Professional Education

  • PhD, University of California San Diego, Materials Science and Engineering (2021)
  • MS, University of California San Diego, Materials Science and Engineering (2017)
  • BS, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Materials Science and Engineering (2015)

Stanford Advisors


  • Joseph Wang, Juliane Sempionatto Moreto, Jonas Felipe Kurniawan, Aida Martin Galan, Jayoung Kim, Alan Campbell, Jose Roberto Moreto. "United States Patent US20200337641A1 Flexible systems, devices and methods for epidermal monitoring of analytes and biomarkers in fluids on skin", University of California, Oct 29, 2020

All Publications

  • A flexible adhesive surface electrode array capable of cervical electroneurography duringasequentialautonomic stress challenge. Scientific reports Bu, Y., Kurniawan, J. F., Prince, J., Nguyen, A. K., Ho, B., Sit, N. L., Pham, T., Wu, V. M., Tjhia, B., Shin, A. J., Wu, T., Tu, X. M., Rao, R., Coleman, T. P., Lerman, I. 2022; 12 (1): 19467


    This study introduces a flexible, adhesive-integrated electrode array that was developed to enable non-invasive monitoring of cervical nerve activity. The device uses silver-silver chloride as the electrode material of choice and combines it with an electrode array consisting of a customized biopotential data acquisition unit and integrated graphical user interface (GUI) for visualization of real-time monitoring. Preliminary testing demonstrated this electrode design can achieve a high signal to noise ratio during cervical neural recordings. To demonstrate the capability of the surface electrodes to detect changes in cervical neuronal activity, the cold-pressor test (CPT) and a timed respiratory challenge were employed as stressors to the autonomic nervous system. This sensor system recording, a new technique, was termed Cervical Electroneurography (CEN). By applying a custom spike sorting algorithm to the electrode measurements, neural activity was classified in two ways: (1) pre-to-post CPT, and (2) during a timed respiratory challenge. Unique to this work: (1) rostral to caudal channel position-specific (cephalad to caudal) firing patterns and (2) cross challenge biotype-specific change in average CEN firing, were observed with both CPT and the timed respiratory challenge. Future work is planned to develop an ambulatory CEN recording device that could provide immediate notification of autonomic nervous system activity changes that might indicate autonomic dysregulation in healthy subjects and clinical disease states.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-022-21817-w

    View details for PubMedID 36376365

  • An Adhesive-Integrated Stretchable Silver-Silver Chloride Electrode Array for Unobtrusive Monitoring of Gastric Neuromuscular Activity ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES Kurniawan, J. F., Tjhia, B., Wu, V. M., Shin, A., Sit, N. J., Pham, T., Nguyen, A., Li, C., Kumar, R., Aguilar-Rivera, M., Lerman, I., Kunkel, D. C., Coleman, T. P. 2021; 6 (5)
  • Skin-worn Soft Microfluidic Potentiometric Detection System ELECTROANALYSIS Sempionatto, J. R., Martin, A., Garcia-Carmona, L., Barfidokht, A., Kurniawan, J. F., Moreto, J. R., Tang, G., Shin, A., Liu, X., Escarpa, A., Wang, J. 2019; 31 (2)
  • Noninvasive Transdermal Delivery System of Lidocaine Using an Acoustic Droplet-Vaporization Based Wearable Patch SMALL Soto, F., Jeerapan, I., Silva-Lopez, C., Lopez-Ramirez, M., Chai, I., Lu Xiaolong, Lv, J., Kurniawan, J. F., Martin, I., Chakravarthy, K., Wang, J. 2018; 14 (49): e1803266


    Current technologies for managing acute and chronic pain have focused on reducing the time required for achieving high therapeutic efficiency. Herein a wearable transdermal patch is introduced, employing an acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) methodology, as an effective noninvasive transdermal platform, for a fast local delivery of the anesthetic agent lidocaine. The skin-worn patch consists of a flexible drug reservoir containing hundreds of micropores loaded with lidocaine, and mixed with the perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion. The ultrasound-triggered vaporization of the PFC emulsion provides the necessary force to breach dermal barriers. The drug release kinetics of our model was investigated by measuring the amount of lidocaine that passed through phantom tissue and pigskin barriers. The ADV platform increases the payload skin penetration resulting in shorter treatment times compared to passive diffusion or ultrasound alone, holding considerable promise for addressing the delayed therapeutic action and slow pain relief of existing delivery protocols. It is envisioned that the integration of ADV-based transdermal devices could be expanded to the depth-dependent delivery of other pain management, vaccines, and gene therapy modalities.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/smll.201803266

    View details for Web of Science ID 000456503600012

    View details for PubMedID 30369022

  • Highly Stable Battery Pack via Insulated, Reinforced, Buckling-Enabled Interconnect Array SMALL Yin, L., Seo, J., Kurniawan, J., Kumar, R., Lv, J., Xie, L., Liu, X., Xu, S., Meng, Y. S., Wang, J. 2018; 14 (43): e1800938


    This work describes a flexible and stretchable battery pack configuration that exhibits highly stable performance under large deformation up to 100% biaxial stretching. Using stress-enduring printable inks and serpentine interconnects, the new screen-printing route offers an attractive solution for converting rigid battery units into a flexible, stretchable energy storage device. Coin-cell lithium ion batteries are thus assembled onto the island regions of a screen-printed, buckling-enabled, polymer-reinforced interconnect "island-bridge" array. Most of the strain on the new energy-storage device is thus accommodated by the stress-enduring serpentine structures, and the array is further reinforced by mechanically strong "backbone" layers. Battery pack arrays are assembled and tested under different deformation levels, demonstrating a highly stable performance (<2.5% change) under all test conditions. A light emitting diode band powered by the battery pack is tested on-body, showing uninterrupted illumination regardless of any degrees of deformation. Moreover, battery-powered devices that are ultrastable under large deformation can be easily fabricated by incorporating different electronics parts such as sensors or integrated circuits on the same platform. Such ability to apply traditionally rigid, bulky lithium ion batteries onto flexible and stretchable printed surfaces holds considerable promise for diverse wearable applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/smll.201800938

    View details for Web of Science ID 000450110500015

    View details for PubMedID 29971916

  • Epidermal Microfluidic Electrochemical Detection System: Enhanced Sweat Sampling and Metabolite Detection ACS SENSORS Martin, A., Kim, J., Kurniawan, J. F., Sempionatto, J. R., Moreto, J. R., Tang, G., Campbell, A. S., Shin, A., Lee, M., Liu, X., Wang, J. 2017; 2 (12): 1860-1868


    Despite tremendous recent efforts, noninvasive sweat monitoring is still far from delivering its early analytical promise. Here, we describe a flexible epidermal microfluidic detection platform fabricated through hybridization of lithographic and screen-printed technologies, for efficient and fast sweat sampling and continuous, real-time electrochemical monitoring of glucose and lactate levels. This soft, skin-mounted device judiciously merges lab-on-a-chip and electrochemical detection technologies, integrated with a miniaturized flexible electronic board for real-time wireless data transmission to a mobile device. Modeling of the device design and sweat flow conditions allowed optimization of the sampling process and the microchannel layout for achieving attractive fluid dynamics and rapid filling of the detection reservoir (within 8 min from starting exercise). The wearable microdevice thus enabled efficient natural sweat pumping to the electrochemical detection chamber containing the enzyme-modified electrode transducers. The fabricated device can be easily mounted on the epidermis without hindrance to the wearer and displays resiliency against continuous mechanical deformation expected from such epidermal wear. Amperometric biosensing of lactate and glucose from the rapidly generated sweat, using the corresponding immobilized oxidase enzymes, was wirelessly monitored during cycling activity of different healthy subjects. This ability to monitor sweat glucose levels introduces new possibilities for effective diabetes management, while similar lactate monitoring paves the way for new wearable fitness applications. The new epidermal microfluidic electrochemical detection strategy represents an attractive alternative to recently reported colorimetric sweat-monitoring methods, and hence holds considerable promise for practical fitness or health monitoring applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acssensors.7b00729

    View details for Web of Science ID 000418879500016

    View details for PubMedID 29152973

  • Flexible and Stretchable 3 omega Sensors for Thermal Characterization of Human Skin ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS Tian, L., Li, Y., Webb, R., Krishnan, S., Bian, Z., Song, J., Ning, X., Crawford, K., Kurniawan, J., Bonifas, A., Ma, J., Liu, Y., Xie, X., Chen, J., Liu, Y., Shi, Z., Wu, T., Ning, R., Li, D., Sinha, S., Cahill, D. G., Huang, Y., Rogers, J. A. 2017; 27 (26)
  • Soft, stretchable, high power density electronic skin-based biofuel cells for scavenging energy from human sweat ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Bandodkar, A. J., You, J., Kim, N., Gu, Y., Kumar, R., Mohan, A., Kurniawan, J., Imani, S., Nakagawa, T., Parish, B., Parthasarathy, M., Mercier, P. P., Xu, S., Wang, J. 2017; 10 (7): 1581-1589

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c7ee00865a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000405279900006

  • Multimodal epidermal devices for hydration monitoring MICROSYSTEMS & NANOENGINEERING Krishnan, S., Shi, Y., Webb, R., Ma, Y., Bastien, P., Crawford, K. E., Wang, A., Feng, X., Manco, M., Kurniawan, J., Tir, E., Huang, Y., Balooch, G., Pielak, R. M., Rogers, J. A. 2017; 3: 17014


    Precise, quantitative in vivo monitoring of hydration levels in the near surface regions of the skin can be useful in preventing skin-based pathologies, and regulating external appearance. Here we introduce multimodal sensors with important capabilities in this context, rendered in soft, ultrathin, 'skin-like' formats with numerous advantages over alternative technologies, including the ability to establish intimate, conformal contact without applied pressure, and to provide spatiotemporally resolved data on both electrical and thermal transport properties from sensitive regions of the skin. Systematic in vitro studies and computational models establish the underlying measurement principles and associated approaches for determination of temperature, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, volumetric heat capacity, and electrical impedance using simple analysis algorithms. Clinical studies on 20 patients subjected to a variety of external stimuli validate the device operation and allow quantitative comparisons of measurement capabilities to those of existing state-of-the-art tools.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/micronano.2017.14

    View details for Web of Science ID 000403040600001

    View details for PubMedID 31057861

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6444991

  • Merging of Thin- and Thick-Film Fabrication Technologies: Toward Soft Stretchable "Island-Bridge" Devices ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES Mohan, A. M., Kim, N., Gu, Y., Bandodkar, A. J., You, J., Kumar, R., Kurniawan, J. F., Xu, S., Wang, J. 2017; 2 (4)
  • Flexible Near-Field Wireless Optoelectronics as Subdermal Implants for Broad Applications in Optogenetics NEURON Shin, G., Gomez, A. M., Al-Hasani, R., Jeong, Y., Kim, J., Xie, Z., Banks, A., Lee, S., Han, S., Yoo, C., Lee, J., Lee, S., Kurniawan, J., Tureb, J., Guo, Z., Yoon, J., Park, S., Bang, S., Nam, Y., Walicki, M. C., Samineni, V. K., Mickle, A. D., Lee, K., Heo, S., McCall, J. G., Pan, T., Wang, L., Feng, X., Kim, T., Kim, J., Li, Y., Huang, Y., Gereau, R. W., Ha, J., Bruchas, M. R., Rogers, J. A. 2017; 93 (3): 509-+


    In vivo optogenetics provides unique, powerful capabilities in the dissection of neural circuits implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Conventional hardware for such studies, however, physically tethers the experimental animal to an external light source, limiting the range of possible experiments. Emerging wireless options offer important capabilities that avoid some of these limitations, but the current size, bulk, weight, and wireless area of coverage is often disadvantageous. Here, we present a simple but powerful setup based on wireless, near-field power transfer and miniaturized, thin, flexible optoelectronic implants, for complete optical control in a variety of behavioral paradigms. The devices combine subdermal magnetic coil antennas connected to microscale, injectable light-emitting diodes (LEDs), with the ability to operate at wavelengths ranging from UV to blue, green-yellow, and red. An external loop antenna allows robust, straightforward application in a multitude of behavioral apparatuses. The result is a readily mass-producible, user-friendly technology with broad potential for optogenetics applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.12.031

    View details for Web of Science ID 000396428800008

    View details for PubMedID 28132830

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5377903

  • Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Epidermal Heat Flux Sensors for Measurements of Core Body Temperature ADVANCED HEALTHCARE MATERIALS Zhang, Y., Webb, R., Luo, H., Xue, Y., Kurniawan, J., Cho, N., Krishnan, S., Li, Y., Huang, Y., Rogers, J. A. 2016; 5 (1): 119-127


    Long-term, continuous measurement of core body temperature is of high interest, due to the widespread use of this parameter as a key biomedical signal for clinical judgment and patient management. Traditional approaches rely on devices or instruments in rigid and planar forms, not readily amenable to intimate or conformable integration with soft, curvilinear, time-dynamic, surfaces of the skin. Here, materials and mechanics designs for differential temperature sensors are presented which can attach softly and reversibly onto the skin surface, and also sustain high levels of deformation (e.g., bending, twisting, and stretching). A theoretical approach, together with a modeling algorithm, yields core body temperature from multiple differential measurements from temperature sensors separated by different effective distances from the skin. The sensitivity, accuracy, and response time are analyzed by finite element analyses (FEA) to provide guidelines for relationships between sensor design and performance. Four sets of experiments on multiple devices with different dimensions and under different convection conditions illustrate the key features of the technology and the analysis approach. Finally, results indicate that thermally insulating materials with cellular structures offer advantages in reducing the response time and increasing the accuracy, while improving the mechanics and breathability.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adhm.201500110

    View details for Web of Science ID 000368144200010

    View details for PubMedID 25953120

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4844556

  • Planar Photonic Crystal Biosensor for Quantitative Label-Free Cell Attachment Microscopy ADVANCED OPTICAL MATERIALS Chen, W., Long, K. D., Kurniawan, J., Hung, M., Yu, H., Harley, B. A., Cunningham, B. T. 2015; 3 (11): 1623-1632


    In this study, a planar-surface photonic crystal (PC) biosensor for quantitative, kinetic, label-free imaging of cell-surface interactions is demonstrated. The planar biosensor surface eliminates external stimuli to the cells caused by substrate topography to more accurately reflect smooth surface environment encountered by many cell types in vitro. Here, a fabrication approach that combines nanoreplica molding and a horizontal dipping process is used to planarize the surface of the PC biosensor. The planar PC biosensor maintains a high detection sensitivity that enables the monitoring of live cell-substrate interactions with spatial resolution sufficient for observing intracellular attachment strength gradients and the extensions of filopodia from the cell body. The evolution of cell morphology during the attachment and spreading process of 3T3 fibroblast cells is compared between planar and grating-structured PC biosensors. The planar surface effectively eliminates the directionally biased cellular attachment behaviors that are observed on the grating-structured surface. This work represents an important step forward in the development of label-free techniques for observing cellular processes without unintended external environmental modulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/adom.201500260

    View details for Web of Science ID 000366523500019

    View details for PubMedID 26877910

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4750395

  • Epidermal devices for noninvasive, precise, and continuous mapping of macrovascular and microvascular blood flow SCIENCE ADVANCES Webb, R., Ma, Y., Krishnan, S., Li, Y., Yoon, S., Guo, X., Feng, X., Shi, Y., Seidel, M., Cho, N., Kurniawan, J., Ahad, J., Sheth, N., Kim, J., Taylor, J. G., Darlington, T., Chang, K., Huang, W., Ayers, J., Gruebele, A., Pielak, R. M., Slepian, M. J., Huang, Y., Gorbach, A. M., Rogers, J. A. 2015; 1 (9): e1500701


    Continuous monitoring of variations in blood flow is vital in assessing the status of microvascular and macrovascular beds for a wide range of clinical and research scenarios. Although a variety of techniques exist, most require complete immobilization of the subject, thereby limiting their utility to hospital or clinical settings. Those that can be rendered in wearable formats suffer from limited accuracy, motion artifacts, and other shortcomings that follow from an inability to achieve intimate, noninvasive mechanical linkage of sensors with the surface of the skin. We introduce an ultrathin, soft, skin-conforming sensor technology that offers advanced capabilities in continuous and precise blood flow mapping. Systematic work establishes a set of experimental procedures and theoretical models for quantitative measurements and guidelines in design and operation. Experimental studies on human subjects, including validation with measurements performed using state-of-the-art clinical techniques, demonstrate sensitive and accurate assessment of both macrovascular and microvascular flow under a range of physiological conditions. Refined operational modes eliminate long-term drifts and reduce power consumption, thereby providing steps toward the use of this technology for continuous monitoring during daily activities.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/sciadv.1500701

    View details for Web of Science ID 000216598200043

    View details for PubMedID 26601309

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4646823

  • Thermal Transport Characteristics of Human Skin Measured In Vivo Using Ultrathin Conformal Arrays of Thermal Sensors and Actuators PLOS ONE Webb, R., Pielak, R. M., Bastien, P., Ayers, J., Niittynen, J., Kurniawan, J., Manco, M., Lin, A., Cho, N., Malyrchuk, V., Balooch, G., Rogers, J. A. 2015; 10 (2): e0118131


    Measurements of the thermal transport properties of the skin can reveal changes in physical and chemical states of relevance to dermatological health, skin structure and activity, thermoregulation and other aspects of human physiology. Existing methods for in vivo evaluations demand complex systems for laser heating and infrared thermography, or they require rigid, invasive probes; neither can apply to arbitrary regions of the body, offers modes for rapid spatial mapping, or enables continuous monitoring outside of laboratory settings. Here we describe human clinical studies using mechanically soft arrays of thermal actuators and sensors that laminate onto the skin to provide rapid, quantitative in vivo determination of both the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, in a completely non-invasive manner. Comprehensive analysis of measurements on six different body locations of each of twenty-five human subjects reveal systematic variations and directional anisotropies in the characteristics, with correlations to the thicknesses of the epidermis (EP) and stratum corneum (SC) determined by optical coherence tomography, and to the water content assessed by electrical impedance based measurements. Multivariate statistical analysis establishes four distinct locations across the body that exhibit different physical properties: heel, cheek, palm, and wrist/volar forearm/dorsal forearm. The data also demonstrate that thermal transport correlates negatively with SC and EP thickness and positively with water content, with a strength of correlation that varies from region to region, e.g., stronger in the palmar than in the follicular regions.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0118131

    View details for Web of Science ID 000349444900265

    View details for PubMedID 25658947

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4319855