Instructor, Radiology - Pediatric Radiology
Honors & Awards
Eta Kappa Nu Honors Society, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2006)
ISMRM Merit Award, Magna Cum Laude, International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2014,2013,2012)
Child Health Research Institute Grant Support Award, Child Health Research Institute (2014-2015)
ISMRM Merit Award, Summa Cum Laude, International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2015)
W.S. Moore Young Investigator Award, International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2015)
Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations
Trainee Member, International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (2007 - Present)
Trainee Member, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (2015 - Present)
Doctorate of Philosophy, Stanford University, Electrical Engineering (2013)
Joseph Y. Cheng, John M. Pauly, Michael Lustig, Shreyas S. Vasanawala. "United States Patent US20140210469 A1 Nonrigid motion correction in 3d using autofocusing with localized linear translations", The Regents of the University of California, The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University, Jul 31, 2014
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
MRI; data acquisition & image reconstruction; motion correction; fast imaging
Feasibility of ferumoxytol-enhanced neonatal and young infant cardiac MRI without general anesthesia.
Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
To assess the feasibility of ferumoxytol-enhanced anesthesia-free cardiac MRI in neonates and young infants for complex congenital heart disease (CHD).With Institutional Review Board approval, 21 consecutive neonates and young infants (1 day to 11 weeks old; median age of 3 days) who underwent a rapid two-sequence (MR angiography [MRA] and four-dimensional [4D] flow) MRI protocol with intravenous ferumoxytol without sedation (n = 17) or light sedation (n = 4) at 3 Tesla (T) (except one case at 1.5T) between June 2014 and February 2016 were retrospectively identified. Medical records were reviewed for indication, any complications, if further diagnostic imaging was performed after MRI, and surgical findings. Two radiologists scored the images in two sessions on a 5-point scale for overall image quality and delineation of various anatomical structures. Confidence interval of proportions for likelihood of requiring additional diagnostic imaging after MRI was determined. For the possibility of reducing the protocol to a single rapid sequence, Wilcoxon-rank sum test was used to assess whether 4D flow and MRA significantly differed in anatomical delineation.One of 21 patients (4.8%, 80% confidence interval 0-11%) required additional imaging, a computed tomography angiography to assess lung parenchyma and peripheral pulmonary arteries. Only 1 of 13 patients (7.7%) with operative confirmation had a minor discrepancy between radiology and operative reports (80% confidence interval 0-17%). 4D flow was significantly superior to MRA (P < 0.05) for the evaluation of systemic arteries, valves, ventricular trabeculae, and overall quality. Using Cohen's kappa coefficient, there was good interobserver agreement for the evaluation of systemic arteries by 4D flow (κ = 0.782), and systemic veins and pulmonary arteries by MRA (κ > 0.6). Overall 4D flow measurements (mean κ = 0.64-0.74) had better internal agreement compared with MRA (mean κ = 0.30-0.64).Ferumoxytol-enhanced cardiac MRI, without anesthesia, is feasible for the evaluation of complex CHD in neonates and young infants, with a low likelihood of need for additional diagnostic studies. The decreased risk by avoiding anesthesia must be balanced against the potential for adverse reactions with ferumoxytol.2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.25482
View details for PubMedID 27678106
A semiflexible 64-channel receive-only phased array for pediatric body MRI at 3T.
Magnetic resonance in medicine
2016; 76 (3): 1015-1021
To design, construct, and validate a semiflexible 64-channel receive-only phased array for pediatric body MRI at 3T.A 64-channel receive-only phased array was developed and constructed. The designed flexible coil can easily conform to different patient sizes with nonoverlapping coil elements in the transverse plane. It can cover a field of view of up to 44 × 28 cm(2) and removes the need for coil repositioning for body MRI patients with multiple clinical concerns. The 64-channel coil was compared with a 32-channel standard coil for signal-to-noise ratio and parallel imaging performances on different phantoms. With IRB approval and informed consent/assent, the designed coil was validated on 21 consecutive pediatric patients.The pediatric coil provided higher signal-to-noise ratio than the standard coil on different phantoms, with the averaged signal-to-noise ratio gain at least 23% over a depth of 7 cm along the cross-section of phantoms. It also achieved better parallel imaging performance under moderate acceleration factors. Good image quality (average score 4.6 out of 5) was achieved using the developed pediatric coil in the clinical studies.A 64-channel semiflexible receive-only phased array has been developed and validated to facilitate high quality pediatric body MRI at 3T. Magn Reson Med 76:1015-1021, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.25999
View details for PubMedID 26418283
Assessment of the precision and reproducibility of ventricular volume, function, and mass measurements with ferumoxytol-enhanced 4D flow MRI
JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
2016; 44 (2): 383-392
To compare the precision and interobserver agreement of ventricular volume, function, and mass quantification by 3D time-resolved (4D) flow MRI relative to cine steady-state free precession (SSFP).With Institutional Research Board approval, informed consent, and HIPAA compliance, 22 consecutive patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) (10 males, 6.4 ± 4.8 years) referred for 3T ferumoxytol-enhanced cardiac MRI were prospectively recruited. Complete ventricular coverage with standard 2D short-axis cine SSFP and whole chest coverage with axial 4D flow were obtained. Two blinded radiologists independently segmented images for left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) myocardium at end systole (ES) and end diastole (ED). Statistical analysis included linear regression, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Bland-Altman (BA) analysis, and intraclass correlation (ICC).Significant positive correlations were found between 4D flow and SSFP for ventricular volumes (r = 0.808-0.972, P < 0.001), ejection fraction (EF) (r = 0.900-928, P < 0.001), and mass (r = 0.884-0.934, P < 0.001). BA relative limits of agreement for both ventricles were between -52% to 34% for volumes, -29% to 27% for EF, and -41% to 48% for mass, with wider limits of agreement for the RV compared to the LV. There was no significant difference between techniques with respect to mean square difference of ED-ES mass for either LV (F = 2.05, P = 0.159) or RV (F = 0.625, P = 0.434). Interobserver agreement was moderate to good with both 4D flow (ICC 0.523-0.993) and SSFP (ICC 0.619-0.982), with overlapping confidence intervals.Quantification of ventricular volume, function, and mass can be accomplished with 4D flow MRI with precision and interobserver agreement comparable to that of cine SSFP. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:383-392.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.25180
View details for Web of Science ID 000380068100014
View details for PubMedID 26871420
Robust self-navigated body MRI using dense coil arrays.
Magnetic resonance in medicine
2016; 76 (1): 197-205
To develop a robust motion estimation method for free-breathing body MRI using dense coil arrays.Self-navigating pulse sequences can measure subject motion without using external motion monitoring devices. With dense coil arrays, individual coil elements can provide localized motion estimates. An averaged motion estimate over all coils is often used for motion compensation. However, this motion estimate may not accurately represent the dominant motion within the imaging volume. In this work, a coil clustering method is proposed to automatically determine the dominant motion for dense coil arrays. The feasibility of the proposed method is investigated in free-breathing abdominal MRI and cardiac MRI, and compared with manual motion estimate selection for respiratory motion estimation and electrocardiography for cardiac motion estimation.Automated motion estimation achieved similar respiratory motion estimation compared to manual selection (averaged correlation coefficient 0.989 and 0.988 for abdominal MRI and cardiac MRI, respectively), and accurate cardiac triggering compared to electrocardiography (averaged temporal variability 17.5 ms).The proposed method can provide accurate automated motion estimation for body MRI using dense coil arrays. It can enable self-navigated free-breathing abdominal and cardiac MRI without the need for external motion monitoring devices. Magn Reson Med 76:197-205, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.25858
View details for PubMedID 26220204
Comprehensive motion-compensated highly accelerated 4D flow MRI with ferumoxytol enhancement for pediatric congenital heart disease.
Journal of magnetic resonance imaging
2016; 43 (6): 1355-1368
To develop and evaluate motion-compensation and compressed-sensing techniques in 4D flow MRI for anatomical assessment in a comprehensive ferumoxytol-enhanced congenital heart disease (CHD) exam.A Cartesian 4D flow sequence was developed to enable intrinsic navigation and two variable-density sampling schemes: VDPoisson and VDRad. Four compressed-sensing methods were developed: A) VDPoisson scan reconstructed using spatial wavelets; B) added temporal total variation to A; C) VDRad scan using the same reconstruction as in B; and D) added motion compensation to C. With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliance, 23 consecutive patients (eight females, mean 6.3 years) referred for ferumoxytol-enhanced CHD 3T MRI were recruited. Images were acquired and reconstructed using methods A-D. Two cardiovascular radiologists independently scored the images on a 5-point scale. These readers performed a paired wall motion and functional assessment between method D and 2D balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) CINE for 16 cases.Method D had higher diagnostic image quality for most anatomical features (mean 3.8-4.8) compared to A (2.0-3.6), B (2.2-3.7), and C (2.9-3.9) with P < 0.05 with good interobserver agreement (κ ≥ 0.49). Method D had similar or better assessment of myocardial borders and cardiac motion compared to 2D bSSFP (P < 0.05, κ ≥ 0.77). All methods had good internal agreement in comparing aortic with pulmonic flow (BA mean < 0.02%, r > 0.85) and compared to method A (BA mean < 0.13%, r > 0.84) with P < 0.01.Flow, functional, and anatomical assessment in CHD with ferumoxytol-enhanced 4D flow is feasible and can be significantly improved using motion compensation and compressed sensing. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;43:1355-1368.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.25106
View details for PubMedID 26646061
Clinical performance of a free-breathing spatiotemporally accelerated 3-D time-resolved contrast-enhanced pediatric abdominal MR angiography
2015; 45 (11): 1635-1643
Pediatric contrast-enhanced MR angiography is often limited by respiration, other patient motion and compromised spatiotemporal resolution.To determine the reliability of a free-breathing spatiotemporally accelerated 3-D time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography method for depicting abdominal arterial anatomy in young children.With IRB approval and informed consent, we retrospectively identified 27 consecutive children (16 males and 11 females; mean age: 3.8 years, range: 14 days to 8.4 years) referred for contrast-enhanced MR angiography at our institution, who had undergone free-breathing spatiotemporally accelerated time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography studies. A radio-frequency-spoiled gradient echo sequence with Cartesian variable density k-space sampling and radial view ordering, intrinsic motion navigation and intermittent fat suppression was developed. Images were reconstructed with soft-gated parallel imaging locally low-rank method to achieve both motion correction and high spatiotemporal resolution. Quality of delineation of 13 abdominal arteries in the reconstructed images was assessed independently by two radiologists on a five-point scale. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals of the proportion of diagnostically adequate cases were calculated. Interobserver agreements were also analyzed.Eleven out of 13 arteries achieved acceptable image quality (mean score range: 3.9-5.0) for both readers. Fair to substantial interobserver agreement was reached on nine arteries.Free-breathing spatiotemporally accelerated 3-D time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography frequently yields diagnostic image quality for most abdominal arteries in young children.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-015-3384-y
View details for Web of Science ID 000361730600007
Free-breathing pediatric MRI with nonrigid motion correction and acceleration
JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
2015; 42 (2): 407-420
To develop and assess motion correction techniques for high-resolution pediatric abdominal volumetric magnetic resonance images acquired free-breathing with high scan efficiency.First, variable-density sampling and radial-like phase-encode ordering were incorporated into the 3D Cartesian acquisition. Second, intrinsic multichannel butterfly navigators were used to measure respiratory motion. Lastly, these estimates are applied for both motion-weighted data-consistency in a compressed sensing and parallel imaging reconstruction, and for nonrigid motion correction using a localized autofocusing framework. With Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent/assent, studies were performed on 22 consecutive pediatric patients. Two radiologists independently scored the images for overall image quality, degree of motion artifacts, and sharpness of hepatic vessels and the diaphragm. The results were assessed using paired Wilcoxon test and weighted kappa coefficient for interobserver agreements.The complete procedure yielded significantly better overall image quality (mean score of 4.7 out of 5) when compared to using no correction (mean score of 3.4, P < 0.05) and to using motion-weighted accelerated imaging (mean score of 3.9, P < 0.05). With an average scan time of 28 seconds, the proposed method resulted in comparable image quality to conventional prospective respiratory-triggered acquisitions with an average scan time of 91 seconds (mean score of 4.5).With the proposed methods, diagnosable high-resolution abdominal volumetric scans can be obtained from free-breathing data acquisitions. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015;42:407-420.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.24785
View details for Web of Science ID 000358258600019
Fast Pediatric 3D Free-Breathing Abdominal Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI With High Spatiotemporal Resolution
JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
2015; 41 (2): 460-473
To develop a method for fast pediatric 3D free-breathing abdominal dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and investigate its clinical feasibility.A combined locally low rank parallel imaging method with soft gating is proposed for free-breathing DCE MRI acquisition. With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval and informed consent/assent, 23 consecutive pediatric patients were recruited for this study. Free-breathing DCE MRI with ∼1 mm(3) spatial resolution and a 6.5-sec frame rate was acquired on a 3T scanner. Undersampled data were reconstructed with a compressed sensing method without motion correction (FB-CS) and the proposed method (FB-LR). A follow-up respiratory-triggered acquisition (RT-CS) was performed as a reference standard. The reconstructed images were evaluated independently by two radiologists. Wilcoxon tests were performed to test the hypothesis that there was no significant difference between different reconstructions. Quantitative evaluation of contrast dynamics was also performed.The mean score of overall image quality of FB-LR was 4.0 on a 5-point scale, significantly better (P < 0.05) than FB-CS reconstruction (mean score 2.9), and similar to RT-CS (mean score 4.1). FB-LR also matched the temporal fidelity of contrast dynamics with a root mean square error less than 5%.Fast 3D free-breathing DCE MRI with high scan efficiency and image quality similar to respiratory-triggered acquisition is feasible in a pediatric clinical setting.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.24551
View details for Web of Science ID 000348850600022
Nonrigid Autofocus Motion Correction for Coronary MR Angiography with a 3D Cones Trajectory
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE
2014; 72 (2): 347-361
To implement a nonrigid autofocus motion correction technique to improve respiratory motion correction of free-breathing whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography acquisitions using an image-navigated 3D cones sequence.2D image navigators acquired every heartbeat are used to measure superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and right-left translation of the heart during a free-breathing coronary magnetic resonance angiography scan using a 3D cones readout trajectory. Various tidal respiratory motion patterns are modeled by independently scaling the three measured displacement trajectories. These scaled motion trajectories are used for 3D translational compensation of the acquired data, and a bank of motion-compensated images is reconstructed. From this bank, a gradient entropy focusing metric is used to generate a nonrigid motion-corrected image on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The performance of the autofocus motion correction technique is compared with rigid-body translational correction and no correction in phantom, volunteer, and patient studies.Nonrigid autofocus motion correction yields improved image quality compared to rigid-body-corrected images and uncorrected images. Quantitative vessel sharpness measurements indicate superiority of the proposed technique in 14 out of 15 coronary segments from three patient and two volunteer studies.The proposed technique corrects nonrigid motion artifacts in free-breathing 3D cones acquisitions, improving image quality compared to rigid-body motion correction. Magn Reson Med, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.24924
View details for Web of Science ID 000339714900006
Nonrigid motion correction in 3D using autofocusing withlocalized linear translations
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE
2012; 68 (6): 1785-1797
MR scans are sensitive to motion effects due to the scan duration. To properly suppress artifacts from nonrigid body motion, complex models with elements such as translation, rotation, shear, and scaling have been incorporated into the reconstruction pipeline. However, these techniques are computationally intensive and difficult to implement for online reconstruction. On a sufficiently small spatial scale, the different types of motion can be well approximated as simple linear translations. This formulation allows for a practical autofocusing algorithm that locally minimizes a given motion metric--more specifically, the proposed localized gradient-entropy metric. To reduce the vast search space for an optimal solution, possible motion paths are limited to the motion measured from multichannel navigator data. The novel navigation strategy is based on the so-called "Butterfly" navigators, which are modifications of the spin-warp sequence that provides intrinsic translational motion information with negligible overhead. With a 32-channel abdominal coil, sufficient number of motion measurements were found to approximate possible linear motion paths for every image voxel. The correction scheme was applied to free-breathing abdominal patient studies. In these scans, a reduction in artifacts from complex, nonrigid motion was observed.
View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.24189
View details for Web of Science ID 000311398600012
View details for PubMedID 22307933
Fast Concomitant Gradient Field and Field Inhomogeneity Correction for Spiral Cardiac Imaging
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE
2011; 66 (2): 390-401
Non-Cartesian imaging provides many advantages in terms of flexibility, functionality, and speed. However, a major drawback to these imaging methods is off-resonance distortion artifacts. These artifacts manifest as blurring in spiral imaging. Common techniques that remove the off-resonance field inhomogeneity distortion effects are not sufficient, because the high order concomitant gradient fields are nontrivial for common imaging conditions, such as imaging 5 cm off isocenter in an 1.5 T scanner. Previous correction algorithms are either slow or do not take into account the known effects of concomitant gradient fields along with the field inhomogeneities. To ease the correction, the distortion effects are modeled as a non-stationary convolution problem. In this work, two fast and accurate postgridding algorithms are presented and analyzed. These methods account for both the concomitant field effects and the field inhomogeneities. One algorithm operates in the frequency domain and the other in the spatial domain. To take advantage of their speed and accuracy, the algorithms are applied to a real-time cardiac study and a high-resolution cardiac study. Both of the presented algorithms provide for a practical solution to the off-resonance problem in spiral imaging.
View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.22802
View details for Web of Science ID 000293256800010
View details for PubMedID 21384423