felt, S. A., Rozelle, S., Openshaw, J. J. 2019; 16 (5)
  • High prevalence of taeniasis and Taenia solium cysticercosis in children in western Sichuan, China. Acta tropica Li, T. n., Chen, X. n., Wang, H. n., Openshaw, J. J., Zhong, B. n., Felt, S. A., Ito, A. n., Luby, S. P. 2019: 105133

    Abstract

    Data in China on human Taenia infections, including Taenia solium cysticercosis, is largely lacking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of taeniasis with all three human Taenia species as well as T. solium cysticercosis in primary school-aged children in minority areas of western Sichuan, China. During April 2016 to December 2017, we did a cross-sectional study in five western Sichuan Province primary schools in Liangshan (3 schools), Ganzi (1 school) and Aba (1 school) prefectures. Diagnosis of taeniasis was made by stool microscopy for presence of Taenia eggs, as well as recovery of taeniid tapeworms or proglottids by medicinal treatment followed by species identification using multiplex PCR. Diagnosis of T. solium cysticercosis was made serologically using an ELISA with low-molecular-weight antigens purified from T. solium cyst fluid to detect specific IgG antibodies. A total of 1,672 children were screened for taeniasis and 1,639 were evaluated for cysticercosis antibodies. Overall prevalence of taeniasis was 7.5% but was as high as 15.6% at one school site (e.g., Shuiluo). Of the three known human Taenia species, adult T. solium tapeworms were detected in 42 children from four of the five schools (all three schools in Liangshan and one in Aba), giving a prevalence of T. solium taeniasis of 2.5% (95% confidence interval 0-6.7%). Cysticercosis antibody seropositivity by school varied from 2.3% to 15.6% (overall 7.5%). T. solium taeniasis carriers were more likely to have cysticercosis antibodies than chlidren without T. solium taeniasis (43.6% vs 6.6%). Schools with higher prevalences of T. solium taeniasis were more likely to have children with human cysticercosis IgG antibodies. This study discloses a high prevalence of taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis in primary school-aged children in minority areas of western Sichuan, suggesting an urgent necessity for school-based disease control.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105133

    View details for PubMedID 31415736

  • Prevalence and risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in school-aged children: A school based study in western Sichuan, People's Republic of China. PLoS neglected tropical diseases Openshaw, J. J., Medina, A. n., Felt, S. A., Li, T. n., Huan, Z. n., Rozelle, S. n., Luby, S. P. 2018; 12 (5): e0006465

    Abstract

    Taenia solium cysticercosis affects millions of impoverished people worldwide and can cause neurocysticercosis, an infection of the central nervous system which is potentially fatal. Children may represent an especially vulnerable population to neurocysticercosis, due to the risk of cognitive impairment during formative school years. While previous epidemiologic studies have suggested high prevalence in rural China, the prevalence in children as well as risk factors and impact of disease in low-resource areas remain poorly characterized.Utilizing school based sampling, we conducted a cross-sectional study, administering a questionnaire and collecting blood for T. solium cysticercosis antibodies in 2867 fifth and sixth grade students across 27 schools in west Sichuan. We used mixed-effects logistic regression models controlling for school-level clustering to study associations between risk factors and to characterize factors influencing the administration of deworming medication. Overall prevalence of cysticercosis antibodies was 6%, but prevalence was significantly higher in three schools which all had prevalences of 15% or higher. Students from households owning pigs (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.81, 95% CI 1.08-3.03), from households reporting feeding their pigs human feces (adjusted OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.03-2.16), and self-reporting worms in their feces (adjusted OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.18-2.91) were more likely to have cysticercosis IgG antibodies. Students attending high prevalence schools were more likely to come from households allowing pigs to freely forage for food (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.72-2.98) and lacking a toilet (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.38-2.46). Children who were boarding at school were less likely to have received treatment for gastrointestinal worms (adjusted OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.42-0.80).Our study indicates high prevalences of cysticercosis antibodies in young school aged children in rural China. While further studies to assess potential for school-based transmission are needed, school-based disease control may be an important intervention to ensure the health of vulnerable pediatric populations in T. solium endemic areas.

    View details for PubMedID 29738570

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5959190

  • EVIDENCE CONSISTENT WITH SCHOOL BASED TRANSMISSION OF <it>TAENIA SOLIUM</it> CYSTICERCOSIS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS, SOUTHWEST CHINA Openshaw, J., Chedid, C., Medina, A., Felt, S., Li, T., Huan, Z., Rozelle, S., Luby, S. AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE. 2018: 7
  • High prevalence of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in Tibetan schoolchildren in western Sichuan, China: a cross-sectional study Li, T., Openshaw, J. J., Chen, X., Medina, A. C., Felt, S. A., Zhou, H., Rozelle, S. D., Luby, S. P. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2017: S89
  • TAENIA SOLIUM AND NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS BURDEN AND DECREASED ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE ASSOCIATED WITH BRAIN INFECTION IN SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN, SOUTHWEST CHINA Openshaw, J. J., Medina, A., Felt, S. A., Li, T., Huan, Z., Rozelle, S., Luby, S. P. AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE. 2017: 139–40
  • Reduction in bacterial contamination of hospital textiles by a novel silver-based laundry treatment AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INFECTION CONTROL Openshaw, J. J., Morris, W. M., Lowry, G. V., Nazmi, A. 2016; 44 (12): 1705-1708

    Abstract

    Treating hospital patient textiles with ionic silver after each washing results in a significant decrease in microbial contamination. Although further study is needed to better understand the role textiles play in hospital-acquired infections and to quantify the influence of silver textile treatment on health care-associated infection risk and patient outcomes, ionic silver treatment of textiles may prove useful in hospital-acquired infection reduction strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajic.2016.06.021

    View details for Web of Science ID 000392626300057

    View details for PubMedID 27561434

  • Bat Hunting and Bat-Human Interactions in Bangladeshi Villages: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission and Bat Conservation. Transboundary and emerging diseases Openshaw, J. J., Hegde, S., Sazzad, H. M., KHAN, S. U., Hossain, M. J., Epstein, J. H., Daszak, P., Gurley, E. S., Luby, S. P. 2016: -?

    Abstract

    Bats are an important reservoir for emerging zoonotic pathogens. Close human-bat interactions, including the sharing of living spaces and hunting and butchering of bats for food and medicines, may lead to spillover of zoonotic disease into human populations. We used bat exposure and environmental data gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to characterize bat exposures and hunting in Bangladesh. Eleven percent of households reported having a bat roost near their homes, 65% reported seeing bats flying over their households at dusk, and 31% reported seeing bats inside their compounds or courtyard areas. Twenty percent of households reported that members had at least daily exposure to bats. Bat hunting occurred in 49% of the villages surveyed and was more likely to occur in households that reported nearby bat roosts (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9) and villages located in north-west (aPR 7.5, 95% CI 2.5-23.0) and south-west (aPR 6.8, 95% CI 2.1-21.6) regions. Our results suggest high exposure to bats and widespread hunting throughout Bangladesh. This has implications for both zoonotic disease spillover and bat conservation.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tbed.12505

    View details for PubMedID 27125493

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5086320

  • Increased Morbidity and Mortality in Domestic Animals Eating Dropped and Bitten Fruit in Bangladeshi Villages: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission. EcoHealth Openshaw, J. J., Hegde, S., Sazzad, H. M., Khan, S. U., Hossain, M. J., Epstein, J. H., Daszak, P., Gurley, E. S., Luby, S. P. 2016; 13 (1): 39-48

    Abstract

    We used data on feeding practices and domestic animal health gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to identify any association between grazing dropped fruit found on the ground or owners directly feeding bat- or bird-bitten fruit and animal health. We compared mortality and morbidity in domestic animals using a mixed effects model controlling for village clustering, herd size, and proxy measures of household wealth. Thirty percent of household heads reported that their animals grazed on dropped fruit and 20% reported that they actively fed bitten fruit to their domestic herds. Household heads allowing their cattle to graze on dropped fruit were more likely to report an illness within their herd (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.31). Household heads directly feeding goats bitten fruit were more likely to report illness (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.16-1.57) and deaths (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.13-2.4). Reporting of illnesses and deaths among goats rose as the frequency of feeding bitten fruit increased. One possible explanation for this finding is the transmission of bat pathogens to domestic animals via bitten fruit consumption.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10393-015-1080-x

    View details for PubMedID 26668032

  • Bat hunting and bat-human interactions in Bangladeshi villages: implications for zoonotic disease transmission and bat conservation Transboundary & Emerging Disease Openshaw, J. J., et al 2016
  • Increased morbidity and mortality in domestic animals fed ground and bitten fruit in Bangladeshi villages: implications for bat borne zoonotic disease transmission EcoHealth Openshaw, J. J., et al 2015
  • Rocky mountain spotted fever in the United States, 2000-2007: interpreting contemporary increases in incidence. American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene Openshaw, J. J., et al 2010; 83 (1): 174–182
  • Eczema vaccinatum resulting from the transmission of vaccinia virus from a smallpox vaccinee: an investigation of potential fomites in the home environment Vaccine Lederman, E., Miramontes, R., Openshaw, J., et al 2009; 27 (3): 375-7
  • Human Ehrlichiosis: Clinical and Ecological Challenges Southern Medical Journal Openshaw, J. J., Swerdlow, D. 2007; 100 (8): 769-770
  • Purple Glove Syndrome Following Intravenous Phenytoin Administration Vascular Medicine Chokshi, R., Openshaw, J., Mehta, N., Mohler, E. 2007; 12: 29-31
  • Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis and its clinical distinction from Rocky Mountain spotted fever Clin Infect Dis. Paddock, C., Finley, R., Wright, C., Robinson, H., Schrodt, B., Lane, C., Ekenna, O., Blass, M., Tamminga, C., Ohi, C., McLellan, S., Goddard, J., Holman, R., Openshaw, J., Sumner, J., Zaki, S., Eremeeva, M. 2006; 47 (9): 1188-96