High-Throughput Discovery and Characterization of Human Transcriptional Effectors.
Thousands of proteins localize to the nucleus; however, it remains unclear which contain transcriptional effectors. Here, we develop HT-recruit, a pooled assay where protein libraries are recruited to a reporter, and their transcriptional effects are measured by sequencing. Using this approach, we measure gene silencing and activation for thousands of domains. We find a relationship between repressor function and evolutionary age for the KRAB domains, discover that Homeodomain repressor strength is collinear with Hox genetic organization, and identify activities for several domains of unknown function. Deep mutational scanning of the CRISPRi KRAB maps the co-repressor binding surface and identifies substitutions that improve stability/silencing. By tiling 238 proteins, we find repressors as short as ten amino acids. Finally, we report new activator domains, including a divergent KRAB. These results provide a resource of 600 human proteins containing effectors and demonstrate a scalable strategy for assigning functions to protein domains.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2020.11.024
View details for PubMedID 33326746
Identification of Guide-Intrinsic Determinants of Cas9 Specificity
2019; 2 (3): 172–85
Considerable effort has been devoted to developing a comprehensive understanding of CRISPR nuclease specificity. In silico predictions and multiple genome-wide cellular and biochemical approaches have revealed a basic understanding of the Cas9 specificity profile. However, none of these approaches has delivered a model that allows accurate prediction of a CRISPR nuclease's ability to cleave a site based entirely on the sequence of the guide RNA (gRNA) and the target. We describe a library-based biochemical assay that directly reports the cleavage efficiency of a particular Cas9-guide complex by measuring both uncleaved and cleaved target molecules over a wide range of mismatched library members. We applied our assay using libraries of targets to evaluate the specificity of Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 under a variety of experimental conditions. Surprisingly, our data show an unexpectedly high variation in the random gRNA:target DNA mismatch tolerance when cleaving with different gRNAs, indicating guide-intrinsic mismatch permissiveness and challenging the assumption of universal specificity models. We use data generated by our assay to create the first off-target, guide-specific cleavage models. The barcoded libraries of targets approach is rapid, highly modular, and capable of generating protein- and guide-specific models, as well as illuminating the biophysics of Cas9 binding versus cutting. These models may be useful in identifying potential off-targets, and the gRNA-intrinsic nature of mismatch tolerance argues for coupling these specificity models with orthogonal methods for a more complete assessment of gRNA specificity.
View details for DOI 10.1089/crispr.2019.0009
View details for Web of Science ID 000472566100011
View details for PubMedID 31225747
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6694761
Gene drives for schistosomiasis transmission control.
PLoS neglected tropical diseases
2019; 13 (12): e0007833
Schistosomiasis is one of the most important and widespread neglected tropical diseases (NTD), with over 200 million people infected in more than 70 countries; the disease has nearly 800 million people at risk in endemic areas. Although mass drug administration is a cost-effective approach to reduce occurrence, extent, and severity of the disease, it does not provide protection to subsequent reinfection. Interventions that target the parasites' intermediate snail hosts are a crucial part of the integrated strategy required to move toward disease elimination. The recent revolution in gene drive technology naturally leads to questions about whether gene drives could be used to efficiently spread schistosome resistance traits in a population of snails and whether gene drives have the potential to contribute to reduced disease transmission in the long run. Responsible implementation of gene drives will require solutions to complex challenges spanning multiple disciplines, from biology to policy. This Review Article presents collected perspectives from practitioners of global health, genome engineering, epidemiology, and snail/schistosome biology and outlines strategies for responsible gene drive technology development, impact measurements of gene drives for schistosomiasis control, and gene drive governance. Success in this arena is a function of many factors, including gene-editing specificity and efficiency, the level of resistance conferred by the gene drive, how fast gene drives may spread in a metapopulation over a complex landscape, ecological sustainability, social equity, and, ultimately, the reduction of infection prevalence in humans. With combined efforts from across the broad global health community, gene drives for schistosomiasis control could fortify our defenses against this devastating disease in the future.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007833
View details for PubMedID 31856157
Mitigation of off-target toxicity in CRISPR-Cas9 screens for essential non-coding elements.
2019; 10 (1): 4063
Pooled CRISPR-Cas9 screens are a powerful method for functionally characterizing regulatory elements in the non-coding genome, but off-target effects in these experiments have not been systematically evaluated. Here, we investigate Cas9, dCas9, and CRISPRi/a off-target activity in screens for essential regulatory elements. The sgRNAs with the largest effects in genome-scale screens for essential CTCF loop anchors in K562 cells were not single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) that disrupted gene expression near the on-target CTCF anchor. Rather, these sgRNAs had high off-target activity that, while only weakly correlated with absolute off-target site number, could be predicted by the recently developed GuideScan specificity score. Screens conducted in parallel with CRISPRi/a, which do not induce double-stranded DNA breaks, revealed that a distinct set of off-targets also cause strong confounding fitness effects with these epigenome-editing tools. Promisingly, filtering of CRISPRi libraries using GuideScan specificity scores removed these confounded sgRNAs and enabled identification of essential regulatory elements.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-019-11955-7
View details for PubMedID 31492858
Pairwise library screen systematically interrogates Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 specificity in human cells
2018; 9: 2962
Therapeutic genome editing with Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9) requires a rigorous understanding of its potential off-target activity in the human genome. Here we report a high-throughput screening approach to measure SaCas9 genome editing variation in human cells across a large repertoire of 88,692 single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) paired with matched or mismatched target sites in a synthetic cassette. We incorporate randomized barcodes that enable whitelisting of correctly synthesized molecules for further downstream analysis, in order to circumvent the limitation of oligonucleotide synthesis errors. We find SaCas9 sgRNAs with 21-mer or 22-mer spacer sequences are generally more active, although high efficiency 20-mer spacers are markedly less tolerant of mismatches. Using this dataset, we developed an SaCas9 specificity model that performs robustly in ranking off-target sites. The barcoded pairwise library screen enabled high-fidelity recovery of guide-target relationships, providing a scalable framework for the investigation of CRISPR enzyme properties and general nucleic acid interactions.
View details for PubMedID 30054474
Enhancer connectome in primary human cells identifies target genes of disease-associated DNA elements.
The challenge of linking intergenic mutations to target genes has limited molecular understanding of human diseases. Here we show that H3K27ac HiChIP generates high-resolution contact maps of active enhancers and target genes in rare primary human T cell subtypes and coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Differentiation of naive T cells into T helper 17 cells or regulatory T cells creates subtype-specific enhancer-promoter interactions, specifically at regions of shared DNA accessibility. These data provide a principled means of assigning molecular functions to autoimmune and cardiovascular disease risk variants, linking hundreds of noncoding variants to putative gene targets. Target genes identified with HiChIP are further supported by CRISPR interference and activation at linked enhancers, by the presence of expression quantitative trait loci, and by allele-specific enhancer loops in patient-derived primary cells. The majority of disease-associated enhancers contact genes beyond the nearest gene in the linear genome, leading to a fourfold increase in the number of potential target genes for autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases.
View details for PubMedID 28945252
Methods and Applications of CRISPR-Mediated Base Editing in Eukaryotic Genomes.
2017; 68 (1): 26–43
The past several years have seen an explosion in development of applications for the CRISPR-Cas9 system, from efficient genome editing, to high-throughput screening, to recruitment of a range of DNA and chromatin-modifying enzymes. While homology-directed repair (HDR) coupled with Cas9 nuclease cleavage has been used with great success to repair and re-write genomes, recently developed base-editing systems present a useful orthogonal strategy to engineer nucleotide substitutions. Base editing relies on recruitment of cytidine deaminases to introduce changes (rather than double-stranded breaks and donor templates) and offers potential improvements in efficiency while limiting damage and simplifying the delivery of editing machinery. At the same time, these systems enable novel mutagenesis strategies to introduce sequence diversity for engineering and discovery. Here, we review the different base-editing platforms, including their deaminase recruitment strategies and editing outcomes, and compare them to other CRISPR genome-editing technologies. Additionally, we discuss how these systems have been applied in therapeutic, engineering, and research settings. Lastly, we explore future directions of this emerging technology.
View details for PubMedID 28985508
Methods for Optimizing CRISPR-Cas9 Genome Editing Specificity
2016; 63 (3): 355–70
Advances in the development of delivery, repair, and specificity strategies for the CRISPR-Cas9 genome engineering toolbox are helping researchers understand gene function with unprecedented precision and sensitivity. CRISPR-Cas9 also holds enormous therapeutic potential for the treatment of genetic disorders by directly correcting disease-causing mutations. Although the Cas9 protein has been shown to bind and cleave DNA at off-target sites, the field of Cas9 specificity is rapidly progressing, with marked improvements in guide RNA selection, protein and guide engineering, novel enzymes, and off-target detection methods. We review important challenges and breakthroughs in the field as a comprehensive practical guide to interested users of genome editing technologies, highlighting key tools and strategies for optimizing specificity. The genome editing community should now strive to standardize such methods for measuring and reporting off-target activity, while keeping in mind that the goal for specificity should be continued improvement and vigilance.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.molcel.2016.07.004
View details for Web of Science ID 000381619900004
View details for PubMedID 27494557
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4976696
Toolbox for Exploring Modular Gene Regulation in Synthetic Biology Training
ACS SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY
2016; 5 (7): 781–85
We report a toolbox for exploring the modular tuning of genetic circuits, which has been specifically optimized for widespread deployment in STEM environments through a combination of bacterial strain engineering and distributable hardware development. The transfer functions of 16 genetic switches, programmed to express a GFP reporter under the regulation of the (acyl-homoserine lactone) AHL-sensitive luxR transcriptional activator, can be parametrically tuned by adjusting high/low degrees of transcriptional, translational, and post-translational processing. Strains were optimized to facilitate daily large-scale preparation and reliable performance at room temperature in order to eliminate the need for temperature controlled apparatuses, which are both cost-limiting and space-constraining. The custom-designed, automated, and web-enabled fluorescence documentation system allows time-lapse imaging of AHL-induced GFP expression on bacterial plates with real-time remote data access, thereby requiring trainees to only be present for experimental setup. When coupled with mathematical models in agreement with empirical data, this toolbox expands the scalability and scope of reliable synthetic biology experiments for STEM training.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acssynbio.6b00057
View details for Web of Science ID 000380183000027
View details for PubMedID 27111289
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4947003
- Lessons Learned from the Clinical Development and Market Authorization of Glybera HUMAN GENE THERAPY CLINICAL DEVELOPMENT 2013; 24 (2): 55–64