Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of California San Francisco (2013)
  • Master of Engineering, University of Michigan Ann Arbor (2007)
  • Bachelor of Science, University of Michigan Ann Arbor (2006)

Stanford Advisors

All Publications

  • Durable antitumor responses to CD47 blockade require adaptive immune stimulation PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Sockolosky, J. T., Dougan, M., Ingram, J. R., Ho, C. C., Kauke, M. J., Almo, S. C., Ploegh, H. L., Garcia, K. C. 2016; 113 (19): E2646-E2654


    Therapeutic antitumor antibodies treat cancer by mobilizing both innate and adaptive immunity. CD47 is an antiphagocytic ligand exploited by tumor cells to blunt antibody effector functions by transmitting an inhibitory signal through its receptor signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα). Interference with the CD47-SIRPα interaction synergizes with tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies to eliminate human tumor xenografts by enhancing macrophage-mediated antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), but synergy between CD47 blockade and ADCP has yet to be demonstrated in immunocompetent hosts. Here, we show that CD47 blockade alone or in combination with a tumor-specific antibody fails to generate antitumor immunity against syngeneic B16F10 tumors in mice. Durable tumor immunity required programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade in combination with an antitumor antibody, with incorporation of CD47 antagonism substantially improving response rates. Our results highlight an underappreciated contribution of the adaptive immune system to anti-CD47 adjuvant therapy and suggest that targeting both innate and adaptive immune checkpoints can potentiate the vaccinal effect of antitumor antibody therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1604268113

    View details for Web of Science ID 000375478800015

    View details for PubMedID 27091975

  • The neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, as a target for drug delivery and therapy. Advanced drug delivery reviews Sockolosky, J. T., Szoka, F. C. 2015; 91: 109-124


    Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-based drugs are arguably the most successful class of protein therapeutics due in part to their remarkably long blood circulation. This arises from IgG interaction with the neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn. FcRn is the central regulator of IgG and albumin homeostasis throughout life and is increasingly being recognized as an important player in autoimmune disease, mucosal immunity, and tumor immune surveillance. Various engineering approaches that hijack or disrupt the FcRn-mediated transport pathway have been devised to develop long-lasting and non-invasive protein therapeutics, protein subunit vaccines, and therapeutics for treatment of autoimmune and infectious disease. In this review, we highlight the diverse biological functions of FcRn, emerging therapeutic opportunities, as well as the associated challenges of targeting FcRn for drug delivery and disease therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.addr.2015.02.005

    View details for PubMedID 25703189

  • Engineering neonatal Fc receptor-mediated recycling and transcytosis in recombinant proteins by short terminal peptide extensions PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Sockolosky, J. T., Tiffany, M. R., Szoka, F. C. 2012; 109 (40): 16095-16100


    The importance of therapeutic recombinant proteins in medicine has led to a variety of tactics to increase their circulation time or to enable routes of administration other than injection. One clinically successful tactic to improve both protein circulation and delivery is to fuse the Fc domain of IgG to therapeutic proteins so that the resulting fusion proteins interact with the human neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). As an alternative to grafting the high molecular weight Fc domain to therapeutic proteins, we have modified their N and/or C termini with a short peptide sequence that interacts with FcRn. Our strategy was motivated by results [Mezo AR, et al. (2008) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:2337-2342] that identified peptides that compete with human IgG for FcRn. The small size and simple structure of the FcRn-binding peptide (FcBP) allows for expression of FcBP fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and results in their pH-dependent binding to FcRn with an affinity comparable to that of IgG. The FcBP fusion proteins are internalized, recycled, and transcytosed across cell monolayers that express FcRn. This strategy has the potential to improve protein transport across epithelial barriers, which could lead to noninvasive administration and also enable longer half-lives of therapeutic proteins.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1208857109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309611400036

    View details for PubMedID 22991460

  • Decoupling the Functional Pleiotropy of Stem Cell Factor by Tuning c-Kit Signaling CELL Ho, C. C., Chhabra, A., Starkl, P., Schnorr, P., Wilmes, S., Moraga, I., Kwon, H., Gaudenzio, N., Sibilano, R., Wehrman, T. S., Gakovic, M., Sockolosky, J. T., Tiffany, M. R., Ring, A. M., Piehler, J., Weissman, I. L., Galli, S. J., Shizuru, J. A., Garcia, K. C. 2017; 168 (6): 1041-?


    Most secreted growth factors and cytokines are functionally pleiotropic because their receptors are expressed on diverse cell types. While important for normal mammalian physiology, pleiotropy limits the efficacy of cytokines and growth factors as therapeutics. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor that acts through the c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase to elicit hematopoietic progenitor expansion but can be toxic when administered in vivo because it concurrently activates mast cells. We engineered a mechanism-based SCF partial agonist that impaired c-Kit dimerization, truncating downstream signaling amplitude. This SCF variant elicited biased activation of hematopoietic progenitors over mast cells in vitro and in vivo. Mouse models of SCF-mediated anaphylaxis, radioprotection, and hematopoietic expansion revealed that this SCF partial agonist retained therapeutic efficacy while exhibiting virtually no anaphylactic off-target effects. The approach of biasing cell activation by tuning signaling thresholds and outputs has applications to many dimeric receptor-ligand systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2017.02.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000396287900012

    View details for PubMedID 28283060

  • "Velcro" Engineering of High Affinity CD47 Ectodomain as Signal Regulatory Protein alpha(SIRP alpha) Antagonists That Enhance Antibody-dependent Cellular Phagocytosis JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Ho, C. C., Guo, N., Sockolosky, J. T., Ring, A. M., Weiskopf, K., Oezkan, E., Mori, Y., Weissman, I. L., Garcia, K. C. 2015; 290 (20): 12650-12663
  • Fusion of a Short Peptide that Binds Immunoglobulin G to a Recombinant Protein Substantially Increases Its Plasma Half-Life in Mice PLOS ONE Sockolosky, J. T., Kivimaee, S., Szoka, F. C. 2014; 9 (7)


    We explore a strategy to substantially increase the half-life of recombinant proteins by genetic fusion to FcIII, a 13-mer IgG-Fc domain binding peptide (IgGBP) originally identified by DeLano and co-workers at Genentech [DeLano WL, et al. (2000) Science 287:1279-1283]. IgGBP fusion increases the in vivo half-life of proteins by enabling the fusion protein to bind serum IgG, a concept originally introduced by DeLano and co-workers in a patent but that to the best of our knowledge has never been pursued in the scientific literature. To further investigate the in vitro and in vivo properties of IgGBP fusion proteins, we fused FcIII to the C-terminus of a model fluorescent protein, monomeric Katushka (mKate). mKate-IgGBP fusions are easily expressed in Escherichia coli and bind specifically to human IgG with an affinity of ∼ 40 nM and ∼ 20 nM at pH 7.4 and pH 6, respectively, but not to mouse or rat IgG isotypes. mKate-IgGBP binds the Fc-domain of hIgG1 at a site overlapping the human neonatal Fc receptor (hFcRn) and as a consequence inhibits the binding of hIgG1 to hFcRn in vitro. High affinity binding to human IgG also endows mKate-IgGBP with a long circulation half-life of ∼ 8 hr in mice, a 75-fold increase compared to unmodified mKate. Thus, IgGBP fusion significantly reduces protein clearance by piggybacking on serum IgG without substantially increasing protein molecular weight due to the small size of the IgGBP. These attractive features could result in protein therapies with reduced dose frequency and improved patient compliance.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0102566

    View details for Web of Science ID 000341354800025

    View details for PubMedID 25057984

  • Periplasmic production via the pET expression system of soluble, bioactive human growth hormone PROTEIN EXPRESSION AND PURIFICATION Sockolosky, J. T., Szoka, F. C. 2013; 87 (2): 129-135


    A pET based expression system for the production of recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) directed to the Escherichia coli periplasmic space was developed. The pET22b plasmid was used as a template for creating vectors that encode hGH fused to either a pelB or ompA secretion signal under control of the strong bacteriophage T7 promoter. The pelB- and ompA-hGH constructs expressed in BL21 (λDE3)-RIPL E. coli are secreted into the periplasm which facilitates isolation of soluble hGH by selective disruption of the outer membrane. A carboxy-terminal poly-histidine tag enabled purification by Ni(2+) affinity chromatography with an average yield of 1.4 mg/L culture of purified hGH, independent of secretion signal. Purified pelB- and ompA-hGH are monomeric based on size exclusion chromatography with an intact mass corresponding to mature hGH indicating proper cleavage of the signal peptide and folding in the periplasm. Both pelB- and ompA-hGH bind the hGH receptor with high affinity and potently stimulate Nb2 cell growth. These results demonstrate that the pET expression system is suitable for the rapid and simple isolation of bioactive, soluble hGH from E. coli.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pep.2012.11.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313462200010

    View details for PubMedID 23168094