Dr. Stern is a board-certified, fellowship-trained specialist in vascular surgery in the Stanford Vascular and Endovascular Care program. He is a Clinical Associate Professor in the Department of Surgery at Stanford University School of Medicine.

Dr. Stern’s clinical and academic interests focus on the treatment of aortic disease. He is a leader in the development of novel treatment strategies for aortic pathology and specializes in minimally invasive, endovascular repair of complex aneurysms and aortic dissection.

For each patient, he develops a personalized treatment plan. The goal is the best possible vascular health and quality of life for every individual in his care.

Patients praise Dr. Stern’s knowledge and attention to detail. They also appreciate his kindness and compassion, his approachability, and the effort he makes to thoroughly answer all questions from patients and their families.

In addition to providing expert patient care, he is the principal investigator on several clinical trials. He is also involved in many additional research endeavors, examining contemporary practice patterns and outcomes from endovascular and open surgical procedures.

He has published the results of his research in numerous journal articles. They have appeared in the Journal of Vascular Surgery, Journal of the American College of Surgery, and many other peer-reviewed journals. The majority of his publications have focused on aortic disease.

He is an editorial board member of the journal Annals of Vascular Surgery and previously was an assistant editor of the Journal of Endovascular Therapy. He also has co-authored chapters in textbooks such as Novel and Evolving Aortic Endovascular Devices and the Atlas of Vascular and Endovascular Techniques.

Dr. Stern has presented his research discoveries to his peers at international, national, and regional meetings. He is a fellow of the Society for Vascular Surgery. He is a member of the Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Society (VESS), where he also serves as inaugural chair of the VESS Research Consortium as well as on the Program Committee. He is a fellow of the American College of Surgeons and a member of the Society for Clinical Vascular Surgery and Western Vascular Society.

Clinical Focus

  • Vascular Surgery

Academic Appointments

Honors & Awards

  • Travel Award Scolarship, Wound Healing Society
  • Best Presentation, New York Fellows Club Case Competition
  • Michael Marin Award, 33rd Annual Vascular Fellows Abstract Competition

Professional Education

  • Fellowship: Weill Cornell Medicine Vascular Surgery Fellowship (2017) NY
  • Board Certification: American Board of Surgery, Vascular Surgery (2018)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Surgery, General Surgery (2015)
  • Fellowship, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University/Weill Cornell, Vascular Surgery (2017)
  • Residency, The University of Chicago, General Surgery (2015)
  • M.D., The Ohio State University, Medicine (2008)
  • B.M.Sc., The University of Western Ontario, Biochemistry (2004)

All Publications

  • Preoperative Proteinuria Independently Predicts Mortality After Fenestrated Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Dossabhoy, S. S., Fisher, A. T., Chang, T. I., Stern, J. R., Lee, J. T. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2023: E14
  • Association of Baseline Chronic Kidney Disease Stage with Short- and Long-term Outcomes after Fenestrated Endovascular Aneurysm Repair. Annals of vascular surgery Dossabhoy, S. S., Sorondo, S. M., Fisher, A. T., Ho, V. T., Stern, J. R., Lee, J. T. 2023


    Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) is a well-established treatment approach for juxtarenal and short neck infrarenal aortic aneurysms. Recommendations and clinical outcomes are lacking for offering FEVAR in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to compare short and long-term outcomes for patients with none-to-mild versus moderate-to-severe CKD undergoing FEVAR.We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients undergoing standard FEVAR with Cook devices at a single institution. The cohort was stratified by preoperative CKD stage none-to-mild or moderate-to-severe (CKD 1-2 and CKD 3-5, respectively). The primary outcome was postoperative acute kidney injury. Secondary outcomes included 30-day perioperative complications, 1- and 5-year rates of overall survival, dialysis, renal target artery patency, endoleak, and reintervention assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Aneurysm sac regression, number of surveillance computed tomography scans, and CKD stage progression were assessed at latest follow up. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the association of CKD stage 3 and stage 4-5 with all-cause mortality, controlling for differences in baseline characteristics.From 2012-2022, 184 patients (of which 82% were male) underwent FEVAR with the Cook ZFEN device (mean follow-up 34.3 months). Group CKD 3-5 comprised 77 patients (42%), was older (75.2 vs 73.0 years, P=.04), had increased preoperative creatinine (1.6 vs 0.9 mg/dL, P<.01) and demonstrated increased renal artery ostial calcification (37.7% vs 21.5%, P=.02) compared with Group CKD 1-2. Perioperatively, CKD 3-5 sustained higher estimated blood loss (342 vs 228 ml, P=.01), longer operative times (186 vs 162 min, P=.04), and longer length of stay (3 vs 2 days, P<.01). Kaplan-Meier 1- and 5-year survival estimates were lower for CKD 3-5 (82.3% vs 95.1%, P<.01 and 55.4% vs 70.8%, P=.02). Fewer CKD 3-5 patients remained free from chronic dialysis at 1 year (94.4% vs 100%, P=.015) and 5 years (84.7% vs 100%, P<.01). There were no significant differences in postoperative AKI rate (CKD 1-2 6.5% vs CKD 3-5 14.3%, P=.13), long-term renal artery patency, reinterventions, type I or III endoleak, mean sac regression, or total follow-up CT scans between groups. CKD stage progression occurred in 47 patients (31%) at latest follow-up but did not differ between stratified groups (P=.17). On multivariable modeling, age (HR 1.05, 95%CI 1.01-1.09, P=.02) and CKD stage 4-5 (HR 6.39, 95%CI 2.26-18.05, P<.01) were independently associated with mortality.Preoperative CKD status did not negatively impact the durability nor technical success related to aneurysm outcomes after FEVAR. Worsening CKD stage was associated with lower 1- and 5-year overall survival and freedom from dialysis after FEVAR with no statistically significant differences in 30-day or long-term technical aneurysm outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2023.07.102

    View details for PubMedID 37586562

  • Pulsatile Deformations of a Conformable Descending Thoracic Aortic Endograft in Aneurysm, Dissection, and Blunt Traumatic Aortic Injury Patients. Journal of endovascular therapy : an official journal of the International Society of Endovascular Specialists Cheng, C. P., Suh, G. Y., Moainie, S. L., Stern, J. R., Szeto, W. Y. 2023: 15266028231187741


    This study presents analytic techniques to quantify cardiac pulsatility-induced deformations of thoracic aortic endografts in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA), dissection (TAD), and blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR).We analyzed 19 image data sets from 14 patients treated for TAA, TAD, and BTAI with cardiac-gated post-TEVAR CTs. Systolic and diastolic geometric models were constructed and diametric, axial, and bending deformations were quantified. For patients with cardiac-gated pre-op scans, the damping of pulsatile diametric distension was computed. Maximum localized diametric distension was 2.4±1.0%, 4.2±1.7%, and 5.5±1.6%, and axial deformation was 0.0±0.1%, -0.1±0.3%, and 1.1±0.6% in the endografts of TAA, TAD, and BTAI cohorts, respectively. Diametric distension damping from pre- to post-TEVAR was ~50%. Diametric and bending deformations were localized at certain axial positions on the endograft, and the inner curve bends more than the centerline, especially adjacent to overlapping regions.The presented techniques support investigation of multi-axial endograft deformations between disease causes and geometric locations on the device. Discretized quantification of deformation is needed to define device fatigue testing conditions and predict device durability in patients.This study demonstrates analytic techniques to quantify discretized deformation of thoracic endografts. Cardiac-resolved computed tomography is sometimes acquired for surgical planning and follow-up, however, the dynamic data are not typically used to quantify pulsatile deformations. Our analytic techniques extract the centerline and surface geometry of the stented thoracic aorta during the cardiac cycle, which are used to quantify diametric, axial, and bending deformations to provide better understanding of device durability and impact on the native anatomy.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/15266028231187741

    View details for PubMedID 37485662

  • Risk of Reintervention Is Lower for Carotid Endarterectomy Than Carotid Artery Stenting Adkar, S., Zheng, X., Sorondo, S., George, E. L., Stern, J. R. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2023: E52
  • Vascular Surgery Workforce Reductions Decrease Ambulatory Care Delivery for Carotid and Peripheral Arterial Disease Ho, V. T., George, E. L., Stern, J. R., Lee, J. T. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2023: E206-E207
  • Precocious rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms below size criteria for repair: Risk factors and outcomes. Annals of vascular surgery George, E. L., Smith, J. A., Colvard, B., Lee, J. T., Stern, J. R. 2023


    INTRODUCTION: Practice guidelines recommend elective repair for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) ≥5.5cm in men and ≥5cm in women to prevent rupture; however, some rupture at smaller diameters. We identify risk factors for rupture (rAAA) below this threshold and compare outcomes following rAAA repair above/below size criteria.METHODS: The Vascular Quality Initiative (2013-2019) was queried for patients undergoing repair for rAAA and stratified based on diameter into Small and Large cohorts [Small: <5.5cm (men), <5.0cm (women)]. Univariate analysis was performed, and Kaplan-Meier analysis compared overall survival, aneurysm-related mortality, and reintervention at 12-months.RESULTS: 5,162 rAAA were identified. Small rAAA patients [n = 588] were more likely to have hypertension (81.3% vs. 77.0%, p<0.02), diabetes (18.2% vs. 14.9%, p<0.04), and ESRD (2.9% vs. 0.9%, p<0.01), and be on optimal medical therapy (32.1% vs. 26.8%, p<0.01). Women were more likely to rupture at smaller diameters compared to men (p<0.01). Small rAAA patients were more likely to undergo EVAR (70.2% vs. 56.0%, p<0.01), and had lower in-hospital mortality (17.7% vs. 27.7%, p<0.01), and fewer perioperative complications across all categories. At 12-months, small rAAA patients had better overall survival, freedom from aneurysm-related mortality, and freedom from reintervention, largely driven by EVAR approach.CONCLUSION: More than 11% of patients presenting with ruptured AAA were below the recommended size threshold for repair, and they tended to be younger, non-white, and have hypertension, diabetes and/or renal failure. Patients with small rAAA experienced lower in-hospital morbidity and mortality and improved 1-year survival, and EVAR was associated with better outcomes than open repair. However, women more frequently rupture at smaller diameters compared to men. Given contemporary elective outcomes for women, a randomized controlled trial for EVAR vs. surveillance at a sex-specific size threshold is needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2023.05.008

    View details for PubMedID 37247834

  • A fenestrated, double-barrel technique for proximal reintervention after open or endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Journal of vascular surgery cases and innovative techniques Stern, J. R., Tran, K., Dossabhoy, S. S., Sorondo, S. M., Lee, J. T. 2023; 9 (1): 101091


    Proximal endovascular reintervention after prior endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) or open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (OR) can be challenging due to the short distance to the visceral branches. We present a novel solution to allow the use of the commercially available ZFEN device using a double-barrel, kissing-limb technique.Patients who underwent fenestrated repair for proximal failure after EVAR or OR were identified. The ZFEN device is deployed above the prior graft flow divider. Once the visceral branches are secured, kissing limbs are used to connect with the prior graft limbs. The distal diameter of the standard ZFEN is 24 mm, accommodating two 20 mm components according to the formula 2πDLIMB = πDZFEN + 2DZFEN.Of 235 patients who underwent repair using ZFEN from 2012 to 2021 at a single institution, 28 were treated for proximal failure of prior repairs, with 13 treated using the double-barrel technique (8 EVAR, 5 OR). The distance from the flow divider to the lowest renal artery was 67 ± 24.4 mm (range, 39-128 mm), and the distance to the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was 87 ± 30.5 mm (range, 60-164 mm). Technical success was 100%. Seven patients had standard ZFEN builds (2 renal small fenestrations, SMA large fen/scallop). The minimum distance to the lowest renal artery and SMA to accommodate a standard ZFEN build was 56 and 60 mm, respectively. Four patients required adjunctive snorkel grafts and two required laser fenestrations. Two patients had gutter leaks at 1 month that self-resolved; one patient developed a late type 1a endoleak. Freedom from reintervention was 90%, 72%, and 48% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively.This double-barrel technique allows for distal seal of commercial ZFEN devices into prior open or endovascular repairs with good technical success. Long-term outcomes remain to be quantified.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvscit.2022.101091

    View details for PubMedID 36747609

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9898739

  • Validity of the Global Vascular Guidelines in Predicting Outcomes Based on First-Time Revascularization Strategy. Annals of vascular surgery Lou, V., Dossabhoy, S. S., Tran, K., Yawary, F., Ross, E. G., Stern, J. R., Dalman, R. L., Chandra, V. 2023


    The Global Vascular Guidelines (GVG) recommend selecting an endovascular vs open-surgical approach to revascularization for chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI), based on the Global Limb Anatomic Staging System (GLASS) and Wound, Ischemia, and Foot Infection (WIfI) classification systems. We assessed the utility of GVG-recommended strategies in predicting clinical outcomes.We conducted a single-center, retrospective review of first-time lower-extremity revascularizations within a comprehensive limb-preservation program from 2010-2018. Procedures were stratified by 1) treatment concordance with GVG-recommended strategy (concordant vs non-concordant groups), 2) GLASS stages I-III, and 3) endovascular vs open strategies. The primary outcome was 5-year freedom from major adverse limb events (FF-MALE), defined as freedom from reintervention or major amputation, and secondary outcomes included 5-year overall survival, freedom from major amputation, freedom from reintervention, and immediate technical failure during initial revascularization. Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival analysis and multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazard models were performed on the primary and secondary outcomes, RESULTS: Of 281 first-time revascularizations for CLTI, 251 (89.3%) were endovascular and 186 (66.2%) were in the concordant group, with a mean clinical follow-up of 3.02±2.40 years. Within the concordant group alone, 167 (89.8%) of revascularizations were endovascular. The concordant group had a higher rate of chronic kidney disease (60.8% vs 45.3%, P=.02), WIfI foot infection grade (0.81±1.1 vs 0.56±0.80, P=.03), and WIfI stage (3.1±0.79 vs 2.8±1.2, P<.01) compared to the non-concordant group. After both KM and multivariate analyses, there were no significant differences in 5-year FF-MALE or overall survival between concordant and non-concordant groups. There was higher freedom from major amputation in the non-concordant group on KM analysis (83.9% vs 74.2%, P=.025), though this difference was non-significant on multivariate analysis (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.21-1.15, P=.10). The open group had lower MALE compared to the endovascular group (HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.17-0.91, P=.029) attributed to a lower reintervention rate in the open group (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.87, P=.026). GLASS stage was not associated with significant differences in outcomes, but the severity of GLASS stage was associated with immediate technical failure (2.1% in stage 1, 6.4% in stage 2, and 11.7% in stage 3, P=.01).In this study, CLTI treatment outcomes did not differ significantly based on whether treatment was received in concordance with GVG-recommended strategy. There was no difference in overall survival between the endovascular and open groups, though there was a higher reintervention rate in the endovascular group. The GVG guidelines are an important resource to help guide the management of CLTI patients. However, in this study, both concordance with GVG guidelines and GLASS staging were found to be indeterminate in differentiating outcomes between complex CLTI patients treated primarily with an endovascular-first approach. The revascularization approach for a CLTI patient is a nuanced decision that must take into account patient anatomy and clinical status, as well as physician skill and experience and institutional resources.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2023.02.001

    View details for PubMedID 36828135

  • Large Fenestrations Versus Scallops for the SMA During Fenestrated EVAR: Does it Matter? Annals of vascular surgery Sorondo, S. M., Ss, D., K, T., Vt, H., Jr, S., J, L. 2022


    FEVAR is an established customized treatment for aortic aneurysms with three current commercially available configurations for the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) - a single-wide scallop, large fenestration, or small fenestration, with the scallop or large fenestration most utilized. Outcomes comparing SMA single-wide scallops to large fenestrations with the ZFEN device are scarce. As large fenestrations have the benefit of extending the proximal seal zone compared to scalloped configurations, we sought to determine the differences in seal zone and sac regression outcomes between the two SMA configurations.We retrospectively reviewed our prospectively maintained complex EVAR database and included all patients treated with the Cook ZFEN device with an SMA scallop or large fenestration configuration at its most proximal build. All first post-operative CT scans (1-30 days) were analyzed on TeraRecon to determine precise proximal seal zone lengths, and standard follow-up anatomic and clinical metrics were tabulated.A total of 234 consecutive ZFEN patients from 2012-2021 were reviewed, and 137 had either a scallop or large fenestration for the SMA as the proximal-most configuration (72 scallops and 65 large fenestrations) with imaging available for analysis. Mean follow-up was 35 months. Mean proximal seal zone length was 19.5±7.9 mm for scallop vs 41.7±14.4 mm for large fenestration groups (P<.001). There was no difference in sac regression between scallop and large fenestration at one year (10.1±10.9 mm vs 11.0±12.1, P = 0.63). Overall, 30-day mortality (1.3% vs 2.5%, P=.51) and all-cause three-year mortality (72.5% vs 81.7%, P=.77) were not significantly different. Reinterventions within 30 days were primarily secondary to renal artery branch occlusions, with only one patient in the scallop group requiring reintervention for an SMA branch occlusion.Despite attaining longer proximal seal lengths, large SMA fenestrations were not associated with a difference in sac regression compared to scalloped SMA configurations at one-year follow up. There were no significant differences in reinterventions or overall long-term survival between the two SMA strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2022.07.013

    View details for PubMedID 36058451

  • Factors associated with sac regression after F/BEVAR for complex abdominal and thoracoabdominal aneurysms. Seminars in vascular surgery Stern, J. R., Lee, J. T. 2022; 35 (3): 306-311


    The behavior and remodeling of the residual aneurysm sac after endovascular repair is predictive of long-term outcomes. Although persistent growth is clearly a harbinger of complications, only recently has the relative advantage of sac regression over sac stability been recognized. There is a growing literature examining the prognostic implications of sac regression after standard infrarenal endovascular aortic repair, and various factors associated with increased likelihood of regression have been identified. However, there is a relative paucity of data on sac regression after more complex aneurysm repairs using fenestrated and/or branched technology. In this article, we aim to review sac regression and its importance as a whole, and specifically examine the role of regression after fenestrated and/or branched endovascular aortic repair for more extensive abdominal and thoracoabdominal aneurysms.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.semvascsurg.2022.07.004

    View details for PubMedID 36153071

  • Female sex is independently associated with reduced inpatient mortality after endovascular repair of blunt thoracic aortic injury. Journal of vascular surgery Ho, V. T., Sorondo, S., Forrester, J. D., George, E. L., Tran, K., Lee, J. T., Garcia-Toca, M., Stern, J. R. 2022


    Female sex has been associated with decreased mortality following blunt trauma, but whether sex influences outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for traumatic blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) is unknown.In this retrospective study of a prospectively maintained database, the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) registry was queried from 2013-2020 for patients undergoing TEVAR for BTAI. Univariate Student's t-tests and chi-squared tests were performed, followed by multivariate logistic regression for variables associated with inpatient mortality.211 (26.2%) of 806 patients were female. Female patients were older (47.9 vs. 41.8 years, p<0.0001) and less likely to smoke (38.3% vs. 48.2%, p=0.044). Most patients presented with grade III BTAI (54.5% female, 53.6% male,), followed by grade IV (19.0% female, 19.5% male). Mean Injury Severity Scores (30.9 + 20.3 female, 30.5 + 18.8 male) and regional Abbreviated Injury Score did not vary by sex. Postoperatively, female patients were less likely to die as inpatients (3.8% vs 7.9% , p=0.042) and to be discharged home (41.4% vs. 52.2%, p=0.008). On multivariate logistic regression, female sex (OR 0.05, p=0.002) was associated with reduced inpatient mortality. Advanced age (OR 1.06, p< 0.001), postoperative transfusion (OR 1.05, p=0.043), increased Injury Severity Score (OR 1.03, p=0.039), postoperative stroke (OR 9.09, p= 0.016), postoperative myocardial infarction (OR 9.9, p=0.017), and left subclavian coverage (OR 2.7, p= 0.029) were associated with inpatient death.Female sex is associated with lower odds of inpatient mortality following TEVAR for BTAI, independent of age, injury severity, BTAI grade, and postoperative complications. Further study of the influence of sex on post-discharge outcomes is needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvs.2022.07.178

    View details for PubMedID 35944732

  • Multidisciplinary extremity preservation program improves quality of life for patients with advanced limb threat. Annals of vascular surgery Fereydooni, A., Yawary, F., Sen, S., Chou, L., Murphy, M., Dalman, R. L., Stern, J. R., Chandra, V. 2022


    The need for multidisciplinary care of patients with advanced limb threat is well established. We examined patient reported outcomes and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) for those who completed a multidisciplinary extremity preservation program (EPP) at our institution.Patients with advanced limb threat, who had previously failed standard management at a tertiary-care center, were referred to EPP for evaluation by a multidisciplinary panel of vascular, plastic, orthopedic and podiatric surgeons, along with infectious disease, prosthetics, orthotics, imaging, palliative care, social work and wound nursing specialists. HR-QoL was quantified before and after EPP participation with the RAND-36 questionnaire. The validated RAND-36 assesses physical function, role limitations caused by physical and emotional health problems, social functioning, emotional well-being, energy, pain and general health perceptions.From 2018 to 2020, 185 patients were referred to EPP. After review by the multidisciplinary panel, 120 were accepted into the program, 63 of whom completed their course of care; 9 were one-time consultations. The median number of EPP in-person care visits was 23 (13-54) per participant; 87.3% of patients received one or more surgical procedure, including operative debridement (73%), revascularization (44%), soft tissue reconstruction or transplantation (46%), as well as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (11%) during their course of treatment. 85.7% of patients achieved complete wound healing, 41.5% occurring within 6 months. Ultimately, 14.3% required a major amputation. Graduates noted improvement in all categories of the HR-QoL upon completion, including those undergoing major amputation. On adjusted multivariate regression analysis, patients with immunocompromised status were more likely to show greater improvement in their social function (OR: 10.1; P<0.044) and emotional role limitation (OR:8.1; P=0.042), while patients with larger wound volume at presentation were more likely to have greater improvement in their general health (OR: 1.1; P<0.049). Conversely, patients with a smoking history had less improvement in energy level (OR:0.4; P=0.044) and patients with dialysis-dependence had less improvement in social function (OR:0.2; P=0.034).Coordinated, multidisciplinary extremity preservation program improves HR-QoL of patients with complex limb threat, including those who are immunocompromised with impaired social function and emotional role limitations. Further study is warranted to better characterize the generalizability of this approach, including considerations of cost-effectiveness, wound recidivism, and limiting the number of in-person visits required to achieve complete healing.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2022.05.047

    View details for PubMedID 35803456

  • Reintervention Does Not Impact Long-term Survival After Fenestrated Endovascular Aneurysm Repair. Journal of vascular surgery Dossabhoy, S. S., Sorondo, S. M., Tran, K., Stern, J. R., Dalman, R. L., Lee, J. T. 2022


    OBJECTIVES: Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) is increasingly used in the treatment of juxtarenal aortic aneurysms and short-neck infrarenal aneurysms. Reinterventions (REIs) occur frequently, contributing to patient morbidity and resource utilization. We sought to determine if REIs impact long-term survival after FEVAR.METHODS: A single-institution retrospective review of all Cook ZFEN repairs was performed. Patients with ≥6 months follow-up and without adjunctive branch modifications were included. REI was defined as any aneurysm, device, target branch, or access-related intervention after the index procedure. REIs were categorized by early (<30 days) or late (≥30 days), indication (branch, endoleak, limb, access-related, or other), and target branch/device component. Patients were stratified into REI vs No REI and Branch REI vs Non-Branch REI.RESULTS: Of 219 consecutive ZFEN from 2012-2021, 158 patients met inclusion criteria. Forty-one (26%) patients underwent a total of 51 REIs (10 early, 41 late) over a mean follow-up of 33.9 months. The most common indication for REI was branch-related 61% (31/51), with the renal arteries most frequently affected 51% (26/51). The only differences found in baseline, aneurysm, or device characteristics were a higher mean SVS comorbidity score (9.6 vs 7.9, P=.04) and larger suprarenal neck angle (23.3 vs 17.1 degrees, P=.04) in No REI, while REI had larger mean proximal seal zone diameter (26.3 vs 25.1 mm, P=.03) and device diameter (31.9 vs 30.0 mm, P=.002) than No REI. Technical success and operative characteristics were similar between groups, except for longer mean fluoroscopy time (74.9 vs 60.8 min, P=.01) and longer median length of stay (2 vs 2 days, P=.006) in REI. While the rate of early major adverse events (<30 days) was higher in REI (24.4% vs 6.0%, P=.001), 30-day mortality was not statistically different (4.9% vs 0.9%, P=.10). On Kaplan-Meier analysis, freedom from REI at 1- and 5-years was 85.7% and 62.6%, respectively, in the overall cohort. There was no difference in estimated 5-year survival between REI and No REI (62.8% vs 63.5%, log-rank P=.87) and Branch REI and Non-Branch REI (71.8% vs 49.9%, log-rank P=.16). In multivariate analysis, REI did not predict mortality; age, the SVS comorbidity score, and preoperative maximum aneurysm diameter each increased the hazard of death (HR 1.07 95% CI 1.02-1.12, P=.007; HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.18, P=.02; HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.08, P=.003 respectively).CONCLUSIONS: Following ZFEN, 26% of patients required a total of 51 REIs with most occurring ≥30 days and 61% being branch-related, with no influence on 5-year survival. Age, comorbidity, and baseline aneurysm diameter independently predicted mortality. FEVAR mandates lifelong surveillance and protocols to maintain branch patency. Despite their relative frequency, REIs do not influence 5-year post-procedural survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvs.2022.04.050

    View details for PubMedID 35709854

  • Single-center cross-sectional study of high opioid prescribing among U.S. veterans with peripheral arterial disease. Regional anesthesia and pain medicine Stern, J. R., Kou, A., Kapoor, A., Regala, S., He, H., Stafford, R. S., Mariano, E. R., Mudumbai, S. C. 2022

    View details for DOI 10.1136/rapm-2022-103574

    View details for PubMedID 35688513

  • Real-world Experience With Drug-coated Balloon Angioplasty in Dysfunctional Arteriovenous Fistulae Martinez-Singh, K., Harris, E., Lee, J. T., Stern, J. R., Ross, E. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2022: E302
  • Aortoiliac occlusive disease. Seminars in vascular surgery Paisley, M. J., Adkar, S., Sheehan, B. M., Stern, J. R. 2022; 35 (2): 162-171


    Aortoiliac occlusive disease, or peripheral artery disease affecting the suprainguinal vessels, can lead to a range of clinical symptoms from claudication to more severe, chronic limb-threatening ischemia. Although open surgical reconstruction has traditionally been the reference standard, endovascular options have become significantly more robust in recent years, owing to both improved devices and increasing experience with advanced techniques. This review will discuss the demographics, presentation, and evaluation of chronic aortoiliac occlusive disease, as well as explore the options, both open and endovascular, for revascularization.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.semvascsurg.2022.04.005

    View details for PubMedID 35672106

  • Real-world Long-term Reinterventions After Fenestrated/Branched Endovascular Aneurysm Repair in the United States Ho, V., Tran, K., Chen, J. H., Stern, J. R., George, E., Dalman, R., Lee, J. T. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2022: E263-E264
  • Trends in annual open abdominal aortic surgical volumes for vascular trainees compared to annual national volumes in the endovascular era. Journal of vascular surgery George, E. L., Arya, S., Ho, V. T., Stern, J. R., Sgroi, M. D., Chandra, V., Lee, J. T. 2022


    OBJECTIVE: Prior analysis predicted a shortfall in open abdominal aortic repair (OAR) experience for vascular trainees resulting from the rapid adoption of and increased anatomic suitability of endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) technology. We explored how EVAR has transformed contemporary open aortic surgical education for vascular trainees.METHODS: We examined ACGME case volumes of open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair and reconstruction for aorto-iliac occlusive disease (AIOD) via aorto-iliac/femoral bypass (AFB) from integrated vascular surgery residents (VSR) and fellows (VSF) graduating 2006-2017 and compared them to national estimates of total OAR (open AAA repair + AFB) in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality National Inpatient Sample based on ICD-9 and ICD-10 procedural codes. Changes over time were assessed using Chi-square test, Student's t-test, and linear regression.RESULTS: During the twelve-year study period, the national annual total OAR and open AAA repair estimates decreased: total OAR by 72.5% (2006: estimate (standard error) 24,255 (1185) vs. 2017: 6,690 (274); p<0.001) and open AAA repair by 84.7% (2006: 18,619 (924) vs. 2017: 2,850 (168); p<0.001); AFB estimates decreased by 33.0% (p<0.001). The percentage of total OAR, open AAA repair, and AFB performed at teaching hospitals significantly increased from 55 to 80% (all p<0.001). There was a 40.9% decrease in open AAA repairs logged by graduating VSF (mean 18.6 vs. 11) but only a 6.9% decrease in total OAR cases (mean 27.6 vs. 25.7) due to increasing AFB volumes (mean 9.0 vs. 14.7). VSR graduates consistently logged an average of 10 open AAA repairs and there was a 31.0% increase in total OAR (mean 23.2 vs. 30.4), again secondary to rising AFB volumes (mean 11.4 vs 17.5). Although there was an absolute decrease in open aortic experience for VSF, the rate of decline for total OAR case volumes was not significantly different after VSR programs were established (p=0.40).CONCLUSIONS: As incidence decreases nationally, OAR is shifting towards teaching hospitals. While open AAA procedures for trainees are declining due to EVAR, open aortic reconstruction for AIOD is rising and plays an important role in ensuring that vascular trainees continue to have satisfactory OAR experience sufficient for meeting minimum graduation requirements. Strategies to maintain and maximize the education and experience from these cases should be top priority for vascular surgery program directors.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvs.2022.03.887

    View details for PubMedID 35598821

  • Cost effectiveness of computed tomography versus ultrasound-based surveillance following endovascular aortic repair of intact infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. Journal of vascular surgery Ho, V. T., Nguyen, A. T., Stern, J. R., Asch, S. M., Owens, D. K., Salomon, J. A., Dalman, R. L., Lee, J. T. 2022


    BACKGROUND: While Society for Vascular Surgery guidelines recommend computed tomography angiography (CTA) or ultrasound for surveillance following infrarenal endovascular aortic repair (EVAR), there is a lack of consensus regarding optimal timing and modalities. We hypothesized that ultrasound-based approaches would be more cost-effective and developed a cost-effectiveness analysis to estimate the lifetime costs and outcomes of various strategies.METHODS: We developed a decision tree with nested Markov models to compare five surveillance strategies: yearly CTA, yearly CDU, yearly CEU, CTA at first year followed by CDU, and CTA at first year followed by CEU. The model accounted for differential sensitivity, specificity, and risk of acute kidney injury after CTA, and was implemented on a monthly cycle with a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and 3% annual discounting.RESULTS: Under base case assumptions, the CTA-CDU strategy was cost effective with a lifetime cost of $77950 for 7.74 QALYs. In sensitivity analysis, the CTA-CDU approach remained cost-effective when CEU specificity was less than 95%, and risk of acute kidney injury following CTA was less than 20%. At diagnostic sensitivities below 75% for CEU and 55% for CDU, a yearly CTA strategy maximized QALYs.CONCLUSION: A hybrid strategy in which CTA is performed in the first year and CDU is performed annually thereafter is the most cost-effective strategy for infrarenal EVAR surveillance in patients with less than a 20% risk of contrast-induced nephropathy. If the sensitivity of CEU and CDU are at the lower end of plausible estimates, a yearly CTA strategy is reasonable. Further research should aim to identify patients who may benefit from alternative surveillance strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvs.2022.02.057

    View details for PubMedID 35278655

  • Reverse Cheese-Wire Septotomy to Create a Distal Landing Zone for Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair. Journal of endovascular therapy : an official journal of the International Society of Endovascular Specialists Stern, J. R., Pham, X. D., Lee, J. T. 1800: 15266028211070966


    PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to describe a novel method for creating a distal landing zone for thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in chronic aortic dissection. The technique is described in a patient with prior total arch and descending aortic replacement, with false lumen expansion.TECHNIQUE: A cheese-wire endovascular septotomy was desired to create a single lumen above the celiac axis. To avoid dividing the septum caudally across the visceral segment, we performed a modified septotomy in a cephalad direction. Stiff wires were passed into the prior surgical graft, through true lumen on the right and false lumen on the left. An additional wire was passed across an existing fenestration at the level of the celiac axis, and snared and externalized. 7F Ansel sheaths were advanced and positioned tip-to-tip at the fenestration. Using the stiff wires as tracks, the through-wire was pushed cephalad to endovascularly cut the septum. Angiogram demonstrated successful septotomy, and TEVAR was performed to just above the celiac with successful aneurysm exclusion and no endoleak or retrograde false lumen perfusion. Follow-up computed tomography angiogram (CTA) showed continued exclusion without false lumen perfusion.CONCLUSIONS: This novel modification in a reverse direction provides an alternative method for endovascular septotomy, when traditional septotomy may threaten the visceral vessels.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/15266028211070966

    View details for PubMedID 35018867

  • Fenestrated Aortic Aneurysm Repair in Patients Treated Inside Versus Outside of Instructions for Use. Journal of endovascular therapy : an official journal of the International Society of Endovascular Specialists Stern, J. R., Deslarzes-Dubuis, C., Tran, K., Lee, J. T. 1800: 15266028211068762


    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of patients treated with the Cook Zenith Fenestrated (ZFEN) device for juxtarenal aortic aneurysms inside versus outside the IFU.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our institutional ZFEN database for cases performed between 2012 and 2018, with analysis performed in 2020 in order to report midterm outcomes. The cohort was stratified based on treatment inside (IFU group) and outside (non-IFU group) the IFU for criteria involving the proximal neck: neck length 4 to 14 mm, neck diameter 19 to 31 mm, and neck angulation ≤45°. Patients with thoracoabdominal aneurysms or concurrent chimney grafting were excluded. The primary outcomes in question were mortality, type 1a endoleak, and reintervention. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine associations between adherence to IFU criteria and outcomes.RESULTS: We identified 100 consecutive patients (19% female, mean age 73.6 years) for inclusion in this analysis. Mean follow-up was 21.6 months. Fifty-four patients (54%) were treated outside the IFU because of inadequate neck length (n=48), enlarged neck diameter (n=10), and/or excessive angulation (n=16). Eighteen patients were outside IFU for two criteria, and one patient was outside IFU for all three. Non-IFU patients were exposed to higher radiation doses (3652 vs 5445 mGy, p=0.008) and contrast volume (76 vs 95 mL, p=0.004). No difference was noted between IFU and non-IFU groups for 30-day mortality (0% vs 3.7%, p=0.18), or type 1a endoleak (0% vs 1.9%, p=0.41). Reintervention was also similar between cohorts (13% vs 27.8%, p=0.13). Being outside IFU for neck diameter or length was each borderline significant for higher reintervention on univariate analysis (p=0.05), but this was not significant on multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling (HR 1.82 [0.53-6.25]; 2.03 [0.68-7.89]), respectively. No individual IFU deviations were associated with the primary outcomes on multivariate analysis, nor being outside IFU for multiple criteria.CONCLUSIONS: Patients with juxtarenal aortic aneurysms may be treated with the ZFEN device with moderate deviations from the IFU. While no differences were seen in mortality or proximal endoleak, larger studies are needed to examine the potential association between IFU nonadherence and reinterventions and close follow-up is warranted for all patients undergoing such repair.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/15266028211068762

    View details for PubMedID 34994244

  • Physician-modified endografts are associated with a survival benefit over parallel grafting in thoracoabdominal aneurysms. Journal of vascular surgery Smith, J. A., Sarode, A. L., Stern, J. R., Cho, J. S., Harth, K., Wong, V., Kumins, N., Kashyap, V., Colvard, B. 2022


    Physician-modified endografts (PMEG) and parallel grafting (PG) are important techniques for endovascular repair of complex aortic aneurysms using off-the-shelf devices. However, there is little data regarding the relative efficacy and outcomes of these techniques in thoracoabdominal extent aneurysms. This study sought to compare outcomes of PG and PMEG across different extents of thoracoabdominal aneurysms to which they can be employed.The SVS VQI TEVAR/Complex EVAR module was queried for all patients undergoing repair of an unruptured, thoracoabdominal aneurysm (TAAA, Extents I-IV) years 2012-2020; aneurysm types were defined by repair extent as determined by proximal and distal seal zones. Patients were differentiated based on whether they received repair with a physician-modified endograft (PMEG) or parallel grafting technique (PG). The primary outcomes for this study were overall survival and freedom from aneurysm/procedure-related mortality at 1-year determined via Kaplan-Meier analysis, with Cox hazard regression analysis conducted to examine the independent association of repair modality with primary outcomes.813 patients met inclusion criteria (TAAA I-III 362, TAAA IV 451; 426 PG, 387 PMEG). PMEG repairs were performed at centers with a nearly 2-3-fold higher annual volume of endovascular TAAA repairs. Type Ia endoleaks were reduced with PMEG repair, most significantly in TAAA IV (TAAA I-III: 2.2% PMEG vs. 10% PG, p = 0.2; TAAA IV: 1.2% PMEG vs. 21.6% PG, p <0.001). Thoracoabdominal repairs demonstrated improved survival at 1-year with PMEG devices, significant for TAAA I-III repairs (TAAA I-III: PMEG 85% vs. PG 74%, p = 0.01; TAAA IV: 84% PMEG vs. PG 78%, p = 0.08). Freedom from aneurysm/procedure-related mortality was also improved with PMEG repairs, remaining significant at 1-year in the case of TAAA IV (TAAA I-III: PMEG 94% vs. PG 86%, p = 0.06; TAAA IV: PMEG 94% vs. PG 88%, p = 0.02). PMEG demonstrated reductions in several measures of post-operative morbidity, including stroke/death, MACE, and post-operative complications. In multivariate analysis, repair modality was not associated with either primary outcome, rather, several perioperative complications conveyed the greatest hazard for both primary outcomes across repair extents.Survival after endovascular TAAA repair is improved with the use of PMEG compared to PG. Several key factors of this study demonstrate the shortcomings of parallel grafting in complex aneurysm repair, namely high rates of critical endoleaks, the need for adjunctive access sites, and an increase in perioperative complications that influence longer-term outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvs.2022.02.038

    View details for PubMedID 35276268

  • Society for Vascular Surgery best practice recommendations for use of social media. Journal of vascular surgery Gifford, E. D., Mouawad, N. J., Bowser, K. E., Bush, R. L., Chandra, V., Coleman, D., Genovese, E., Han, D. K., Humphries, M. D., Mills, J. L., Mitchell, E. L., Moreira, C. C., Nkansah, R., Siracuse, J. J., Stern, J. R., Suh, D., West-Livingston, L. 2021


    The use of social media (SoMe) in medicine has demonstrated the ability to advance networking among clinicians and other healthcare staff, disseminate research, increase access to up-to-date information, and inform and engage medical trainees and the public at-large. With increasing SoMe use by vascular surgeons and other vascular specialists, it is important to uphold core tenets of our commitment to our patients by protecting their privacy, encouraging appropriate consent and use of any patient-related imagery, and disclosing relevant conflicts of interest. Additionally, we recognize the potential for negative interactions online regarding differing opinions on optimal treatment options for patients. The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) is committed to supporting appropriate and effective use of SoMe content that is honest, well-informed, and accurate. The Young Surgeons Committee of the SVS convened a diverse writing group of SVS members to help guide novice as well as veteran SoMe users on best practices for advancing medical knowledge-sharing in an online environment. These recommendations are presented here with the goal of elevating patient privacy and physician transparency, while also offering support and resources for infrequent SoMe users to increase their engagement with each other in new, virtual formats.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvs.2021.08.073

    View details for PubMedID 34673169

  • Fenestrated endovascular repair with large device diameters (34- to 36-mm) is associated with type 1 and 3 endoleak and reintervention. Annals of vascular surgery Deslarzes-Dubuis, C., Stern, J. R., Tran, K., Colvard, B., Lee, J. T. 2021


    OBJECTIVES: Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms undergoing EVAR with larger device diameters (34- to 36-mm) have worse outcomes due to proximal fixation failure and need for reintervention. We examine outcomes relating to standard fenestrated repair (FEVAR) with larger device diameters, and investigate whether a similar relationship exists.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective review of a prospectively maintained, single institution database of patients treated with the Cook ZFEN device between 2012-2017. Outcomes were stratified by device diameter into normal-diameter (ND,≤ 32 mm) and large-diameter (LD,34-36 mm). Primary endpoints were need for reintervention and composite type I/III endoleak.RESULTS: 100 consecutive patients treated were identified for inclusion. Overall mean age was 73.6 years and mean aortic diameter was 59.1 mm. Mean follow-up was 22 months. A total of 26 (26%) patients were treated with LD devices. Number of target vessels per patient was 2.8 in both groups. Infrarenal neck length and diameter were significantly different in the LD and ND patients, respectively (2.6 mm vs 4.7 mm (P<.01) and 30.1 mm vs 23.4 mm (P<.01)). Percent graft oversizing was lower in the LD cohort (19% vs 24%; P=.006). No difference was seen in overall mortality at 30-days (0% vs 2%; P=.4) or at latest follow up (6% vs 14%; P=.6). Reinterventions were not significantly different at 30 days, but were significantly higher over the follow-up period in the LD cohort (46.2 vs. 17.6%; P=.002). LD diameter was associated with reintervention on univariate (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.37), but not multivariate analysis. The composite endpoint of type I/III endoleak was higher in the LD cohort (15.4% vs. 2.7%; P=.004).CONCLUSION: FEVAR requiring 34- or 36-mm device diameters is associated with an increased risk of composite type I/III endoleak and reintervention. Patients undergoing fenestrated repair requiring LD devices should be closely monitored, with consideration for proximal or open repair.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2021.07.055

    View details for PubMedID 34656711

  • Cost Effectiveness of Computed Tomography Versus Ultrasound-Based Surveillance Following Endovascular Aortic Repair of Intact Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Ho, V. T., Nguyen, A. T., Stern, J. R., Asch, S. M., Owens, D. K., Salomon, J. A., Dalman, R. L., Lee, J. T. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: E414-E415
  • Validity of the Global Vascular Guidelines in Predicting Outcomes in a Comprehensive Wound Care Program Lou, V., Tran, K., Dossabhoy, S. S., Yawary, F., Ross, E. G., Stern, J. R., Lee, J. T., Harris, E., Dalman, R. L., Chandra, V. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: E405-E406
  • Open Abdominal Aortic Surgery in the Endovascular Era-Will we have Enough Volume for Vascular Trainees? George, E. L., Arya, S., Anand, A., Ho, V., Stern, J. R., Chandra, V., Lee, J. T. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: E418
  • Reintervention Does Not Increase Long-term Mortality After Fenestrated Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Dossabhoy, S. S., Sorondo, S. M., Tran, K., Stern, J. R., Dalman, R. L., Lee, J. T. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: E399-E400
  • Reintervention Does Not Increase Long-term Mortality After Fenestrated Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Dossabhoy, S. S., Sorondo, S. M., Tran, K., Stern, J. R., Dalman, R. L., Lee, J. T. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: E227
  • Validity of the Global Vascular Guidelines in Predicting Outcomes in a Comprehensive Wound Care Program Lou, V., Tran, K., Dossabhoy, S. S., Yawary, F., Ross, E. G., Stern, J. R., Lee, J. T., Harris, E., Dalman, R. L., Chandra, V. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: E250-E251
  • Cost Effectiveness of Computed Tomography Versus Ultrasound-Based Surveillance After Endovascular Aortic Repair of Intact Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Ho, V. T., Nguyen, A. T., Stern, J. R., Asch, S. M., Owens, D. K., Salomon, J. A., Dalman, R. L., Lee, J. T. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: E190-E191
  • Multidisciplinary Extremity Preservation Program Improves Quality of Life for Patients With Advanced Limb Threat Fereydooni, A., Yawary, F., Sen, S., Chou, L., Dalman, R. L., Murphy, M., Stern, J. R., Chandra, V. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: E41-E43
  • Increasing Chronic Opioid Usage Despite Reduced Prescriptions After Vascular Surgery Ho, V. T., Fu, S., Chattopadhyay, A., Asch, S. M., Stern, J. R., Chen, J. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: E285-E286
  • Physician-Modified Endografts Are Associated With a Survival Benefit Over Parallel Grafting in More Extensive Aortic Aneurysms Smith, J. A., Sarode, A. L., Stern, J. R., Cho, J. S., Colvard, B. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: E218-E219
  • Open Abdominal Aortic Surgery in the Endovascular Era - Will We Have Enough Volume for Vascular Trainees? George, E. L., Arya, S., Anand, A., Ho, V. T., Stern, J. R., Chandra, V., Lee, J. T. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2021: E259-E260
  • Retrograde Endovascular with Intimal Re-entry through Endarterectomy: The REWIRE Technique. Annals of vascular surgery Stern, J. R., Connolly, P. H., Meltzer, A. J. 2021


    OBJECTIVE: Hybrid lower extremity revascularization has been well described, typically consisting of common femoral endarterectomy (CFE) followed by direct patch puncture and endovascular treatment of any distal disease. We describe a modified technique that obviates the need for endovascular re-entry and simplifies treatment at the proximal and distal endpoints.METHODS: The REWIRE technique begins with retrograde arterial access via a patent tibial, pedal or femoropopliteal vessel. The diseased segment is crossed in the subintimal plane.Once the wire reaches the common femoral artery (CFA), the vessel is surgically exposed. Arteriotomy is performed and the wire is externalized during standard CFE. With through-wire access achieved, a sheath is inserted and the distal disease is treated. The proximal extent of the endovascular revascularization is incorporated into a standard CFE with patch angioplasty.RESULTS: 7 patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia were treated with this approach, all with long segment occlusions of the SFA and significant CFA disease. The SFA disease was stented and bovine pericardial patch was used for CFE in all. Technical success was achieved in all patients. There were no complications related to the retrograde puncture site, which was controlled with manual pressure (4) or excluded with a covered stent (3). 30-Day freedom from major adverse limb events was 100%.CONCLUSIONS: The REWIRE technique is an effective approach tohybrid revascularization involving the CFA. By crossing the occluded segment in a retrograde fashion and surgically externalizing the wire during CFE, the proximal and distal endpoints can be addressed with ease, the profunda femoris is protected under direct visualization, and the need for endovascular re-entry is eliminated.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2021.05.002

    View details for PubMedID 34004322

  • Contemporary treatment of May-Thurner Syndrome. The Journal of cardiovascular surgery Fereydooni, A., Stern, J. R. 2021


    Compression of the left common iliac vein by the overlying right common iliac artery is a benign anatomic abnormality in most individuals. However, in patients with significant vein compression, outflow obstruction and chronic intraluminal venous damage may lead to May-Thurner Syndrome. This syndrome commonly manifests as unilateral left leg swelling or acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis. In addition to clinical findings, diagnosis is made with ultrasound, computed tomography venography, or magnetic resonance venography. The extent of compression of the iliac vein is best determined by venography with intravascular ultrasound. Symptoms and hemodynamic significance of the compression guides the ideal treatment approach. Iliocaval stenting has become the standard treatment for this condition and has promising patency rates and clinical outcomes. This review paper provides an overview of pathophysiology, and utility and limitations of the existing diagnostic modalities and treatment options in the management of May-Thurner Syndrome.

    View details for DOI 10.23736/S0021-9509.21.11889-0

    View details for PubMedID 33870678

  • Unique Complications and Failure Modes of Iliac Branch Devices. Annals of vascular surgery Stern, J. R., Tran, K., Li, M., Lee, J. T. 2021


    OBJECTIVES: Iliac branch devices (IBDs) are modular, bifurcated endografts designed to preserve hypogastric flow during endovascular aortoiliac aneurysm repair. We report our single center outcomes, and describe the unique complications of these devices: inability to cannulate the hypogastric artery (technical failure), occlusion of the internal branch, and type III endoleak from separation of components between the main body and IBD.METHODS: A prospectively maintained institutional database of patients undergoing IBD implantation between 2014 and 2019 was reviewed. Technical and clinical outcomes were evaluated. We then identified patients having one of the IBD-specific complications and patient, anatomic, and procedural data were analyzed to identify factors associated with these failures.RESULTS: 64 IBDs were placed in 59 patients during the study period. Mean age was 71.2±8.6, and 92% were male. 74.6% of patients had a current or prior abdominal aortic aneurysm, and 9.4% had a hypogastric aneurysm. Technical success was achieved in 60/64 cases (93.8%); prior EVAR was associated with technical failure (p=0.04). There were 5 instances of component separation between the main body and the IBD: 3 occurred intraoperatively and were repaired with additional bridging components, and 2 occurred on late follow-up and required reintervention. Increased tortuosity index of both aortoiliac (1.7±0.4 vs. 1.3±02, p=0.04) and iliac-specific (3.9±2.4 vs. 1.9±0.9, p=0.03) segments were significantly associated with component separation, as was the use of larger internal iliac components (13.9±2.4 vs. 11.1±2.3 mm, p=0.04). Internal branch occlusions occurred in 4 patients (6.7%). Two were successfully reopened with endovascular procedures, with two being asymptomatic. No specific factors were found to be predictive of branch occlusion.CONCLUSIONS: IBD-specific complications occur rarely. History of prior EVAR is associated with technical failure, while increased aortic and iliac tortuosity are predictive of component separation and type III endoleak. Severe tortuosity should be carefully considered when planning for IBD.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2021.03.008

    View details for PubMedID 33836229

  • Ipsilateral Iliac Branch Repair Using a Looped Wire, Precannulated Gate Technique. Journal of endovascular therapy : an official journal of the International Society of Endovascular Specialists Stern, J. R., Lyden, S. P., Agrusa, C. J., Schneider, D. B. 2021: 1526602821989335


    PURPOSE: To describe a novel, entirely ipsilateral femoral technique for distal endograft extension using the Gore Iliac Branch Endoprosthesis.TECHNIQUE: Femoral arterial access is obtained on the side of the intended repair, and a 16F sheath is inserted over a stiff wire. A looped wire is used to pre-cannulate the internal gate of the IBE device prior to insertion, and the device is then positioned and deployed. This through-wire guides access over the IBE flow divider and into the internal gate with a steerable sheath. The internal iliac artery is then selected, and a Viabahn VBX balloon-expandable stent (W.L. Gore, Flagstaff, AZ) is advanced into position and deployed. We present the successful completion of this technique in 4 patients.CONCLUSION: This novel technique allows distal endograft extension with an IBE device using only ipsilateral femoral access and is particularly useful for patients with aneurysmal iliac degeneration in the setting of prior open or endovascular aneurysm repair. This eliminates the need for upper extremity access or contralateral femoral access and navigation across the steep flow divider.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1526602821989335

    View details for PubMedID 33478350

  • Predictors of Sac Regression after Fenestrated Endovascular Aneurysm Repair. Journal of vascular surgery Li, M., Stern, J. R., Tran, K., Deslarzes-Dubuis, C., Lee, J. T. 2021


    Aneurysm sac regression after standard endovascular aortic repair is associated with improved outcomes, but similar data are limited after fenestrated endovascular aortic repair (FEVAR). We sought to evaluate sac regression after FEVAR, and identify any predictors of this favorable outcome.Patients undergoing elective FEVAR using the commercially available Zenith Fenestrated device (ZFEN; Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN) from 2012 to 2018 at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Maximal aortic diameter was compared between the preoperative scan and those obtained in follow-up. Patients with ≥5 mm sac regression were included in the REG group, with all others in the NON-REG group. Outcomes were compared between groups using univariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis was performed to identify any predictive factors for sac regression.132 FEVAR patients were included in the analysis. At a mean follow-up of 33.1 months, 65 patients (49.2%) had sac regression ≥5 mm and comprised the REG group (N=65, 49.2%). The REG group had smaller diameter devices, and were less likely to have had concomitant chimney grafts placed (P <0.05). The NON-REG group had a higher incidence of type II endoleak (35.8% vs. 12.3%; P=0.002). Sac regression was associated with a significant mortality benefit on Kaplan-Meier analysis (log rank; P=0.02). Multivariate analysis identified adjunctive parallel grafting (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.03-0.36; P <0.01), persistent type II endoleak (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02-0.74; P <0.01), and increased number of target vessels (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.10-0.62, P=0.002) as independent predictors of failure to regress.Sac regression after FEVAR occurred in nearly half of patients, but appears to be less common in patients with persistent type II endoleaks and those undergoing concomitant parallel grafting. Sac regression was associated with a significant survival advantage, and can be used as a clinical marker for success after FEVAR.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvs.2021.08.067

    View details for PubMedID 34506890

  • Female sex is independently associated with in-hospital mortality after endovascular aortic repair for ruptured aortic aneurysm. Annals of vascular surgery Ho, V. T., Rothenberg, K. A., George, E. L., Lee, J. T., Stern, J. R. 2021


    Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) can treat anatomically compatible ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAA), but registry data suggests that women undergo more open abdominal aneurysm repairs than men. We evaluate in-hospital outcomes of EVAR for rAAA by sex.The Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) registry was queried from 2013 to 2019 for rAAA patients treated with EVAR. Univariate analysis was performed with Student's t-test and chi-squared tests. Multivariable logistic regression was then performed to assess the association between female sex and inpatient mortality.1775 patients were included (23.8% female). Female rAAA patients were older (p < 0.01) and weighed less (p < 0.01). They were less likely to have smoked (p <. 001) and had lower creatinine (1.29 vs 1.43, p <0.01) and hemoglobin (10.7 vs 11.7, p < 0.01). Women had smaller maximum aortic diameters (74 vs 66 mm, p < 0.01) and were less likely to have iliac aneurysms (p <.001). Women were more likely to have concomitant femoral endarterectomy (8.5% vs 4.6%, p=.03). Despite having no significant difference in complication or reintervention rates, women had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (45.9% vs 34.5%, p < 0.01). In a logistic regression model for predictors of in-hospital mortality (χ2 < .01), increased age (OR 1.08, p < 0.01), female sex (OR 1.7, p=0.02), preoperative cardiac arrest (OR 5.29, p<0.01), concurrent iliac stenting (OR 2.38, p =0.02), postoperative mesenteric ischemia (OR 2.51, p<0.01) and postoperative transfusion (OR 1.06, p <0.01) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Increased preoperative hemoglobin was protective (OR 0.89, p < 0.01) CONCLUSIONS: Female sex is independently associated with in-hospital mortality after EVAR for rAAA, suggesting a relationship beyond anatomical, biochemical, and procedural covariates.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2021.08.043

    View details for PubMedID 34752855

  • Intraoperative heparin use is associated with reduced mortality without increasing hemorrhagic complications after thoracic endovascular aortic repair for blunt aortic injury. Journal of vascular surgery Ho, V. T., George, E. L., Rothenberg, K. A., Lee, J. T., Garcia-Toca, M., Stern, J. R. 2020


    OBJECTIVE: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is an effective treatment for blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI), but the risks and benefits of administering intraoperative heparin in trauma patients are not well-defined, especially with regard to bleeding complications.METHODS: The Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) registry was queried from 2013 to 2019 to identify patients who underwent TEVAR for BTAI with or without administration of intraoperative heparin. Univariate analyses were performed with Student's t-test, Fisher exact, and chi-squared tests where appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression was then performed to assess the association of heparin with inpatient mortality.RESULTS: 655 patients were included, of whom the majority presented with grade III (53.3%) or IV (20%) BTAI. Patients receiving heparin were less likely to have an injury severity score (ISS) ≥ 15 (70.2% vs. 90.5%, p<0.0001), or major head or neck injury (39.6% vs. 62.9%, p<0.0001). Patients receiving heparin had lower incidence of inpatient death (5.1% vs. 12.9%, p<0.01). Across all injury grades, heparin use was not associated with intraoperative transfusion, postoperative transfusion, or hematoma. In patients with grade III BTAI, non-use of heparin was associated with an increased risk of lower extremity embolization events (7.4% vs 1.8%, P < 0.05). On multivariable logistic regression for inpatient mortality, intraoperative heparin use (OR = 0.31, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.11 - 0.86, P < 0.05) and female gender (OR = 0.11, 95% CI 0.11 - 0.86, P < 0.05) were associated with better survival, even when controlling for head and neck trauma and injury grade. In contrast, increased age (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.03 - 1.1, P <0.001), postoperative transfusion (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.11, P < 0.01), Higher ISS (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.07, P < 0.05), postoperative dysrhythmia (OR = 4.48, 95% CI 1.10 - 18.18, P < 0.05), and postoperative stroke or transient ischemic attack (OR = 5.54, 95% CI 1.11 - 27.67, P < 0.05) were associated with increased odds of inpatient mortality.CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative heparin use is associated with reduced inpatient mortality in patients undergoing during TEVAR for BTAI, including those with major head or neck trauma and high injury severity scores. Heparin did not increase risk of hemorrhagic complications across all injury grades, and in patients with grade III BTAI heparin use was associated with a reduced risk of lower extremity embolic events. Heparin appears to be safe during TEVAR for BTAI, and should be administered when no specific contraindication exists.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvs.2020.12.068

    View details for PubMedID 33348003

  • Carotid Artery Stenting. JAMA Baiu, I., Stern, J. R. 2020; 324 (16): 1690

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2020.10426

    View details for PubMedID 33107946

  • Paclitaxel exposure and long-term mortality of patients treated with the Zilver PTX drug-eluting stent. Vascular Stern, J. R., Tran, K., Chandra, V., Harris, E. J., Lee, J. T. 2020: 1708538120964371


    OBJECTIVES: Paclitaxel-eluting stents have demonstrated improved patency over balloon angioplasty and bare metal stenting for endovascular interventions in the femoral-popliteal segment. Recently, concerns have arisen regarding the safety of paclitaxel use and its association with mortality. This study aims to examine real-world, long-term mortality, and patency of patients treated with the Zilver PTX drug-eluting stent.METHODS: Patients treated with the PTX stent after FDA approval between 2013 and 2015 were identified from an institutional database. Demographic, procedural, and device information was collected and initial- and lifetime-exposure dose of paclitaxel was calculated. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and its association with paclitaxel exposure. Long-term patency was also evaluated.RESULTS: Seventy-nine procedures involving PTX placement were performed on 64 individual patients during the study period, with 15 (23.4%) having bilateral procedures. Average age was 70 years, and 71.9% were male. Forty-five patients (70.3%) were claudicants, and 19 (29.7%) had chronic, limb-threatening ischemia. An average of 2.3 PTX stents, totaling 203 mm in length, were placed per procedure. Paclitaxel exposure was 1.87mg/procedure initially (range 0.38-4.03mg), and average lifetime exposure was 4.65mg/patient (range 0.38-27.91mg). Average follow-up was 59.6 months. Kaplan-Meier estimated survival was 96.9%, 81.2% and 71.7% at one , three, and five years. On multivariate analysis, no specific factors were associated with overall morality including initial paclitaxel dose (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.00) and lifetime paclitaxel exposure (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.89-1.08). Kaplan-Meier primary patency was 76.2%, 60.1%, and 29.3% at one, two, and five years, respectively. Secondary patency was 92.2%, 85.4%, and 75.2% at the same intervals.CONCLUSIONS: At a mean follow-up of five years, exposure to higher doses of paclitaxel from Zilver PTX does not appear to be associated with increased mortality compared to lower doses in real-world patients. Long-term patency rates confirm the efficacy of Zilver PTX, and further investigation may be warranted before abandoning paclitaxel use altogether.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1708538120964371

    View details for PubMedID 33054678

  • Comparative Analysis of Short-Term Outcomes in in Patients with Lower Extremity Atherosclerotic Occlusive Disease Undergoing a Hybrid Approach vs Open Revascularization DeCarlo, C., Boitano, L., Sumpio, B. J., Feldman, Z., Pendleton, A., Stern, J., Dua, A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2020: E261–E262
  • Mid-Term Survival after Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair by Indication in the Medicare Population Ho, V. T., Itoga, N. K., Tran, K., Lee, J. T., Stern, J. R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2020: S347–S348
  • Conversion to Chronic High Opiate Use after Intervention for Peripheral Arterial Disease Stern, J. R., Kou, A., Desai, A., Ho, V. T., Regala, S., Stafford, R. S., Mudumbai, S. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2020: E67–E68
  • Mid-Term Survival after Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair by Indication in the Medicare Population. Journal of the American College of Surgeons Ho, V. T., Itoga, N. K., Tran, K., Lee, J. T., Stern, J. R. 2020


    BACKGROUND: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is indicated for treatment of aneurysms, dissections, and traumatic injury. We describe mid-term mortality and re-intervention rates in Medicare beneficiaries undergoing TEVAR.STUDY DESIGN: Patients who underwent TEVAR between 2006-2014 were identified by Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes in a 20% Medicare sample. Indication for aortic repair (aneurysm, dissection, trauma) was ascertained via International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) codes. Follow-up was evaluated until 2015. Kaplan Meier survival analysis and Cox regression were used to compare mortality, with re-intervention and mortality rates expressed as a composite outcome in a hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval (HR 95%CI).RESULTS: 3095 patients underwent TEVAR during the study period: 1465 (47%) for aneurysm 1448 (47%) for dissection, and 182 (5.9%) for trauma. Mean patient age was 74.4 years, and 44.5% were female. Median follow-up was 2.7 years. The overall 30-day, 1-year, and 5-year, and 8-year survival was 93%, 78%, 49%, and 33%, respectively. 30-day mortality was highest in traumatic indications, but overall mortality was highest in patients undergoing TEVAR for aneurysm. Freedom from combined re-intervention and mortality at 30-days, 1-year, 5-years and 8-years was 89%, 73%, 43%, and 29% respectively. Reintervention was highest in patients undergoing TEVAR for dissection (12.8%), followed by aneurysm (10.0%) and trauma (5.5%). Advanced age (HR 1.03 per year, 95%CI 1.02-1.03), congestive heart failure (CHF) (HR 1.48, 95%CI 1.33-1.65), dementia (HR 1.40, 95%CI 1.14-1.28), and rupture (HR 1.38, 95%CI 1.24-1.54) were associated with mortality.CONCLUSION: Midterm survival is lower in patients who undergo TEVAR for dissection and aneurysm compared to trauma. Aneurysmal disease, advanced age, CHF, dementia and aortic rupture are associated with mortality and re-intervention in TEVAR.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2020.09.011

    View details for PubMedID 33022404

  • Comparative Analysis of Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Femoral Endarterectomy Plus Endovascular (hybrid) or Bypass for Femoropopliteal Occlusive Disease. Annals of vascular surgery DeCarlo, C., Boitano, L. T., Sumpio, B., Latz, C. A., Feldman, Z., Pendleton, A. A., Chou, E. L., Stern, J. R., Dua, A. 2020


    INTRODUCTION: The gold-standard for management of combined common femoral (CFA) and superficial femoral (SFA) atherosclerotic occlusive disease has traditionally been open femoral endarterectomy and femoral-popliteal bypass. Hybrid approaches involving an open and endovascular component are increasingly common. The aim of this study was to compare perioperative outcomes in patients who underwent an open versus hybrid revascularization.METHODS: NSQIP data, years 2012-2017, were queried for patients who underwent non-emergent CFA endarterectomy with either SFA transluminal intervention or bypass. The primary outcome of interest was a composite of cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal complications (systemic) and mortality. Two propensity-weight adjusted analyses were performed: 1) comparing hybrid and prosthetic bypass 2) comparing hybrid and vein bypass.RESULTS: There were 4,478 patients included (1,537 hybrid, 1,408 prosthetic, 1,533 vein); 64.8% were men, and the mean age was 67.8±9.7 years; 29.9% had claudication, 38.8% had tissue loss, and 31.3 were unspecificed. In the propensity-weighted analysis comparing hybrid to prosthetic bypass, there was no difference in systemic complications (OR=1.29 for prosthetic vs. hybrid; 95% CI: 0.95-1.76; p=0.107) or mortality (OR=1.54;95% CI:0.71-3.33;p=0.275). Prosthetic bypass was associated with more deep surgical-site infections (OR=2.02;95%CI:1.19-3.45;p=0.010), post-operative sepsis (OR=2.07;95% CI:1.13-3.76;p=0.018), unplanned 30-day readmission (OR=1.28;95%CI:1.04-1.58;p=0.021), and the composite of any complication (OR=1.38;95%CI:1.18-1.61;p<0.001). In the propensity-weighted analysis comparing hybrid to vein bypass, there was no difference in systemic complications (OR=1.10 for vein vs. hybrid; 95%CI:0.81-1.49;p=0.552) or mortality (OR=0.91;95%CI:0.42-2.00;p=0.819). Vein bypass was associated with more superficial surgical-site infections (OR=1.45;95% CI:1.04-2.02;p=0.028), and the composite of any complication (OR=1.32;95%CI:1.13-1.54;p=0.001). Overall mortality was significantly higher patients with systemic complications (13.9% vs 0.1%; p<0.001). Systemic complications were less common in patients with claudication undergoing hybrid revascularization than vein or prosthetic bypass.CONCLUSION: Claudicants undergoing bypass experienced more systemic complications than those undergoing hybrid procedures, but there appears to be no increased risk of systemic complications or mortality with open reconstruction, when compared to hybrid procedure for other indications. Other complications such as infection, post-operative transfusion, and readmission were more common in the bypass groups.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2020.08.143

    View details for PubMedID 32927041

  • Carotid Artery Endarterectomy. JAMA Baiu, I., Stern, J. R. 2020; 324 (1): 110

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2020.2104

    View details for PubMedID 32633802

  • Risk Factors for High Opiate Use Among US Veterans With Peripheral Arterial Disease Stern, J. R., Kou, A., Kapoor, A., Regala, S., Stafford, R. S., Mudumbai, S. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2020: E212
  • The Effect of Interfacility Transfer in Patients With Blunt Thoracic Aortic Injury Rothenberg, K. A., George, E. L., Ho, V., Barreto, N. B., Lee, J. T., Garcia-Toca, M., Stern, J. R. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2020: E167
  • Intraoperative Heparin Use Is Associated With Reduced Inpatient Mortality After Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair for Blunt Aortic Injury Ho, V., Rothenberg, K. A., George, E. L., Lee, J. T., Garcia-Toca, M., Stern, J. R. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2020: E99
  • The Triple-Wire Technique for Delivery of Endovascular Components in Difficult Anatomy. Annals of vascular surgery Stern, J. R., Cheng, C. P., Colvard, B. D., Paranjape, H., Lee, J. T. 2020


    We describe a novel endovascular technique in which three 0.014" guidewires are placed in parallel through a 0.035" lumen catheter, in order to create a stiff platform to allow for delivery of 0.035" profile devices through challenging anatomy. Three illustrative cases are presented: a difficult aortic bifurcation during lower extremity intervention, a tortuous internal iliac artery during placement of an iliac branch device, and salvage of a renal artery after inadvertent coverage during proximal cuff deployment for type 1a endoleak. We also quantify the relative stiffness of the triple 0.014" wire configuration, using several well-known 0.035" wires for comparison. The "triple-wire technique" is an effective method for tracking endovascular devices through difficult tortuous anatomy, and can be used in a variety of clinical settings. The technique is especially useful when a traditional, stiff 0.035" wire will not track without "kicking out." Each 0.014" wire is reasonably soft and traverses the tortuous vessel easily, but when the three wires are used together as a rail it provides a stiff enough platform for delivery.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2020.04.021

    View details for PubMedID 32335254

  • Real-World Outcomes of EKOS Ultrasound-Enhanced Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for Acute Limb Ischemia. Annals of vascular surgery George, E. L., Colvard, B., Ho, V., Rothenberg, K. A., Lee, J. T., Stern, J. R. 2020


    OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound-enhanced catheter-directed thrombolysis (UET) using the EKOS device for acute, peripheral arterial ischemia has been purported in clinical trials to accelerate the fibrinolytic process in order to reduce treatment time and lytic dosage. We aim to describe outcomes of UET in a real-world clinical setting.METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients undergoing UET for acute limb ischemia at a single institution. Data collected included patient demographics, procedural details, and 30-day and 1-year outcomes. The primary endpoints for analysis were major adverse limb events (MALE; reintervention and/or amputation) and mortality within 30-days and 1-year. Secondary endpoints included technical success, use of adjunctive therapies, and postoperative complications.RESULTS: 32 patients (mean age 67.4 ± 14.9 years; 25% female) underwent UET for acute limb ischemia between 2014-2018. Rutherford Acute Limb Ischemia Classification was R1 in 56.3%, R2a in 31.3%, and R2b in 12.5%. Etiology was thrombosis of native artery in 12.5% of patients, prosthetic bypass in 31.3%, autogenous bypass in 6.3%, and stented native vessel in 50.0%. Mean duration of thrombolytic therapy was 22.2 ± 11.3 hours, and mean tissue plasminogen activator dose was 24.5 ± 15.3 mg. Major adverse limb events occurred in 16.7% of patients within the first 30-days and 38.9% experienced a MALE by 1-year. Limb salvage at 30-days and 1-year was 93.8% and 87.5%, respectively. Ipsilateral reintervention was required in 12.5% of patients within 30 days and 37.5% of patients within 1 year. Overall mortality was 6.2% at 30-days and 13.5% at 1-year. In-line flow to the foot was re-established in 90.6% of patients, with a significant improvement in pre- to post-op ABI (0.31+0.29 vs. 0.78+0.34, p<0.001) and number of patent tibial runoff vessels (1.31+1.20 vs. 1.96+0.86, p <0.001). There was no significant difference in revascularization success between occluded vessel types. All but one patient required adjunctive therapy such as further thromboaspiration, stenting, or balloon angioplasty. Major bleeding complications occurred in 3 patients (9.4%), including 1 intracranial hemorrhage (3.1%).CONCLUSIONS: UET with the EKOS device demonstrates acceptable real-world outcomes in the treatment of acute limb ischemia. UET is generally safe and effective at re-establishing in line flow to yield high limb salvage rates. However, UET is associated with a high rate of reintervention. Further investigation is needed into specific predictors of limb salvage and need for reintervention, as well as cost-efficacy of this technology compared to traditional methods.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2019.12.026

    View details for PubMedID 31917220

  • Contemporary Practices and Complications of Surgery for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome in the United States. Annals of vascular surgery George, E. L., Arya, S. n., Rothenberg, K. A., Hernandez-Broussard, T. n., Ho, V. T., Stern, J. R., Gelabert, H. A., Lee, J. T. 2020


    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) surgery is relatively rare and controversial given the challenges in diagnosis as well as wide variation in symptomatic and functional recovery. Our aims were to measure trends in utilization of TOS surgery, complications, and mortality rates in a nationally representative cohort and compare higher- versus lower-volume centers.The National Inpatient Sample was queried using ICD-9 codes for rib resection and scalenectomy paired with axillo-subclavian aneurysm [arterial (aTOS)], subclavian DVT [venous (vTOS)], or brachial plexus lesions [neurogenic (nTOS)]. Basic descriptive statistics, non-parametric tests for trend, and multivariable hierarchical regression models with random intercept for center were used to compare outcomes for TOS types, trends over time, and higher- and lower-volume hospitals, respectively.There were 3,547 TOS operations (for an estimated 18,210 TOS operations nationally) performed between 2010-2015 (89.2% nTOS, 9.9% vTOS, 0.9% aTOS) with annual case volume increasing significantly over time (p=0.03). Higher-volume centers (≥10 cases/year) represented 5.2% of hospitals and 37.0% of cases, and these centers achieved significantly lower overall major complication (defined as neurologic injury, arterial or venous injury, vascular graft complication, pneumothorax, hemorrhage/hematoma or lymphatic leak) rates [adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.52-0.98); p=0.04], but no difference in neurologic complications such as brachial plexus injury (aOR 0.69 (0.20-2.43); p=0.56) or vascular injuries/graft complications [aOR 0.71 (0.0.33=1.54); p=0.39]. Overall mortality was 0.6%, neurologic injury was rare (0.3%), and the proportion of patients experiencing complications decreased over time (p=0.03). However, vTOS & aTOS had >2.5 times the odds of major complication compared to nTOS [OR 2.68 (1.88-3.82) & aOR 4.26 (1.78-10.17); p<0.001], and ∼10 times the odds of a vascular complication [aOR 10.37 (5.33-20.19) & aOR 12.93 (3.54-47.37); p<0.001], respectively. As the number of complications decreased, average hospital charges also significantly decreased over time (p<0.001). Total hospital charges were on average higher when surgery was performed in lower-volume centers (< 10 cases/year) compared to higher-volume centers [mean $65,634 (standard deviation 98,796) vs. $45,850 (59,285), p<0.001].The annual number of TOS operations have increased in the United States from 2010-2015, while complications and average hospital charges have decreased. Mortality and neurologic injury remain rare. Higher-volume centers delivered higher-value care: less or similar operative morbidity with lower total hospital charges.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2020.10.046

    View details for PubMedID 33340669

  • Thoracic Aortic Dilation Following Endovascular Repair of Blunt Traumatic Aortic Injury. Annals of vascular surgery Tran, K. n., Li, M. n., Stern, J. R., Lee, J. T. 2020


    Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) has become the current standard of care for emergent treatment of blunt traumatic aortic injuries (BTAI). Although aortic dilation of the infrarenal neck following EVAR for aortic aneurysms has been studied, changes in aortic diameter following TEVAR for BTAI is not well understood. This study aims to characterize changes in thoracic aortic diameter following stent graft placement in the setting of non-aneurysmal traumatic aortic injury.A single-center, retrospective review was performed involving patients presenting with BTAI treated with TEVAR. Only patients with at least 12 months follow-up were included. Aortic diameter, defined as the outer-to-outer diameter on 3D center-line imaging, was measured at six locations along the proximal and mid thoracic aorta. The first post-operative CT (≤1 month) served as a baseline from which interval measurements were compared.Twenty patients with BTAI treated from 2011-2017 had adequate imaging available for review and were included in this study cohort. Median follow-up time was 46.8 (12-80, range) months. At latest follow-up, aortic dilation (AD) occurred at all measured locations within the endograft, starting from the proximal graft edge (0.62±0.69mm, p=.027) to the distal graft edge (1.21±1.28mm, p=.003). AD was most pronounced in the distal graft segment 2cm proximal to the distal graft edge, with a mean AD of 1.32±1.59mm (+5.3%, p<.001). At this location, AD was found to increase in a linear manner with an estimated rate of 0.67±0.20mm /year (p=0.006). The native aorta proximal and distal to the endograft was not found to significantly dilate during follow-up (p=.280-.897). 70% of patients were found to have AD >5%. The amount of aortic dilation was not found to be associated with either graft oversizing (p=.151) or age (p=.340). There were no cases of graft migration, erosion or endoleak.Aortic dilation is a common benign finding after TEVAR for BTAI. AD is most pronounced at the near the distal end of the stent graft. In late-term follow-up, there are no known associated complications related to AD.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2020.06.049

    View details for PubMedID 32603842

  • Comparison of mid-term graft patency in common femoral versus superficial femoral artery inflow for infra-geniculate bypass in the vascular quality initiative. Vascular Tran, K. n., Ho, V. T., Itoga, N. K., Stern, J. R. 2020: 1708538120924908


    The superficial femoral artery can be used as inflow for infra-geniculate bypass, but progressive proximal occlusive disease may affect graft durability. We sought to evaluate the effect of superficial femoral artery versus common femoral artery inflow on infra-geniculate bypass patency within a large contemporary multicenter registry.The vascular quality initiative was queried from 2013 to 2019 to identify patients with >30-day patency follow-up, Rutherford chronic limb ischemia stage 1-6, and an infra-geniculate bypass, excluding those with prior ipsilateral bypass. The cohort was stratified by inflow vessel, with primary, primary-assisted, and secondary patency serving as the primary outcome variables. Multivariate Cox-proportional hazard models and radius-based propensity-score matching were performed to reduce treatment-selection bias due to clinical covariates.A total of 11,190 bypass procedures were performed (8378 common femoral artery inflow, 2812 superficial femoral artery) on 10,110 patients, with a mean follow-up of 12.8 months (range 1-98). Patients receiving superficial femoral artery inflow bypasses were more commonly male (p = 0.002), obese (p < 0.0001) and had chronic, limb threatening ischemia (p < 0.0001), whereas those with common femoral artery inflow were older (p < 0.0004), and had higher baseline comorbidities including smoking (p < 0.0001), coronary disease (p < 0.0001), and pulmonary disease (p < 0.0001). On life-table analysis, there was no significant difference in three year estimated primary (32.1 vs 30.1%, p = 0.928), primary assisted (60.5 vs 65.8%, p = 0.191), or secondary patency (62.5 vs 66.7%, p = 0.139) between superficial femoral artery and common femoral artery inflow groups, respectively. A multivariate Cox model found no significant association between inflow vessel and primary patency (0.96 [0.88-1.04], HR [95%CI]), primary-assisted (1.07 [0.95-1.20], HR [95%CI]), or secondary patency (1.08 [0.96-1.22]). In a propensity-matched cohort (n = 11,151), there were small but statistically significant differences in primary, primary-assisted, and secondary patency at latest follow-up (non-time-to-event data) between groups. The largest difference was observed when evaluating secondary patency, with common femoral artery inflow having a marginally higher secondary patency of 88.1% compared to 85.6% for those with superficial femoral artery inflow at latest follow-up (p = 0.009).Within the vascular quality initiative, there is no significant difference in life-table determined three-year primary, primary-assisted, and secondary patency between infra-geniculate bypasses using common femoral artery inflow compared to superficial femoral artery inflow. Small, statistically significant differences exist in primary, primary-assisted, and secondary patency favoring common femoral artery inflow after propensity score matching. Long-term follow-up data are required in the vascular quality initiative to better evaluate bypass graft durability as this study was limited by a mean follow-up of one year.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1708538120924908

    View details for PubMedID 32408857

  • A systematic review of the diagnosis, management, and outcomes of true profunda femoris artery aneurysm. Journal of vascular surgery Kibrik, P., Arustamyan, M., Stern, J., Dua, A. 2019


    OBJECTIVE: True profunda femoris artery aneurysm (TPFAA) is rare. Most cases of profunda femoris artery aneurysm are classified as pseudoaneurysms. TPFAAs are mostly asymptomatic, but some are manifested with pain, swelling, paresthesia, gait and movement disturbances, thrombosis, and rupture. There is a paucity of evidence on the effectiveness of diagnostic and therapeutic measures for management of TPFAA. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the incidence, diagnosis, and management of TPFAA.METHODS: A comprehensive systematic review on the diagnosis and management of TPFAAs was conducted by a search through PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, and Google Scholar databases to identify and to evaluate publications on TPFAA since 2012. Only publications on TPFAA were included in this review.RESULTS: A total of 19 publications published from 2012 were included in the review. The studies were 18 case reports and a cadaver study reporting 27 TPFAAs in 26 patients with a mean age of 69.6years. Rupture was reported in 18.5% of the cases (n= 5); the conventional clinical presentation of unruptured TPFAA was reported in 48% of cases (n= 13), with 40.9% of unruptured aneurysms being asymptomatic (n= 9). Computed tomography angiography was used as a diagnostic tool in 85.2% of the cases (n= 23); Doppler ultrasound was applied in 33.3% of cases (n= 9). The common therapeutic approaches were resection and revascularization (n= 13 [48.1%]) and ligation or resection without reconstruction (n= 6 [22.2%]). Cumulative analysis for cases reported before and after 2012 yielded similar results.CONCLUSIONS: Review of the current literature supports that computed tomography angiography and Doppler ultrasound are the mainstay diagnostic approaches for TPFAA. Surgical repair through ligation, resection, and revascularization remains the most common and effective therapeutic procedure. Endovascular embolization is recommended for aneurysms when surgery is not tenable because of the patient's comorbidities and the aneurysm's anatomy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvs.2019.10.086

    View details for PubMedID 31882317

  • Carbon Dioxide Angiography in the Treatment of Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis. Annals of vascular surgery Elmously, A., Stern, J. R., Greenberg, J., Agrusa, C. J., Schneider, D. B., Ellozy, S. H., Connolly, P. H. 2019


    OBJECTIVES: Transplant renal stenosis (TRAS) is a serious complication associated with graft loss. Selective carbon dioxide angiography allows for effective diagnosis and therapy with the use of minimal to no contrast agent. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of the adjunctive use of carbon dioxide angiography in the treatment of TRAS.METHODS: Patients undergoing endovascular therapy (percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with or without stent) for TRAS between the years 2012 and 2017 at a single tertiary care academic medical center were studied. Outcomes of interest included technical success, post-operative glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and renal ultrasound hemodynamic parameters.RESULTS: Of the 37 patients who underwent angiography for TRAS during the study period, 34 underwent a therapeutic intervention. Of those, 24 patients (70.6%) underwent adjunctive carbon dioxide angiography vs. 10 patients (29.4%) who underwent standard contrast angiography. Baseline characteristics between the carbon dioxide angiography and traditional angiography groups were similar. Patients undergoing carbon dioxide angiography received significantly less contrast agent than patients undergoing traditional angiography [9.5 ml (IQR 2-19.5) vs. 19.5 ml (IQR 15-30)], p =0.03)] and maintained equivalent technical success rates (92.2% vs. 91.7%, p=0.9).CONCLUSIONS: The adjunctive use of carbon dioxide angiography allows for significantly less contrast administration compared to standard angiography while achieving an equivalent rate of technical success. Selective carbon dioxide angiography should be considered a first line modality for patients with TRAS in need of endovascular therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2019.08.085

    View details for PubMedID 31626944

  • Association of opioid use and peripheral artery disease Itoga, N. K., Sceats, L. A., Stern, J. R., Mell, M. W. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2019: 1271-+
  • Delayed Fasciotomy Is Associated with Higher Risk of Major Amputation in Patients with Acute Limb Ischemia ANNALS OF VASCULAR SURGERY Rothenberg, K. A., George, E. L., Trickey, A. W., Chandra, V., Stern, J. R. 2019; 59: 195–201
  • Real-World Outcomes of EKOS Ultrasound-Enhanced Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for Acute Limb Ischemia George, E. L., Colvard, B., Ho, V. T., Rothenberg, K. A., Lee, J. T., Stern, J. R. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2019: E170–E171
  • Zenith Fenestrated Outcomes for Patients Treated Inside Versus Outside of Instructions for Use Stern, J. R., Deslarzes-Dubuis, C., Tran, K., Lee, J. T. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2019: E119
  • Association of Frailty and Postoperative Complications With Unplanned Readmissions After Elective Outpatient Surgery. JAMA network open Rothenberg, K. A., Stern, J. R., George, E. L., Trickey, A. W., Morris, A. M., Hall, D. E., Johanning, J. M., Hawn, M. T., Arya, S. 2019; 2 (5): e194330


    Importance: Ambulatory surgery in geriatric populations is increasingly prevalent. Prior studies have demonstrated the association between frailty and readmissions in the inpatient setting. However, few data exist regarding the association between frailty and readmissions after outpatient procedures.Objective: To examine the association between frailty and 30-day unplanned readmissions after elective outpatient surgical procedures as well as the potential mediation of surgical complications.Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective cohort study of elective outpatient procedures from 2012 and 2013 in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database, 417 840 patients who underwent elective outpatient procedures were stratified into cohorts of individuals with a length of stay (LOS) of 0 days (LOS=0) and those with a LOS of 1 or more days (LOS≥1). Statistical analysis was performed from June 1, 2018, to March 31, 2019.Exposure: Frailty, as measured by the Risk Analysis Index.Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was 30-day unplanned readmission.Results: Of the 417 840 patients in this study, 59.2% were women and unplanned readmission occurred in 2.3% of the cohort overall (LOS=0, 2.0%; LOS≥1, 3.4%). Frail patients (mean [SD] age, 64.9 [15.5] years) were more likely than nonfrail patients (mean [SD] age, 35.0 [15.8] years) to have an unplanned readmission in both LOS cohorts (LOS=0, 8.3% vs 1.9%; LOS≥1, 8.5% vs 3.2%; P<.001). Frail patients were also more likely than nonfrail patients to experience complications in both cohorts (LOS=0, 6.9% vs 2.5%; LOS≥1, 9.8% vs 4.6%; P<.001). In multivariate analysis, frailty doubled the risk of unplanned readmission (LOS=0: adjusted relative risk [RR], 2.1; 95% CI, 2.0-2.3; LOS≥1: adjusted RR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6-2.1). Complications occurred in 3.1% of the entire cohort, and frailty was associated with increased risk of complications (unadjusted RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 2.4-2.8). Mediation analysis confirmed that complications are a significant mediator in the association between frailty and readmissions; however, it also indicated that the association of frailty with readmission was only partially mediated by complications (LOS=0, 22.8%; LOS≥1, 29.3%).Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that frailty is a significant risk factor for unplanned readmission after elective outpatient surgery both independently and when partially mediated through increased complications. Screening for frailty might inform the development of interventions to decrease unplanned readmissions, including those for outpatient procedures.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4330

    View details for PubMedID 31125103

  • Association of opioid use and peripheral artery disease. Journal of vascular surgery Itoga, N. K., Sceats, L. A., Stern, J. R., Mell, M. W. 2019


    BACKGROUND: Prescription opioids account for 40% of all U.S. opioid overdose deaths, and national efforts have intensified to reduce opioid prescriptions. Little is known about the relationship between peripheral artery disease (PAD) and high-risk opioid use. The objectives of this study were to evaluate this relationship and to assess the impact of PAD treatment on opiate use.METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, the Truven Health MarketScan database (Truven Health Analytics, Ann Arbor, Mich), a deidentified national private insurance claims database, was queried to identify patients with PAD (two or more International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes of PAD ≥2months apart, with at least 2years of continuous enrollment) from 2007 to 2015. Critical limb ischemia (CLI) was defined as the presence of rest pain, ulcers, or gangrene. The primary outcome was high opioid use, defined as two or more opioid prescriptions within a 1-year period. Multivariable analysis was used to determine risk factors for high opioid use.RESULTS: A total of 178,880 patients met the inclusion criteria, 35% of whom had CLI. Mean± standard deviation follow-up time was 5.3± 2.1years. An average of 24.7% of patients met the high opioid use criteria in any given calendar year, with a small but significant decline in high opioid use after 2010 (P< .01). During years of high opioid use, 5.9± 5.5 yearly prescriptions were filled. A new diagnosis of PAD increased high opioid use (21.7% before diagnosis vs 27.3% after diagnosis; P<.001). A diagnosis of CLI was also associated with increased high opioid use (25.4% before diagnosis vs 34.5% after diagnosis; P< .001). Multivariable analysis identified back pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.84-1.93; P< .001) and illicit drug use (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.72-2.03; P< .001) as the highest predictors of high opioid use. A diagnosis of CLI was also associated with higher risk (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.57-1.64; P< .001). A total of 43,443 PAD patients (24.3%) underwent 80,816 PAD-related procedures. After exclusion of periprocedural opioid prescriptions (4.9% of all opioid prescriptions), the yearly percentage of high opioid users increased from 25.8% before treatment to 29.6% after treatment (P< .001).CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PAD are at increased risk for high opioid use, with nearly one-quarter meeting described criteria. CLI and treatment for PAD additionally increase high opioid use. In addition to heightened awareness and active opioid management, our findings warrant further investigation into underlying causes and deterrents of high-risk opioid use.

    View details for PubMedID 30922747

  • Safety and Effectiveness of Retrograde Arterial Access for Endovascular Treatment of Critical Limb Ischemia Stern, J. R., Cafasso, D. E., Connolly, P. H., Ellozy, S. H., Schneider, D. B., Meltzer, A. J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: 131–37
  • Transradial interventions in contemporary vascular surgery practice VASCULAR Stern, J. R., Elmously, A., Smith, M. C., Connolly, P. H., Meltzer, A. J., Schneider, D. B., Ellozy, S. H. 2019; 27 (1): 110–16
  • Delayed Fasciotomy is Associated with Higher Risk of Major Amputation in Patients with Acute Limb Ischemia. Annals of vascular surgery Rothenberg, K. A., George, E. L., Trickey, A. W., Chandra, V. n., Stern, J. R. 2019


    Compartment syndrome (CS) is a feared complication after revascularization for acute limb ischemia (ALI), and patients often undergo prophylactic 4-compartment fasciotomy at the time of revascularization to avoid developing CS and its associated complications. However, fasciotomy carries its own morbidity and surgeons may opt against this initially. The subsequent development of CS would mandate fasciotomy in a delayed fashion. We sought to investigate relationships between fasciotomy timing and patient outcomes.Patients who underwent lower extremity revascularization for ALI from 2005-2017 were retrospectively identified from an institutional database. Fasciotomy was classified as either prophylactic (occurring with revascularization) or delayed. Associations between patient characteristics, comorbidities, fasciotomy timing and patient outcomes were evaluated.A total of 138 patients met study inclusion criteria. Forty-two patients (30.4%) underwent fasciotomy, and of these, 8 (19%) were delayed. Patients with higher Rutherford acute limb ischemia classification were more likely to undergo fasciotomy (I 4.2%, IIA 13.2%, IIB 53.3%, p<0.001), and patients with coronary artery disease were less likely (16.1% vs. 83.9% fasciotomy, p=0.003). Ischemia time > 6 hours was noted in 66.7% of patients, though this was not significantly associated with fasciotomy occurrence (≤6 hours 21.7% fasciotomy vs. >6 hours 34.8% fasciotomy, p=0.17). Patients undergoing delayed fasciotomy were more likely to require major amputation within 30 days (50% vs. 5.9%, p=0.002).The decision to perform prophylactic fasciotomy in the setting of ALI is complex. When not performed, the subsequent development of CS requiring delayed fasciotomy appears to be associated with increased risk of major amputation at 30 days. This suggests that a liberal approach to prophylactic fasciotomy at the time of revascularization may improve limb salvage rates.

    View details for PubMedID 31034949

  • A Decade of Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair in New York State: Volumes, Outcomes, and Implications for the Dissemination of Endovascular Technology Stern, J. R., Sun, T., Mao, J., Sedrakyan, A., Meltzer, A. J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: 123–33
  • Interaction of Frailty and Postoperative Complications on Unplanned Readmission after Elective Outpatient Surgery Stern, J. R., Blum, K., Trickey, A. W., Hall, D. E., Johanning, J. M., Morris, A. M., Hawn, M. T., Arya, S. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: E25
  • Transradial interventions in contemporary vascular surgery practice. Vascular Stern, J. R., Elmously, A., Smith, M. C., Connolly, P. H., Meltzer, A. J., Schneider, D. B., Ellozy, S. H. 2018: 1708538118797556


    Objectives Upper extremity arterial access is often required for endovascular procedures, especially for antegrade access to the visceral aortic branches. Radial arterial access has been shown previously to have low complication rates, and patients tolerate the procedure well and are able to recover quickly. However, transradial access remains relatively uncommon amongst vascular surgeons. Methods The radial artery was evaluated by ultrasound to evaluate for adequate caliber, and to identify any aberrant anatomy or arterial loops. A modified Barbeau test was performed to ensure sufficient collateral circulation. A cocktail of nitroglycerin, verapamil and heparin was administered intra-arterially to combat vasospasm. Sheaths up to 6 French were utilized for interventions. On completion of the procedure, a compression band was used for hemostasis in all cases. Results Twenty-five interventions were performed in 24 patients. The left radial artery was used in 23/25 cases (92.0%). Procedures included visceral and renal artery interventions; stent graft repair of a renal artery aneurysm; embolization of splenic, pancreaticoduodenal and internal mammary aneurysms; embolization of bilateral hypogastric arteries following blunt pelvic trauma; interventions for peripheral arterial disease; delivery of a renal snorkel graft during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair, and access for diagnostic catheters during thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. Technical success was 92.0%. There was one post-operative radial artery occlusion (4.3%) which led to paresthesias but resolved with anticoagulation. There were no instances of arterial rupture, hematoma, or hand ischemia requiring intervention. Conclusions Using the transradial approach, we have demonstrated a high technical success rate over a range of clinical contexts with minimal morbidity and no significant complications such as bleeding or hand ischemia. The safety profile compares favorably to historical complication rates from brachial access. Radial access is a safe and useful skill for vascular surgeons to master.

    View details for PubMedID 30205780

  • Safety and Effectiveness of Retrograde Arterial Access for Endovascular Treatment of Critical Limb Ischemia. Annals of vascular surgery Stern, J. R., Cafasso, D. E., Connolly, P. H., Ellozy, S. H., Schneider, D. B., Meltzer, A. J. 2018


    INTRODUCTION: and Objectives: Retrograde arterial access (RA) of the popliteal, tibial or pedal arteries may facilitate endovascular treatment of complex infrainguinal lesions in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Here, we assess the safety and efficacy of this technique.METHODS: A retrospective review of prospectively collected institutional data (consecutive M2S entries) was performed to identify patients with CLI undergoing peripheral vascular intervention from February, 2012 through December, 2017. Demographics, co-morbidities, procedural characteristics and outcomes were analyzed, and comparisons made between outcomes of patients undergoing RA and those undergoing a standard antegrade approach (SA).RESULTS: 566 patients were identified, of whom 26 (4.6%) underwent RA. Of these, 4 were accessed via the popliteal artery (15.4%), 13 via the tibial vessels above the ankle (50.0%), and 9 via pedal vessels (34.6%). RA facilitated procedural success in 96.2% of cases. There were no instances of distal embolization, perforation, or loss of distal target with RA. Primary, primary assisted and secondary patency rates were consistently lower for RA than for SA patients, as was limb salvage and amputation-free survival. No difference was seen in overall survival.CONCLUSIONS: RA represents a viable and safe option for revascularization when SA fails. Although outcomes are poorer than with SA, this technique can be useful in CLI patients, especially when open surgical revascularization is not an option.

    View details for PubMedID 30217705

  • Endovascular Repair of Ruptured Hepatic Artery Pseudoaneurysm Secondary to Fibromuscular Dysplasia. Vascular and endovascular surgery Rothenberg, K. A., McFarland, G. E., Stern, J. R. 2018: 1538574418794075


    We describe successful endovascular treatment of a patient with fibromuscular dysplasia of the celiac axis leading to development of a common hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm with contained rupture. An 81-year-old woman was transferred to our quaternary care center with concern for a hepatic artery rupture. Further imaging demonstrated a common hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm with surrounding hematoma as well as multifocal areas of narrowing and dilatation in the celiac trunk consistent with fibromuscular dysplasia. A similar pattern was subsequently identified in the bilateral renal and carotid arteries. The patient underwent successful endovascular exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm with a balloon-expandable covered stent and was discharged home without incident. Fibromuscular dysplasia is a nonatherosclerotic arteriopathy that can lead to stenosis, occlusion, dissection, and aneurysm formation. While it primarily affects the carotid and renal arteries, there are rare case reports involving the mesenteric vasculature. Endovascular therapy appears to be a feasible treatment option for the complicated sequelae of this condition in the rare case of mesenteric arterial involvement.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1538574418794075

    View details for PubMedID 30114972

  • Upper extremity access options for complex endovascular aortic interventions. The Journal of cardiovascular surgery Lavingia, K. S., Dua, A., Stern, J. R. 2018; 59 (3): 360–67


    The advancement of endovascular therapy has led to minimally invasive solutions to increasingly complex aortic pathology, including thoracoabdominal aneurysms and those involving the visceral segment. Upper extremity access is beneficial in a variety of these complex interventions, and may be absolutely required for certain procedures such as placement of parallel chimney grafts. Traditionally, the brachial artery has been the primary access site on the arm, using either a percutaneous or open approach. Brachial access is safe and effective, and remains suitable for the majority of clinical situations. More recently though, descriptions of axillary and radial access have emerged and may provide a useful alternative in specific cases. These options should be viewed as complementary rather than competitive, and facility with all three techniques is desirable. Here, we describe in detail the various options for upper extremity access during complex aortic aneurysm repair and their relative advantages.

    View details for PubMedID 29327566

  • Upper extremity access options for complex endovascular aortic interventions JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Lavingia, K. S., Dua, A., Stern, J. R. 2018; 59 (3): 360–67
  • Association of Opioid Abuse and Peripheral Arterial Disease Itoga, N. K., Sceats, L. A., Stern, J. R., Mell, M. W. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2018: E87
  • A Decade of TEVAR in New York State: Volumes, Outcomes, and Implications for the Dissemination of Endovascular Technology. Annals of vascular surgery Stern, J. R., Sun, T., Mao, J., Sedrakyan, A., Meltzer, A. J. 2018


    INTRODUCTION: /Objectives: The purpose of this study was to characterize utilization and outcomes of TEVAR in New York State during the first decade of commercial availability, with respect to evolving indications, results, and costs. Of specific interest was evaluation of the volume-outcome relationship for this relatively uncommon procedure.METHODS: The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database was queried to identify patients undergoing TEVAR from 2005-2014 for aortic dissection (AD), non-ruptured aneurysm (NRA), and ruptured aneurysm (RA). Outcomes assessed included in-hospital mortality, complications and costs. Linkage to the NPI and NY Office of Professions databases facilitated comparisons by surgeon and facility volume.RESULTS: 1838 patients were identified: 334 AD, 226 RA, and 1278 NRA. Since introduction, TEVAR implantation increased significantly over the 10-year period in all groups (p<0.01), with recent increase in utilization for AD. Increased in-hospital mortality correlated to RA [OR 5.52 (3.02-10.08), p<0.01], coagulopathy [3.38 (2.02-5.66), p<0.01], cerebrovascular disease [2.47 (1.17-5.22), p=0.02], and non-white/non-black race [1.74 (1.08-2.82), p=0.02]. Early in the experience (2005-2007), patients were more likely to be treated at high-volume facilities (>17 per year) and by high volume surgeons (>5 per year), (p<0.01). Since 2011, however, most patients (53%) have undergone TEVAR by low volume surgeons (<3 per year). Neither surgeon nor hospital volume were associated with clinical outcomes.CONCLUSIONS: Since the introduction of TEVAR, comparable results have been obtained across hospital and surgeon volume strata. Favorable outcomes, even in low-volume settings, underscore the complexity of volume-outcome relationships in high-acuity procedures. These findings have implications for credentialing, regionalization, and future dissemination of advanced endovascular technology.

    View details for PubMedID 29778610

  • Totally Percutaneous Fenestration via the "Cheese-Wire" Technique to Facilitate Endovascular Aneurysm Repair in Chronic Aortic Dissection. Vascular and endovascular surgery Stern, J. R., Cafasso, D. E., Schneider, D. B., Meltzer, A. J. 2018; 52 (3): 218-221


    Here, we describe a totally percutaneous technique for longitudinal fenestration of a chronic dissection flap in the setting of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), where the septum would otherwise preclude proper endograft sealing. This technique is demonstrated in a 65-year-old man with a history of open surgical repair of a Stanford type A aortic dissection, with a type B component that was managed nonoperatively. The patient developed aneurysmal degeneration of the infrarenal aorta during follow-up, and his anatomy was well suited for EVAR with the exception of a chronic dissection flap dividing the proximal seal zone. Using bilateral percutaneous access, a wire was passed through an existing fenestration in the septum from true to false lumen and snared from the contralateral side. Downward traction on this through-wire was then used as a "cheese-wire" to divide the septum longitudinally and clear it from the proximal fixation site. Removal of the septum provided an adequate proximal seal zone for the endograft, and standard infrarenal EVAR was then performed with a good technical result. Longitudinal fenestration using this technique is a useful adjunctive maneuver to facilitate EVAR in the setting of chronic aortic dissection and is safely achievable via a totally percutaneous approach.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1538574417753006

    View details for PubMedID 29334863

  • Prophylactic Inferior Vena Cava Filter Utilization and Risk Factors for Nonretrieval. Vascular and endovascular surgery Stern, J. R., Cafasso, D. E., Meltzer, A. J., Schneider, D. B., Ellozy, S. H., Connolly, P. H. 2018; 52 (1): 34-38


    Inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) are often placed for prophylactic indications. We sought to better define the range of practice indications for placement of prophylactic IVCFs, as well as the specific retrieval rate and risk factors for nonretrieval.A retrospective, single-institution review of patients undergoing IVCF placement over a 2-year period was performed. Patients undergoing prophylactic IVCF placement were selected from a prospectively collected database. Risk factors for nonretrieval were identified using a multivariate logistic regression model.Of 615 IVCFs placed, 256 were retrievable filters placed for prophylactic indications and comprised the study cohort. The most common indications were a history of venous thromboembolic disease (43.7%), malignancy (35.1%), bleeding risk precluding anticoagulation (33.9%), and trauma (22.6%). One hundred sixty-three (63.6%) were placed preoperatively. Placement was performed in 70.3% by interventional radiology, 21.4% by vascular surgery, and 8.2% by cardiology. The most common requesting services were orthopedics (67%), general surgery (11%), neurosurgery (9%), and bariatric surgery (7%). Of all, 67.6% were placed in the inpatient setting and 32.4% in outpatients. Seventy-one (27.7%) of the 256 prophylactic filters were retrieved, with a mean indwelling time of 92 ± 74 days. Inpatients were significantly less likely to have their IVCF removed (32.4% vs 57.8%; P < .001), as were preoperative patients.This study helps define current practice trends for the placement of prophylactic IVCFs. Importantly, the specific retrieval rate for prophylactic filters is low. This suggests that prophylactic IVCF usage is suboptimal and efforts should be taken to increase retrieval, especially among inpatients and perioperative patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1538574417740507

    View details for PubMedID 29121841

  • Endovascular Repair of Ruptured Hepatic Artery Pseudoaneurysm Secondary to Fibromuscular Dysplasia Vasc Endovascular Surg Rothenberg, K. A., McFarland, G. E., Stern, J. R. 2018: 1538574418794075


    We describe successful endovascular treatment of a patient with fibromuscular dysplasia of the celiac axis leading to development of a common hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm with contained rupture. An 81-year-old woman was transferred to our quaternary care center with concern for a hepatic artery rupture. Further imaging demonstrated a common hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm with surrounding hematoma as well as multifocal areas of narrowing and dilatation in the celiac trunk consistent with fibromuscular dysplasia. A similar pattern was subsequently identified in the bilateral renal and carotid arteries. The patient underwent successful endovascular exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm with a balloon-expandable covered stent and was discharged home without incident. Fibromuscular dysplasia is a nonatherosclerotic arteriopathy that can lead to stenosis, occlusion, dissection, and aneurysm formation. While it primarily affects the carotid and renal arteries, there are rare case reports involving the mesenteric vasculature. Endovascular therapy appears to be a feasible treatment option for the complicated sequelae of this condition in the rare case of mesenteric arterial involvement.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1538574418794075

  • Transradial Delivery of a Renal Snorkel During Complex Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair. Vascular and endovascular surgery Stern, J. R., Ellozy, S. H. 2017; 51 (7): 513-516


    Transradial access has been described in a variety of clinical contexts but has been rarely utilized for visceral artery interventions and during complex endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) when upper extremity access is required. This is usually accomplished via brachial artery access, and although brachial access is generally safe and effective, radial access may offer some benefits with regard to patient comfort and potential complications. Here we report a case of successful delivery of a renal snorkel via a radial artery approach during EVAR. A 71-year-old man presented for endovascular repair of an asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Anatomic limitations dictated the need for a left renal snorkel in order to augment the proximal seal zone. Via a right radial approach, a 6-Fr sheath and then a 6-mm iCast stent (Atrium Medical, Hudson, New Hampshire) were delivered into the left renal artery. Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair was then completed with a bifurcated Endurant stent graft (Medtronic, Fridley, Minnesota). The renal stent and aortic stent grafts were successfully deployed. Completion angiography demonstrated a patent left renal snorkel, with no evidence of endoleak. Hemostasis was achieved at the radial puncture site with no complications. This demonstrates the feasibility of radial artery access for the delivery of adjunctive stents during complex EVAR.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1538574417723158

    View details for PubMedID 28774222

  • A Meta-analysis of Long-term Mortality and Associated Risk Factors following Lower Extremity Amputation. Annals of vascular surgery Stern, J. R., Wong, C. K., Yerovinkina, M., Spindler, S. J., See, A. S., Panjaki, S., Loven, S. L., D'Andrea, R. F., Nowygrod, R. 2017


    A majority of patients undergoing lower limb amputations have diabetes or peripheral artery disease. Despite improvements in care, there remains a substantial perioperative mortality associated with these procedures. Less well-defined is the mortality risk to these patients going forward, once outside the perioperative period. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and pool the available data to determine the long-term mortality associated with amputation in the diabetic and peripheral vascular patient, as well as to define specific factors associated with increased mortality risk.Four databases were searched from January 2005 through July 2015 using the Medical Subject Headings terms "amputation," "lower extremity," and "mortality." Inclusion criteria were observational and cohort studies where ≥50% of amputations were attributable to diabetic or vascular etiologies. Final article inclusion was approved by reviewer consensus. Bias was assessed with the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tool for cohort studies.Of the 365 unique records screened, 43 abstracts and 21 full articles were reviewed and 16 studies ultimately included. The overall mortality rate was 47.9%, 61.3%, 70.6%, and 62.2% at 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year follow-up, respectively. In addition to diabetes and peripheral vascular disease, comorbid factors associated with at least a 2-fold increased mortality were coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, renal dysfunction, American Society of Anesthesiologists class ≥4, dementia, and nonambulatory status. Surgical factors, including higher amputation level and need for staged surgery with up-front guillotine amputation, were also correlated with increased mortality.The overall mortality rate after primary lower limb amputation in the diabetic and peripheral vascular population is substantial, and should not be underestimated when making decisions regarding limb salvage. Similar to patients undergoing revascularization, comorbid conditions associated with higher mortality should be optimized before surgery whenever possible.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2016.12.015

    View details for PubMedID 28389295

  • Utility and safety of axillary conduits during endovascular repair of thoracoabdominal aneurysms. Journal of vascular surgery Stern, J. R., Ellozy, S. H., Connolly, P. H., Meltzer, A. J., Schneider, D. B. 2017


    Endovascular treatment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) with branched and fenestrated stent grafts often requires upper extremity arterial access for antegrade delivery of bridging covered stents into the visceral arteries. Axillary, brachial, and radial artery approaches have been described, but data on the safety and utility of the different approaches remain limited. We have preferentially used axillary artery conduits for upper extremity arterial access during endovascular repair of TAAA and describe our technique and report our experience herein.Thirty-two patients were treated within an investigator-sponsored investigational device exemption clinical trial of endovascular repair of TAAAs using custom-manufactured stent grafts. In 29 of these cases, the axillary artery was exposed through an infraclavicular incision, and an axillary conduit was used for antegrade delivery of bridging visceral artery stent components. In all cases, a 12F sheath was placed through the conduit for delivery of stent graft components. The left axillary artery was used in 27 of these 29 cases, and the right axillary artery was used in 2 patients. Proximal brachial artery access was used in two patients, and one patient did not require upper extremity access. Aneurysms treated included pararenal (n = 3) and Crawford TAAA extent I (n = 1), extent II (n = 3), extent III (n = 10), and extent IV (n = 15). Patients have been followed up to 2 years after the procedure, with a mean follow-up of 226 days.Axillary conduits were used to deliver a total of 170 stent components placed into 81 branches and 27 fenestrations with 99.1% technical success (one accessory renal branch could not be cannulated). There were no intraoperative complications related to the construction or use of the conduit. There were two postoperative complications (6.9%) potentially attributable to the conduit; one patient experienced ipsilateral hand weakness and one patient had postoperative minor stroke, which resolved by the first postoperative visit. There were no cases of arm ischemia, wound hematoma, or reoperation related to the conduit.The use of an axillary conduit during endovascular repair of complex aortic aneurysms provides safe and effective upper extremity access for delivery of visceral branches. Moreover, axillary conduits facilitate delivery of 12F sheaths without interrupting upper extremity perfusion and provide a shorter working distance compared with brachial artery approaches.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvs.2016.12.107

    View details for PubMedID 28259569

  • Left-Sided Varicocele as a Rare Presentation of May-Thurner Syndrome. Annals of vascular surgery Stern, J. R., Patel, V. I., Cafasso, D. E., Gentile, N. B., Meltzer, A. J. 2017


    May-Thurner syndrome (MTS), the clinical sequelae of left iliac vein compression between the right iliac artery and the spine, is an accepted cause of lower extremity edema and venous thromboembolism. It is more prevalent in younger women and typically presents with left lower extremity symptoms. Atypical presentations such as right-sided symptoms, chronic pelvic pain, and even fatal venous rupture have been reported. Here, we describe iliac vein compression presenting as a chronic left-sided testicular varicocele.A 22-year-old man presented with left testicular varicocele, scrotal edema, and pain after failing multiple attempts at surgical repair. MRI revealed left iliac vein compression and marked cross-pelvic collaterals. Venography and intravascular ultrasound confirmed left common iliac vein compression and typical changes of MTS. There was no gonadal vein (GV) reflux. An iliac vein stent (WALLSTENT, Boston Scientific) was placed.A good technical result was achieved, with elimination of internal iliac vein reflux and marked reduction in pelvic collateral flow (see image). The patient reported resolution of his symptoms.Varicocele is a leading cause of testosterone insufficiency and infertility in young males. In the majority of cases, successful treatment can be achieved by addressing reflux in the internal spermatic vein (ISV) and/or GV by a variety of surgical or endovascular approaches. In unusual cases, the culprit pathology may be reflux in the vein of the vas deferens, which unlike the ISV and GV, drains into the internal iliac vein. In such cases, iliac vein compression usually associated with MTS may result in varicocele. To our knowledge, this is the first report of refractory varicocele secondary to iliac vein compression successfully treated with endovenous stenting.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2016.12.001

    View details for PubMedID 28258018