Multiplexed Fluid Flow Device to Study Cellular Response to Tunable Shear Stress Gradients
ANNALS OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
2016; 44 (7): 2261-2272
Endothelial cells (ECs) line the interior of blood and lymphatic vessels and experience spatially varying wall shear stress (WSS) as an intrinsic part of their physiological function. How ECs, and mammalian cells generally, sense spatially varying WSS remains poorly understood, due in part to a lack of convenient tools for exposing cells to spatially varying flow patterns. We built a multiplexed device, termed a 6-well impinging flow chamber, that imparts controlled WSS gradients to a six-well tissue culture plate. Using this device, we investigated the migratory response of lymphatic microvascular ECs, umbilical vein ECs, primary fibroblasts, and epithelial cells to WSS gradients on hours to days timescales. We observed that lymphatic microvascular ECs migrate upstream, against the direction of flow, a response that was unique among all the cells types investigated here. Time-lapse, live cell imaging revealed that the microtubule organizing center relocated to the upstream side of the nucleus in response to the applied WSS gradient. To further demonstrate the utility of our device, we screened for the involvement of canonical signaling pathways in mediating this upstream migratory response. These data highlight the importance of WSS magnitude and WSS spatial gradients in dictating the cellular response to fluid flow.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10439-015-1500-7
View details for Web of Science ID 000377437600015
View details for PubMedID 26589597
Aqueous-Phase Secondary Organic Aerosol and Organosulfate Formation in Atmospheric Aerosols: A Modeling Study
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
2012; 46 (15): 8075-8081
We have examined aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and organosulfate (OS) formation in atmospheric aerosols using a photochemical box model with coupled gas-phase chemistry and detailed aqueous aerosol chemistry. SOA formation in deliquesced ammonium sulfate aerosol is highest under low-NO(x) conditions, with acidic aerosol (pH = 1) and low ambient relative humidity (40%). Under these conditions, with an initial sulfate loading of 4.0 μg m(-3), 0.9 μg m(-3) SOA is predicted after 12 h. Low-NO(x) aqueous-aerosol SOA (aaSOA) and OS formation is dominated by isoprene-derived epoxydiol (IEPOX) pathways; 69% or more of aaSOA is composed of IEPOX, 2-methyltetrol, and 2-methyltetrol sulfate ester. 2-Methyltetrol sulfate ester comprises >99% of OS mass (66 ng m(-3) at 40% RH and pH 1). In urban (high-NO(x)) environments, aaSOA is primarily formed via reversible glyoxal uptake, with 0.12 μg m(-3) formed after 12 h at 80% RH, with 20 μg m(-3) initial sulfate. OS formation under all conditions studied is maximum at low pH and lower relative humidities (<60% RH), i.e., when the aerosol is more concentrated. Therefore, OS species are expected to be good tracer compounds for aqueous aerosol-phase chemistry (vs cloudwater processing).
View details for DOI 10.1021/es3002986
View details for Web of Science ID 000307199800023
View details for PubMedID 22788757