Dr. Noel is a head and neck surgeon with fellowship training in endocrine surgery and board certification in otolaryngology. She is an assistant professor in the Department of Otolaryngology — Head & Neck Surgery at Stanford University School of Medicine.

She specializes in surgery of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and lymph nodes. She has additional expertise and training in minimally invasive treatment approaches and ultrasound-guided techniques performed in the office, such as Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) and alcohol ablation.

Among the many conditions she treats are thyroid cancer, thyroid nodules, hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia, Grave’s disease, and goiter.

For every patient, Dr. Noel prepares a personalized care plan that is comprehensive and compassionate. Her goal is to educate and empower each patient to achieve the best possible health and quality of life. Patient reviews praise her clinical expertise as well as her skills as a listener and communicator.

Dr. Noel conducts a robust research program to advance patient care. She has published extensively on the diagnosis, appropriate management, and optimization of outcomes for patients with thyroid and parathyroid disorders. Her articles have appeared in JAMA Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Nature Communications, Endocrine Practice, and many more peer-reviewed journals. She has co-authored numerous guideline and consensus statements, including an international statement on the use of RFA in benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

She serves as associate editor of the endocrine section for the journal Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology. She is additionally an editorial board member for VideoEndocrinology, a video journal covering leading-edge diagnostic and treatment techniques and technologies.

Dr. Noel has made presentations to her peers at national and international meetings of the American Academy of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, American Thyroid Association, American Head & Neck Society, and the World Congress of Thyroid Cancer. She also has shared her insights into the future of thyroid surgery at the International Thyroid Cancer Survivors’ Conference.

She is a member of the American Academy of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, American Head and Neck Society, American Thyroid Association, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, and American College of Surgeons.

Clinical Focus

  • Otolaryngology
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Thyroid Nodules
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Ultrasonography
  • Head & Neck Cancer

Academic Appointments

  • Assistant Professor - University Medical Line, Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery Divisions
  • Member, Bio-X

Professional Education

  • Internship: Stanford University Dept of General Surgery (2014) CA
  • Medical Education: University of California San Diego School of Medicine (2013) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Otolaryngology, Otolaryngology (2019)
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Endocrine Surgery Fellowship (2019) CA
  • Residency: Stanford University Otolaryngology Residency (2018) CA

Clinical Trials

  • Perioperative Oral Steroids for Chronic Rhinosinusitis Without Polyps (CRSsNP) Not Recruiting

    While oral steroids have been shown to be effective in the management of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps, its role in treating chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps (CRSsNP) is ambiguous. Despite a lack of strong clinical evidence to suggest a benefit in this disease state, steroids are often prescribed as a component of post-operative care after sinus surgery for patients without polyps. Oral steroids carry with them significant adverse effects, and should be prescribed thoughtfully. The aims of this study are to determine if oral steroids in the peri-operative period improves patient outcomes in CRS without polyps.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Peter H Hwang, M.D., 650-725-6500.

    View full details

All Publications

  • Evaluating the Rising Incidence of Thyroid Cancer and Thyroid Nodule Detection Modes: A Multinational, Multi-institutional Analysis. JAMA otolaryngology-- head & neck surgery Sajisevi, M., Caulley, L., Eskander, A., Du, Y. J., Auh, E., Karabachev, A., Callas, P., Conradie, W., Martin, L., Pasternak, J., Golbon, B., Rolighed, L., Abdelhamid Ahmed, A. H., Badhey, A., Cheung, A. Y., Corsten, M., Forner, D., Liu, J. C., Mavedatnia, D., Meltzer, C., Noel, J. E., Patel, V., Sharma, A., Tang, A. L., Tsao, G., Venkatramani, M., Williams, M., Wrenn, S. M., Zafereo, M., Stack, B. C., Randolph, G. W., Davies, L. 2022


    Importance: There is epidemiologic evidence that the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer is associated with subclinical disease detection. Evidence for a true increase in thyroid cancer incidence has also been identified. However, a true increase in disease would likely be heralded by an increased incidence of thyroid-referable symptoms in patients presenting with disease.Objectives: To evaluate whether modes of detection (MODs) used to identify thyroid nodules for surgical removal have changed compared with historic data and to determine if MODs vary by geographic location.Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective analysis of pathology and medical records of 1328 patients who underwent thyroid-directed surgery in 16 centers in 4 countries: 4 centers in Canada, 1 in Denmark, 1 in South Africa, and 12 in the US. The participants were the first 100 patients (or the largest number available) at each center who had thyroid surgery in 2019. The MOD of the thyroid finding that required surgery was classified using an updated version of a previously validated tool as endocrine condition, symptomatic thyroid, surveillance, or without thyroid-referable symptoms (asymptomatic). If asymptomatic, the MOD was further classified as clinician screening examination, patient-requested screening, radiologic serendipity, or diagnostic cascade.Main Outcomes and Measures: The MOD of thyroid nodules that were surgically removed, by geographic variation; and the proportion and size of thyroid cancers discovered in patients without thyroid-referable symptoms compared with symptomatic detection. Data analyses were performed from April 2021 to February 2022.Results: Of the 1328 patients (mean [SD] age, 52 [15] years; 993 [75%] women; race/ethnicity data were not collected) who underwent thyroid surgery that met inclusion criteria, 34% (448) of the surgeries were for patients with thyroid-related symptoms, 41% (542) for thyroid findings discovered without thyroid-referable symptoms, 14% (184) for endocrine conditions, and 12% (154) for nodules with original MOD unknown (under surveillance). Cancer was detected in 613 (46%) patients; of these, 30% (83 patients) were symptomatic and 51% (310 patients) had no thyroid-referable symptoms. The mean (SD) size of the cancers identified in the symptomatic group was 3.2 (2.1) cm (median [range] cm, 2.6 [0.2-10.5]; 95% CI, 2.91-3.52) and in the asymptomatic group, 2.1 (1.4) cm (median [range] cm, 1.7 [0.05-8.8]; 95% CI, 1.92-2.23). The MOD patterns were significantly different among all participating countries.Conclusions and Relevance: This retrospective analysis found that most thyroid cancers were discovered in patients who had no thyroid-referable symptoms; on average, these cancers were smaller than symptomatic thyroid cancers. Still, some asymptomatic cancers were large, consistent with historic data. The substantial difference in MOD patterns among the 4 countries suggests extensive variations in practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaoto.2022.1743

    View details for PubMedID 35834240

  • Radiofrequency ablation and related ultrasound-guided ablation technologies for treatment of benign and malignant thyroid disease: An international multidisciplinary consensus statement of the American Head and Neck Society Endocrine Surgery Section with the Asia Pacific Society of Thyroid Surgery, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, British Association of Endocrine and Thyroid Surgeons, European Thyroid Association, Italian Society of Endocrine Surgery Units, Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology, Latin American Thyroid Society, and Thyroid Nodules Therapies Association. Head & neck Orloff, L. A., Noel, J. E., Stack, B. C., Russell, M. D., Angelos, P., Baek, J. H., Brumund, K. T., Chiang, F., Cunnane, M. B., Davies, L., Frasoldati, A., Feng, A. Y., Hegedus, L., Iwata, A. J., Kandil, E., Kuo, J., Lombardi, C., Lupo, M., Maia, A. L., McIver, B., Na, D. G., Novizio, R., Papini, E., Patel, K. N., Rangel, L., Russell, J. O., Shin, J., Shindo, M., Shonka, D. C., Karcioglu, A. S., Sinclair, C., Singer, M., Spiezia, S., Steck, J. H., Steward, D., Tae, K., Tolley, N., Valcavi, R., Tufano, R. P., Tuttle, R. M., Volpi, E., Wu, C. W., Abdelhamid Ahmed, A. H., Randolph, G. W. 1800


    BACKGROUND: The use of ultrasound-guided ablation procedures to treat both benign and malignant thyroid conditions is gaining increasing interest. This document has been developed as an international interdisciplinary evidence-based statement with a primary focus on radiofrequency ablation and is intended to serve as a manual for best practice application of ablation technologies.METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted to guide statement development and generation of best practice recommendations. Modified Delphi method was applied to assess whether statements met consensus among the entire author panel.RESULTS: A review of the current state of ultrasound-guided ablation procedures for the treatment of benign and malignant thyroid conditions is presented. Eighteen best practice recommendations in topic areas of preprocedural evaluation, technique, postprocedural management, efficacy, potential complications, and implementation are provided.CONCLUSIONS: As ultrasound-guided ablation procedures are increasingly utilized in benign and malignant thyroid disease, evidence-based and thoughtful application of best practices is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hed.26960

    View details for PubMedID 34939714

  • High-resolution positron emission microscopy of patient-derived tumor organoids. Nature communications Khan, S., Shin, J. H., Ferri, V., Cheng, N., Noel, J. E., Kuo, C., Sunwoo, J. B., Pratx, G. 2021; 12 (1): 5883


    Tumor organoids offer new opportunities for translational cancer research, but unlike animal models, their broader use is hindered by the lack of clinically relevant imaging endpoints. Here, we present a positron-emission microscopy method for imaging clinical radiotracers in patient-derived tumor organoids with spatial resolution 100-fold better than clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Using this method, we quantify 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose influx to show that patient-derived tumor organoids recapitulate the glycolytic activity of the tumor of origin, and thus, could be used to predict therapeutic response in vitro. Similarly, we measure sodium-iodine symporter activity using 99mTc- pertechnetate and find that the iodine uptake pathway is functionally conserved in organoids derived from thyroid carcinomas. In conclusion, organoids can be imaged using clinical radiotracers, which opens new possibilities for identifying promising drug candidates and radiotracers, personalizing treatment regimens, and incorporating clinical imaging biomarkers in organoid-based co-clinical trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-021-26081-6

    View details for PubMedID 34620852

  • Using deep learning to identify the recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroidectomy. Scientific reports Gong, J., Holsinger, F. C., Noel, J. E., Mitani, S., Jopling, J., Bedi, N., Koh, Y. W., Orloff, L. A., Cernea, C. R., Yeung, S. 2021; 11 (1): 14306


    Surgeons must visually distinguish soft-tissues, such as nerves, from surrounding anatomy to prevent complications and optimize patient outcomes. An accurate nerve segmentation and analysis tool could provide useful insight for surgical decision-making. Here, we present an end-to-end, automatic deep learning computer vision algorithm to segment and measure nerves. Unlike traditional medical imaging, our unconstrained setup with accessible handheld digital cameras, along with the unstructured open surgery scene, makes this task uniquely challenging. We investigate one common procedure, thyroidectomy, during which surgeons must avoid damaging the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), which is responsible for human speech. We evaluate our segmentation algorithm on a diverse dataset across varied and challenging settings of operating room image capture, and show strong segmentation performance in the optimal image capture condition. This work lays the foundation for future research in real-time tissue discrimination and integration of accessible, intelligent tools into open surgery to provide actionable insights.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-021-93202-y

    View details for PubMedID 34253767

  • Neck Ultrasound: Anatomical Landmarks for Safe Performance of Neck RFA CURRENT OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY REPORTS Noel, J. E., Orloff, L. A. 2021; 9 (1): 60-64
  • Pre-Operative Anti-Thyroid Antibodies in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Noel, J. E., Thatipamala, P., Hung, K. S., Chen, J., Shi, R. Z., Orloff, L. A. 2021


    To evaluate the significance of anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody levels in locoregional metastatic disease in patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer.Included patients underwent initial treatment for well-differentiated thyroid cancer at our institution between 2014 and 2018. The following variables were collected: age, sex, pre-operative thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (Tg), anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb); extent of surgery; T-stage; N-stage; extrathyroidal extension (ETE), extranodal extension (ENE), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and multifocal disease. The relationships between pre-operative TPOAb, TgAb, Tg, and TSH and disease status were analyzed.405 patients were included in the study. 66.4% were female. Mean age was 52 years. Elevated TgAb was associated with the presence of lymph node metastases (LNM) in both the central and lateral neck (p<0.01), with stronger correlation with N1b compared with N1a disease (p=0.03). Presence of ETE was inversely associated with TgAb titer (p=0.03). TPOAb was associated with lower T- stage, fewer LNM, and lower likelihood of ETE (p=0.04, p=0.04, p=0.02). In multivariable analysis, TgAb≥40 IU/mL was an independently predictive factor of higher N-stage (p<0.01 for N0 v. N1 and p=0.01 for N1a v. N1b), and for ENE (p<0.01). TPOAb≥60 IU/mL was associated with lower T-stage (p=0.04 for T< 3) and absence of ETE (p=0.01).Elevated pre-operative TgAb was an independent predictor of nodal metastases and ENE, while elevated TPOAb was associated with a lower pathologic T and N stage. Pre-operative anti-thyroid antibody titers may be useful to inform disease extent and features.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.eprac.2021.06.014

    View details for PubMedID 34217894

  • A Closer Look at "Taller-Than-Wide" Thyroid Nodules: Examining Dimension Ratio to Predict Malignancy. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Mattingly, A. S., Noel, J. E., Orloff, L. A. 2021: 1945998211051310


    To evaluate nodule height-to-width ratio as a continuous variable predicting likelihood of thyroid malignancy.Retrospective cohort study.All study information was collected from a single academic tertiary care hospital.Subjects included adult patients with thyroid nodules who underwent thyroid surgery between 2010 and 2020. The following variables were collected: patient demographics, nodule dimensions via ultrasound, fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, and surgical pathology results. Statistical analysis included logistic regression modeling malignancy with variables of interest. We used a receiver operating characteristic curve to assess the discriminatory value of variables.Height-to-width ratio, as a continuous variable, was associated with malignancy (with each 0.1 increase in ratio; odds ratio [OR], 1.25; 95% CI, 1.14-1.37). The same relationship was true for height-to-length ratio (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.24-1.56). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for height-to-width ratio was 63.7%. In line with current emphasis on the transverse ultrasound view, we determined 4 different height-to-width ratio intervals: <0.8, 0.8 to <1.0, 1.0 to <1.5, and ≥1.5. Likelihood ratios of malignancy for each interval were 0.6, 1.0, 2.3, and 4.9, respectively.Our results support the association between greater height-to-width ratio and malignancy but suggest that a multilevel rather than binary variable improves prediction. The likelihood ratios at different intervals give a more nuanced view of how height-to-width ratio predicts malignancy. With continuing review of guidelines for thyroid nodule biopsy, it is important to consider these data for any point total attributed to shape.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/01945998211051310

    View details for PubMedID 34637345

  • Use of Vascular Clues to Locate Ectopic Parathyroid Glands and Predict Anatomic Abnormalities. JAMA otolaryngology-- head & neck surgery Battista, R. A., Noel, J. E., Orloff, L. A. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaoto.2020.3749

    View details for PubMedID 33090209

  • Retroauricular thyroidectomy with a single-arm robotic surgical system: Preclinical cadaveric study. Head & neck Noel, J. E., Lee, M., Tam, K., Lim, G., Holsinger, F. C., Koh, Y. W. 2020


    BACKGROUND: In this study, we evaluate a new flexible, single-arm robotic system in performing thyroidectomy via a retroauricular approach.METHODS: Four fresh cadavers were used. Technical details of the new system are discussed, and the comprehensive surgical procedures are described step by step.RESULTS: This single-port flexible system could be used to successfully perform retroauricular thyroidectomy. The ideal angle to dock the patient-side cart was at a 90° angle to the operating table. When the cannula tip was placed 10 to 15cm away from the skin incision, positioning and full movement of all four instruments without collisions were possible. Three flexible instruments and an endoscope made the robotic dissection more efficient.CONCLUSIONS: We describe the first preclinical evaluation of an innovative, flexible, single-arm robotic surgical system for retroauricular thyroidectomy.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hed.26436

    View details for PubMedID 32852084

  • External Beam Radiotherapy for Medullary Thyroid Cancer Following Total or Near-Total Thyroidectomy. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Jin, M., Megwalu, U. C., Noel, J. E. 2020: 194599820947696


    OBJECTIVES: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) often presents with advanced disease and takes an aggressive course as compared with more well-differentiated thyroid cancers. The role of adjuvant therapy, specifically external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), remains disputed. This study investigated the impact of EBRT on survival in MTC.STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of a national database.SETTING: Patients with MTC were identified from the SEER program (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results).METHODS: Collected variables included age, sex, race, T and N stages, lymph node yield, and use of EBRT. Propensity score matching was performed to determine the association of EBRT with overall and disease-specific survival.RESULTS: A total of 2046 patients with locoregional MTC were identified. Of these, 152 received EBRT. Patients receiving EBRT were older and had more advanced disease. EBRT was not associated with differences in overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.76-1.65) or disease-specific survival (1.66; 0.93-2.95), as well as in subset analysis of age and disease extent. Long-term overall survival was similar, with 77.3% (95% CI, 70.1%-85.3%) and 58.3% (48.2%-70.5%) of patients without EBRT alive at 5 and 10 years, respectively (vs 70.7% [63.2%-79.1%] and 52.3% [43.3%-63.2%] of patients with EBRT). There were no differences in 5- and 10-year disease-specific survival.CONCLUSION: EBRT was not associated with improved overall or disease-specific survival in patients with MTC. Decisions regarding EBRT must be made with consideration of morbidity relative to benefit for individual patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0194599820947696

    View details for PubMedID 32746731

  • In Response to 'Routine Preoperative Laryngoscopy for Thyroid Surgery is Not Necessary Without Risk Factors'. Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association Walgama, E., Sinclair, C. F., Chen, A., Davies, L., Noel, J., Orloff, L. A., Shindo, M., Sigston, E., Stack Jr, B. C., Terris, D. J., Randolph, G. W. 2020



    View details for DOI 10.1089/thy.2020.0042

    View details for PubMedID 32228150

  • Laryngeal Evaluation during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Transcervical Laryngeal Ultrasonography. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Noel, J. E., Orloff, L. A., Sung, K. n. 2020: 194599820922984


    The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has quickly become a global pandemic since its initial outbreak in China in late 2019. Institutions are faced with the challenge of upholding the standard of care while maintaining safety for health care personnel and patients. Due to the common performance of aerosol-generating endoscopic procedures in the upper respiratory tract, otolaryngologists are at uniquely high risk for potential infection. When possible, alternative diagnostic and treatment strategies should be pursued. For patients suspected of having functional laryngeal abnormalities, transcervical laryngeal ultrasound provides a rapid and noninvasive evaluation of vocal fold motion to inform decisions about safety of feeding, airway, and progression of care.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0194599820922984

    View details for PubMedID 32340541

  • Recognizing Persistent Disease in Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer and Association with Lymph Node Yield and Ratio. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Noel, J. E., Orloff, L. A. 2019: 194599819886123


    OBJECTIVE: To establish the association between lymph node yield and ratio in neck dissection for well-differentiated thyroid cancer and risk for persistent postoperative disease.STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing lymphadenectomy for thyroid carcinoma.SETTING: Tertiary referral center.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Included patients underwent central and/or lateral neck dissection for papillary thyroid carcinoma at our institution between 1994 and 2015. They were divided into a persistent disease group with biochemical and structural disease (49 patients) and a disease-free group with no disease after a minimum 2 years of follow-up (175 patients). Demographic characteristics, adjuvant therapy, tumor, and lymph node features were compared.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between the groups. The mean nodal yield of patients with central and lateral neck persistence was significantly lower than that of patients remaining disease free (4.8 vs. 11.9: odds ratio [OR] 0.69; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.8; P<.001; 14.8 vs. 31.0: OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84-0.94; P<.001, respectively). Nodal ratio was higher in patients with persistence in the central and lateral neck (74.2% vs 29.4%: OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08; P < .001; 54.2% vs 19.8%: OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.04-1.12; P < .001, respectively).CONCLUSIONS: Lower lymph node yield and higher node ratio from cervical lymph node dissections are associated with persistent disease and have potential applications in surgical adequacy.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0194599819886123

    View details for PubMedID 31661359

  • Radioactive iodine in differentiated thyroid cancer: a national database perspective. Endocrine-related cancer Orosco, R. n., Hussain, T. n., Noel, J. E., Chang, D. n., Dosiou, C. n., Mittra, E. n., Divi, V. n., Orloff, L. n. 2019


    Radioactive iodine (RAI) is a key component in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. RAI has been recommended more selectively in recent years as guidelines evolve to reflect risks and utility in certain patient subsets. In this study we sought to evaluate the survival impact of radioactive iodine in specific thyroid cancer subgroups. Nationwide retrospective cohort study of patients using the National Cancer Database (NCDB) from 2004-2012 and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 1992-2009 examining patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with or without RAI. Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality (NCDB and SEER), and cancer-specific mortality (SEER). Cox multivariate survival analyses were applied to each dataset, and in 135 patient subgroups based on clinical and non-clinical parameters. A total of 199,371 NCDB and 77,187 SEER patients were identified. RAI was associated with improved all-cause mortality (NCDB: RAI hazard ratio (HR) 0.55, P<0.001; SEER: HR 0.64, P<0.001); and cancer-specific mortality (SEER: HR 0.82, P=0.029). Iodine therapy showed varied efficacy within each subgroup. Patients with high-risk disease experienced the greatest benefit in all-cause mortality, followed by intermediate-risk, then low-risk subgroups. Regarding cancer-specific mortality, radioactive iodine therapy was protective in high-risk patients, but did not achieve statistical significance in most intermediate-risk subgroups. Low-risk T1a subgroups demonstrated an increased likelihood of cancer-specific mortality with iodine therapy. The efficacy of RAI in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer varies by disease severity. A negative cancer-specific survival association was identified in patients with T1a disease. These findings warrant further evaluation with prospective studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1530/ERC-19-0292

    View details for PubMedID 31443087

  • Intraoperative Corticosteroids for Voice Outcomes among Patients Undergoing Thyroidectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY Noel, J. E., Kligerman, M. P., Megwalu, U. C. 2018; 159 (5): 811–16
  • Prognostication of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma based on preoperative ultrasound. Frontiers in endocrinology Cohen, S. M., Noel, J. E., Baroody, M., Orloff, L. A. 2023; 14: 1101705


    Diagnosis of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, defined as papillary thyroid carcinoma measuring 1cm or less in greatest diameter, has increased with improvements in ultrasound technology and widespread familiarity and utilization. Given the indolent course of papillary thyroid carcinoma, active surveillance is considered an acceptable alternative to surgical resection for select patients. Candidacy for active surveillance is determined by a number of patient and tumor characteristics. Specifically, the location of the tumor within the thyroid gland plays one of the key roles in decision making. Here we evaluate characteristics of the primary tumor and distance to the thyroid capsule in association with locoregional metastases to help guide risk assessment.Retrospective chart review of all thyroid surgeries performed by two surgeons at one medical center from 2014-2021 to evaluate characteristics of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma on preoperative ultrasound that are associated with locoregional metastatic disease.Our data show a sensitivity of 65% and specificity of 95% for identifying regional metastases in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma using preoperative ultrasound. We found no correlation between regional metastasis and size of tumor, distance to thyroid capsule or trachea, tumor contour, or presence of autoimmune thyroiditis. Nodules in the superior or midpole were associated with central or lateral neck metastases, whereas nodules in the isthmus or inferior pole were only associated with central neck metastases.Active surveillance may be a reasonable option for even those papillary thyroid microcarcinomas adjacent to the thyroid capsule.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fendo.2023.1101705

    View details for PubMedID 36793279

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9922900

  • Parathyroid Autofluorescence in Pediatric Thyroid Surgery: Experience With False Positive and False Negative Results OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY Su-Velez, B. M., Hartman, G. E., Seeley, H., Orloff, L. A., Noel, J. E., Meister, K. D. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ohn.272

    View details for Web of Science ID 000921354900001

  • Sociodemographic Disparities in the Diagnostic Management of Pediatric Thyroid Nodules. JAMA otolaryngology-- head & neck surgery Moon, P. K., Qian, Z. J., Noel, J. E., Orloff, L. A., Seeley, H., Hartman, G. E., Josephs, S., Meister, K. D. 2022


    Importance: Thyroid cancer is the most common pediatric endocrine malignant neoplasm. Disparities in the workup of thyroid nodules may be significantly associated with thyroid cancer outcomes.Objective: To determine the association of sociodemographic factors with the odds of receiving a biopsy, timeliness of the procedure, and risk of nodule malignancy.Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using insurance claims data from the Optum Clinformatics Data Mart database. The study cohort comprised pediatric patients diagnosed with single thyroid nodules between 2003 and 2020. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 2003, to June 30, 2020.Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify demographic variables associated with biopsy and nodule malignant neoplasm. A multivariable linear regression model was used to assess the time between thyroid nodule diagnosis and biopsy.Results: Of 11 643 children (median [IQR] age at diagnosis or procedure, 15 [12-17] years; 8549 [73.2%] were female and 3126 [26.8%] were male) diagnosed with single thyroid nodules, 2117 (18.2%) received a biopsy. Among the patients who received a biopsy, 304 (14.4%) were found to have a malignant nodule. Greater parental education was associated with a shorter diagnosis-to-biopsy interval (mean difference, -7.24 days; 95% CI, -13.75 to -0.73). Older age at nodule diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% CI, 1.09-1.13) and female gender (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.40) were associated with increased odds of receiving a biopsy, while Black/African American (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.65-0.99) and Hispanic (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.99) patients had lower odds of receiving a biopsy compared with White patients. Finally, female gender (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.80-1.47) was not associated with lower odds of nodule malignant neoplasm.Conclusions and Relevance: Findings of this cross-sectional study highlight disparities in the diagnostic management of pediatric thyroid nodules. These results call for future work to ensure equitable access to thyroid care for all children.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaoto.2022.3167

    View details for PubMedID 36227590

  • Oral Corticosteroids Following Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Chronic Rhinosinusitis Without Nasal Polyposis: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA otolaryngology-- head & neck surgery Chang, M. T., Noel, J. n., Ayoub, N. F., Qian, Z. J., Dholakia, S. n., Nayak, J. V., Patel, Z. M., Hwang, P. H. 2021


    Although oral corticosteroids are commonly prescribed following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) without nasal polyposis, there are little data to suggest that this is a beneficial practice.To assess the efficacy of oral corticosteroids following ESS in CRS without polyps.This prospective double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized noninferiority clinical trial conducted in a single academic tertiary rhinology practice included adults with CRS without polyps undergoing ESS. Of 81 patients recruited, 72 completed the study.Patients were randomized into 2 treatment groups: a 12-day postoperative taper of oral prednisone vs matched placebo tablets. All study patients also received a uniform 2-week postoperative regimen of oral antibiotics, fluticasone nasal spray, and saline rinses.The primary outcome measures were Sinonasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) scores and Lund-Kennedy endoscopy scores, collected preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Scores were compared between treatment groups at each time point using longitudinal difference between treatment groups and analyzed using 2-way, repeated measures analysis of variance. Secondary outcome measures included treatment-related adverse effects.Overall, 72 patients (mean [SD] age, 49.4 [14.9] years; 36 men, 36 women) completed the study, with 33 in the prednisone arm and 39 in the placebo arm. When comparing longitudinal differences between treatment groups, there was no clinically meaningful difference observed in SNOT-22 total (F[4254] = 1.71, η2 = 0.01 [95% CI, 0.00-0.05]) or Lund-Kennedy scores (F[4247] = 1.23, η2 = 0.02 [95% CI, 0.00-0.50]). In SNOT-22 subdomain analyses, there was no clinically meaningful difference between treatment groups for rhinologic, extranasal rhinologic, ear/facial, or sleep subdomains. However, the prednisone group had worse longitudinal scores for psychological dysfunction compared with the placebo group (F[4254] = 3.18, η2 = 0.05 [95% CI, 0.02-0.09]). Reported adverse effects were similar between the 2 treatment groups.In this randomized clinical trial of patients with CRS without polyps, oral prednisone following ESS conferred no additional benefit over placebo in terms of SNOT-22 total scores, SNOT-22 rhinologic subscores, or Lund-Kennedy endoscopy scores up to 6 months after surgery. Patients receiving prednisone, however, did demonstrate worse SNOT-22 psychologic subdomain scores. These results suggest that the risks of oral corticosteroids may outweigh the benefits; thus use of oral corticosteroids after ESS for CRS without polyps should be carefully Identifier: NCT02748070.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaoto.2021.0011

    View details for PubMedID 33662124

  • Trends in Diagnosis of Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm With Papillarylike Nuclear Features and Total Thyroidectomies for Patients With Papillary Thyroid Neoplasms. JAMA otolaryngology-- head & neck surgery Caulley, L., Eskander, A., Yang, W., Auh, E., Cairncross, L., Cho, N. L., Golbon, B., Iyer, S., Liu, J. C., Lee, P. J., Lindeman, B., Meltzer, C., Molin, N., Moore, A., Noel, J., Nozolino, H., Pasternak, J., Price, B., Ramsay, T., Rolighed, L., Sajisevi, M., Sharma, A., Sinclair, C., Sorensen, M., Tae, K., Tang, A. L., Tsao, G., Williams, M., Wrenn, S., Xing, M. H., Zafereo, M., Stack, B. C., Randolph, G., Davies, L. 2021


    Increasing detection of early-stage papillary thyroid neoplasms without improvements in mortality has prompted development of strategies to prevent or mitigate overtreatment.To determine adoption rates of 2 recent strategies developed to limit overtreatment of low-risk thyroid cancers: (1) a new classification, noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillarylike nuclear features (NIFTP), and (2) hemithyroidectomy for selected papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) up to 4 cm in size.This is a cross-sectional analysis of 3368 pathology records of 2 cohorts of patients from 18 hospitals in 6 countries during 2 time periods (2015 and 2019). Participating hospitals were included from the US (n = 12), Canada (n = 2), Denmark (n = 1), South Korea (n = 1), South Africa (n = 1), and India (n = 1). The records of the first 100 patients per institution for each year who underwent thyroid-directed surgery (hemithyroidectomy, total thyroidectomy, or completion thyroidectomy) were reviewed.Frequency of diagnosis of NIFTP, PTCs, and thyroidectomies during the study period.Of the 790 papillary thyroid neoplasms captured in the 2019 cohort, 38 (4.8%) were diagnosed as NIFTP. Diagnosis of NIFTP was observed in the US, South Africa, and India. There was minimal difference in the total proportion of PTCs in the 2015 cohort compared with the 2019 cohort (778 [47.1%] vs 752 [44.5%]; difference, 2.6% [95% CI, -16.9% to 22.1%]). The proportion of PTCs eligible for hemithyroidectomy but treated with total thyroidectomy in the 2 cohorts demonstrated a decreasing trend from 2015 to 2019 (341 of 453 [75.3%] vs 253 of 434 [58.3%]; difference, 17.0% [95% CI, -1.2% to 35.2%]).Results of this cohort study showed that the 2 mitigation strategies for preventing overtreatment of early-stage thyroid cancer have had mixed success. The diagnosis of NIFTP has only been applied to a small proportion of thyroid neoplasms compared with expected rates. However, more patients eligible for hemithyroidectomy received it in 2019 compared with 2015, showing some success with this deescalation strategy.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaoto.2021.3277

    View details for PubMedID 34817546

  • Ultrasound Identification of Normal Parathyroid Glands. OTO open Cohen, S. M., Noel, J. E., Puccinelli, C. L., Orloff, L. A. 2021; 5 (4): 2473974X211052857


    Ultrasound has become indispensable for identification of thyroid and parathyroid pathology, but normal parathyroid glands have historically been considered too subtle to accurately detect. Inability to identify and protect parathyroid glands can result in hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia during thyroidectomy surgery as well as misinterpretation of central neck structures in the postoperative neck. Advances in ultrasound resolution have opened the door to novel applications for this technology. In this study, we report the first surgeon-performed ultrasound identification of normal parathyroid glands in a series of 6 patients, confirmed by parathyroid tissue aspirate or parathyroid autofluorescence. Recognition of normal parathyroid glands using ultrasound can be valuable for preventing postoperative hypoparathyroidism and in increasing the accuracy of postsurgical ultrasound surveillance.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/2473974X211052857

    View details for PubMedID 34723049

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8549471

  • A kinase inhibitor screen identifies signaling pathways regulating mucosal growth during otitis media PLOS ONE Noel, J., Suzukawa, K., Chavez, E., Pak, K., Wasserman, S. I., Kurabi, A., Ryan, A. F. 2020; 15 (8): e0235634


    Otitis media, the most common disease of childhood, is characterized by extensive changes in the morphology of the middle ear cavity. This includes hyperplasia of the mucosa that lines the tympanic cavity, from a simple monolayer of squamous epithelium into a greatly thickened, respiratory-type mucosa. The processes that control this response, which is critical to otitis media pathogenesis and recovery, are incompletely understood. Given the central role of protein phosphorylation in most intracellular processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, we screened a library of kinase inhibitors targeting members of all the major families in the kinome for their ability to influence the growth of middle ear mucosal explants in vitro. Of the 160 inhibitors, 30 were found to inhibit mucosal growth, while two inhibitors enhanced tissue proliferation. The results suggest that the regulation of infection-mediated tissue growth in the ME mucosa involves multiple cellular processes that span the kinome. While some of the pathways and processes identified have been previously implicated in mucosa hyperplasia others are novel. The results were used to generate a global model of growth regulation by kinase pathways. The potential for therapeutic applications of the results are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0235634

    View details for Web of Science ID 000561027200071

    View details for PubMedID 32760078

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7410257

  • Cricopharyngeal Achalasia: Management and Associated Outcomes-A Scoping Review. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Dewan, K., Santa Maria, C., Noel, J. 2020: 194599820931470


    OBJECTIVE: There is little consensus regarding the efficacy and safety of treatment options for cricopharyngeal (CP) achalasia. The purpose of this scoping review is to assess the literature regarding the various treatments for this disease.DATA SOURCES: PubMed was searched for all articles addressing treatment of adult CP achalasia between January 1990 and June 2019.REVIEW METHODS: In total, 351 peer-reviewed results were reviewed by 3 otolaryngologists for inclusion. After review of titles, abstracts, and full texts, 60 articles were selected.RESULTS: Among included studies, 55% were retrospective and 45% were prospective. Forty-five percent of studies were case series. CP achalasia etiologies included idiopathic (28%), cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (28%), neurologic disease (17%), head and neck radiation treatment (11%), Zenker's diverticulum (10%), and myositis (5%). Most commonly employed treatments were botulinum toxin injection (40%), endoscopic CP myotomy (30%), dilation with either balloon or bougie (25%), and open CP myotomy (15%). A proportion of patients were treated with more than 1 approach. Most studies included both subjective and objective outcome measures. Complications were reported most often in patients with a history of head and neck radiation.CONCLUSIONS: Small sample sizes and heterogeneity of causes and treatments of CP achalasia, as well as short duration of follow-up, make it challenging to assess the superiority of one treatment over another. There is a need for a prospective study that more directly compares outcomes of administration of botulinum toxin, dilation, and CP myotomy in patients with CP achalasia of similar etiologies.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0194599820931470

    View details for PubMedID 32571156

  • Quality of Life After Thyroidectomy for Hashimoto Disease in Patients With Persistent Symptoms. Ear, nose, & throat journal Thatipamala, P. n., Noel, J. E., Orloff, L. n. 2020: 145561320967332


    To determine whether thyroidectomy improves quality of life in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis with persistent symptoms despite biochemical euthyroidism.A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients undergoing thyroidectomy for Hashimoto thyroiditis at our institution between 2014 and 2018. The following variables were collected: age, race, body mass index, preoperative symptoms, preoperative thyroid peroxidase antibody titer, thyroglobulin antibody titer, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, specimen weight, and histologic presence of thyroiditis. Outcomes included general health score on the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health and responses to a questionnaire addressing postoperative disease management.A total of 19 patients were included in the study, 18 of whom were female with a mean age of 48 years. The majority of patients were Caucasian. There were no significant differences between the postoperative general health scores of the patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and scores from a healthy control population (66.9 vs 74.1; 95% CI: -16.9 to +2.5, P = .16). There were also no differences between groups within the 7 SF-36 subscores. Elevation in preoperative thyroperoxidase antibody correlated with lower reported postoperative energy levels (r = -0.63, P = .016) and emotional well-being (r = -.55, P = .041); 87.5% of respondents reported being moderately or extremely happy with their decision to proceed with surgery.Quality of life in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis who undergo thyroidectomy is equivalent to the general population, and the majority are satisfied with surgery. Thyroidectomy is a consideration for patients with persistent symptoms despite optimization on medical therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0145561320967332

    View details for PubMedID 33090901

  • KTP-laser-assisted endoscopic management of glomus tympanicum tumors: A case series. Ear, nose, & throat journal Noel, J. E., Sajjadi, H. 2018; 97 (12): 399–402


    Endoscopic technology is widely used in rhinology and anterior skull base surgery, but it has been less quickly incorporated into otologic practice. The design of the instrumentation forces surgeons to work one-handed and limits depth perception. Nevertheless, endoscopy also offers wide fields of view and access to spaces that are typically difficult to visualize. Its advantages have broadened the type and extent of operations that can be performed via the ear canal. We describe a method of endoscopic resection of glomus tympanicum tumors in 5 adults who had undergone endoscopic or endoscopy- assisted resection. A successful resection was achieved in all patients-exclusively via the ear canal in 4 of them. A KTP laser was used to address the tumor's vascular supply. Attachment of a neonatal feeding tube to the endoscope for use as a suction catheter obviated the need to repeatedly switch instruments while using the laser. At a minimum of 12 months of follow-up, all patients were free of recurrence. Postoperative audiometry detected no significant adverse hearing outcomes in any patient. We conclude that the minimally invasive endoscopic transcanal approach is a feasible technique for addressing middle ear tumors. We have also developed a method that allows surgeons constant use of the KTP laser to resect a glomus tympanicum tumor.

    View details for PubMedID 30540890

  • KTP-laser-assisted endoscopic management of glomus tympanicum tumors: A case series ENT-EAR NOSE & THROAT JOURNAL Noel, J. E., Sajjadi, H. 2018; 97 (12): 399–402
  • Porcine small intestine submucosal grafts improve remucosalization and progenitor cell recruitment to sites of upper airway tissue remodeling INTERNATIONAL FORUM OF ALLERGY & RHINOLOGY Nayak, J. V., Rathor, A., Grayson, J. W., Bravo, D. T., Velasquez, N., Noel, J., Beswick, D. M., Riley, K. O., Patel, Z. M., Cho, D., Dodd, R. L., Thamboo, A., Choby, G. W., Walgama, E., Harsh, G. R., Hwang, P. H., Clemons, L., Lowman, D., Richman, J. S., Woodworth, B. A. 2018; 8 (10): 1162–68

    View details for DOI 10.1002/alr.22156

    View details for Web of Science ID 000446274900013

  • Intraoperative Corticosteroids for Voice Outcomes among Patients Undergoing Thyroidectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Noel, J. E., Kligerman, M. P., Megwalu, U. C. 2018: 194599818793414


    Objective To determine if a preoperative dose of intravenous corticosteroids reduces the risk of postoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and improves subjective voice outcomes among patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Data Sources PubMed, Cochrane database, and EMBASE. Review Methods Randomized controlled trials comparing corticosteroids with placebo on voice outcomes in thyroid surgery were extracted with standardized search criteria. Systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. With random effects models, trial data were pooled to determine the overall rate of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy as well as secondary outcomes of adverse events, including wound infection and hyperglycemia. Results Four studies with a total of 517 patients met inclusion criteria. The overall rate of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy was 5.78%. There was no difference in the rate of palsy between the corticosteroid and placebo groups (risk ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.34-1.44). There was also no difference between the groups in regard to wound infection, healing, or hyperglycemia. Conclusions Preoperative corticosteroids do not appear to reduce the risk of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy following thyroid surgery. There is insufficient evidence to assess its effect on subjective voice outcomes. More robust randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of perioperative steroids in improving voice outcomes after thyroidectomy.

    View details for PubMedID 30084304

  • Porcine small intestine submucosal grafts improve remucosalization and progenitor cell recruitment to sites of upper airway tissue remodeling. International forum of allergy & rhinology Nayak, J. V., Rathor, A., Grayson, J. W., Bravo, D. T., Velasquez, N., Noel, J., Beswick, D. M., Riley, K. O., Patel, Z. M., Cho, D., Dodd, R. L., Thamboo, A., Choby, G. W., Walgama, E., Harsh, G. R., Hwang, P. H., Clemons, L., Lowman, D., Richman, J. S., Woodworth, B. A. 2018


    BACKGROUND: To better understand upper airway tissue regeneration, the exposed cartilage and bone at donor sites of tissue flaps may serve as in vivo "Petri dishes" for active wound healing. The pedicled nasoseptal flap (NSF) for skull-base reconstruction creates an exposed donor site within the nasal airway. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether grafting the donor site with a sinonasal repair cover graft is effective in promoting wound healing.METHODS: In this multicenter, prospective trial, subjects were randomized to intervention (graft) or control (no graft) intraoperatively after NSF elevation. Individuals were evaluated at 2, 6, and 12 weeks postintervention with endoscopic recordings. Videos were graded (Likert scale) by 3 otolaryngologists blinded to intervention on remucosalization, crusting, and edema. Scores were analyzed for interrater reliability and cohorts compared. Biopsy and immunohistochemistry at the leading edge of wound healing was performed in select cases.RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were randomized to intervention and 26 to control. Subjects receiving the graft had significantly greater overall remucosalization (p = 0.01) than controls over 12 weeks. Although crusting was less in the small intestine submucosa (SIS) group, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). There was no overall effect on nasal edema (p = 0.2). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated abundant upper airway basal cell progenitors in 2 intervention samples, suggesting that covering grafts may facilitate tissue proliferation via progenitor cell expansion.CONCLUSION: This prospective, randomized, controlled trial indicates that a porcine SIS graft placed on exposed cartilage and bone within the upper airway confers improved remucosalization compared to current practice standards.

    View details for PubMedID 29856526

  • Etiology of sinonasal inverted papilloma: A narrative review. World journal of otorhinolaryngology - head and neck surgery Wang, M. J., Noel, J. E. 2017; 3 (1): 54-58


    Sinonasal inverted papilloma (IP) is a benign and uncommon tumor of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses with a tendency for recurrence and even malignant transformation. Though the morphology and clinical behavior of this lesion has been well described, its etiology remains controversial.Computerized searches were performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar through May 2015. In this review, etiologic factors including human papilloma virus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cell cycle related proteins and angiogenic factors, occupational and environmental exposures, and chronic inflammation, will be discussed.Many studies indicate that HPV has been detected in a significant percentage of IP, while EBV has not been shown to be significantly associated. Certain cell cycle regulatory factors and angiogenic proteins contribute to the dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis, and facilitate migration and tumor invasion. Occupational exposures, such as welding and organic solvents, have been implicated, and smoking seems more critical to recurrence and dysplasia rather than initial IP occurrence. Chronic inflammation may also have a causative relationship with inverted papilloma, but the mechanism is unclear.Though etiology of sinonasal IP remains controversial, the studies reviewed here indicate a role for viral infection, cell cycle and angiogenic factors, environmental and occupational exposure, and chronic inflammation. Further study on etiologic factors is necessary for clinical guidance and therapeutic targets.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wjorl.2016.11.004

    View details for PubMedID 29204580

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5683660

  • Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Maxillary Sinus. Clinical pediatrics Noel, J. E., Messner, A. H., Sidell, D. R. 2017; 56 (2): 184-186

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0009922816645522

    View details for PubMedID 27121594

  • Variables associated with olfactory disorders in adults: A U.S. population-based analysis. World journal of otorhinolaryngology - head and neck surgery Noel, J. n., Habib, A. R., Thamboo, A. n., Patel, Z. M. 2017; 3 (1): 9–16


    Olfactory dysfunction is known to have significant social, psychological, and safety implications. Despite increasingly recognized prevalence, potential risk factors for olfactory loss have been arbitrarily documented and knowledge is limited in scale. The aim of this study is to identify potential demographic and exposure variables correlating with olfactory dysfunction.Cross-sectional analysis of the 2011-2012 and 2013-2014 editions of the National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey was performed. The utilized survey reports from a nationally representative sample of about 5000 persons each year located in counties across the United States. There is an interview and physical examination component which includes demographic, socioeconomic, dietary, and health-related questions as well as medical, dental, physiologic measurements, and laboratory tests. 3594 adult respondents from 2011 to 2012 and 3708 respondents from 2013 to 2014 were identified from the above population-based database. The frequency of self-reported disorders as well as performance on odor identification testing was determined in relation to demographic factors, occupational or environmental exposures, and urinary levels of environmental and industrial compounds.In both subjective and objective analysis, smell disorders were significantly more common with increasing age. While the non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic Asian populations were less likely to report subjective olfactory loss, they, along with Hispanics, performed more poorly on odor identification than Caucasians. Those with limited education had a decreased prevalence of hyposmia. Women outperformed men on smell testing. Those reporting exposure to vapors were more likely to experience olfactory dysfunction, and urinary levels of manganese, 2-Thioxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, and 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid were lower among respondents with subjective smell disturbance. In odor detection, elevated serum levels of lead and urinary levels of 2,4 dichlorophenol were associated with anosmia and hyposmia, respectively.This study provides current, population-based data identifying demographic and exposure elements related to smell disturbances in U.S. adults. Age, race, gender, education, exposure to vapors, urinary levels of manganese, 2-Thioxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid, 2,4 dichlorophenol, and serum lead levels were all implicated in smell disturbance. Care should be taken in interpretation due to lack of consistency between subjective and objective measures of olfaction as well as limitations related to population-based data. Prospective trials are indicated to further elucidate these relationships.

    View details for PubMedID 29204574

  • Repeat Imaging in Idiopathic Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis: Is It Necessary? The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology Noel, J. E., Jeffery, C. C., Damrose, E. 2016; 125 (12): 1010-1014


    Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of patients presenting with unilateral vocal fold paresis or paralysis of unknown etiology. In those with idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis (iUVFP), there is no consensus regarding the need or timing of repeat imaging. This study seeks to establish the rate of delayed detection of alternate etiologies for these patients to determine if and when imaging should be repeated.Retrospective chart review was conducted identifying patients at our institution with vocal fold movement impairment between 1998 and 2014. Idiopathic paralysis was diagnosed if physical examination, laryngoscopy, and initial imaging excluded a cause. Demographic data, length of follow-up, and the presence of late lesions were noted. Time to detection was plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method.Of 3210 patients reviewed, 207 had a diagnosis of iUVFP. Of these patients, 8 went on to develop alternate diagnoses, including pulmonary disease, skull-base and laryngeal neoplasms, and thyroid malignancy. In Kaplan-Meir analysis, 90% remained "idiopathic" at 5 years of follow-up. The mean time to detection was 27 months.Patients initially diagnosed with iUVFP may have an occult cause that later becomes evident. We recommend repeat imaging within 2 years after diagnosis, but this is likely unnecessary beyond 5 years.

    View details for PubMedID 27670956

  • Use of Pedicled Nasoseptal Flap for Pathologic Oroantral Fistula Closure JOURNAL OF ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY Noel, J. E., Teo, N. W., Divi, V., Nayak, J. V. 2016; 74 (4)
  • Use of Pedicled Nasoseptal Flap for Pathologic Oroantral Fistula Closure. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery Noel, J. E., Teo, N. W., Divi, V., Nayak, J. V. 2016; 74 (4): 704 e1-6


    Oroantral fistula (OAF) is a pathologic, epithelialized communication between the oral cavity and the maxillary sinus. OAF most commonly results from posterior maxillary tooth or molar extraction owing to proximity of the dental roots to the maxillary antrum and the thinness of the adjacent antral floor. It also can arise secondary to implant and orthognathic surgeries, cyst and tumor removal, dental infection, trauma, or as a sequela of radiation therapy. Communications larger than 5 mm are less likely to heal spontaneously and can epithelialize, forming an OAF. When locoregional flaps and grafts are not ideal or have failed, but primary OAF closure is mandated, surgical options are unclear. This report describes a novel method for autologous tissue flap coverage from the nasal septum, pedicled off the posterior septal artery, for successful extension to, and closure of, OAFs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joms.2015.11.010

    View details for PubMedID 26704432

  • Successful Treatment of Multifocal Histiocytic Sarcoma Occurring after Renal Transplantation with Cladribine, High-Dose Cytarabine, G-CSF, and Mitoxantrone (CLAG-M) Followed by Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Case reports in hematology Tomlin, J., Orosco, R. K., Boles, S., Tipps, A., Wang, H., Husseman, J., Wieduwilt, M. 2015; 2015: 728260-?


    Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare, aggressive malignancy. Lesions previously called HS were typically non-Hodgkin lymphomas, not HS. As such, chemotherapy directed at lymphoid neoplasms was frequently successful, but it is unclear if these regimens are ideal for HS. We present a 33-year-old African gentleman who underwent sequential renal transplants for glomerulonephritis. He subsequently developed HS of the upper airway and multiple cutaneous sites. The patient received cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) followed by salvage ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) but had continuous progression of cutaneous involvement. Cladribine, high-dose cytarabine, G-CSF, and mitoxantrone (CLAG-M) yielded a partial response with near resolution of disease. Ultimately, the patient achieved a complete remission after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. HS occurring after solid organ transplant raises the possibility of HS as a potential posttransplant malignancy. The use of CLAG-M has not been reported in HS. In this case, histiocyte-directed chemotherapy with CLAG-M was superior to lymphoma-directed regimens.

    View details for DOI 10.1155/2015/728260

    View details for PubMedID 26167311

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4475737

  • A Mouse Model of Otitis Media Identifies HB-EGF as a Mediator of Inflammation-Induced Mucosal Proliferation PLOS ONE Suzukawa, K., Tomlin, J., Pak, K., Chavez, E., Kurabi, A., Baird, A., Wasserman, S. I., Ryan, A. F. 2014; 9 (7)


    Otitis media is one of the most common pediatric infections. While it is usually treated without difficulty, up to 20% of children may progress to long-term complications that include hearing loss, impaired speech and language development, academic underachievement, and irreversible disease. Hyperplasia of middle ear mucosa contributes to the sequelae of acute otitis media and is of important clinical significance. Understanding the role of growth factors in the mediation of mucosal hyperplasia could lead to the development of new therapeutic interventions for this disease and its sequelae.From a whole genome gene array analysis of mRNA expression during acute otitis media, we identified growth factors with expression kinetics temporally related to hyperplasia. We then tested these factors for their ability to stimulate mucosal epithelial growth in vitro, and determined protein levels and histological distribution in vivo for active factors.From the gene array, we identified seven candidate growth factors with upregulation of mRNA expression kinetics related to mucosal hyperplasia. Of the seven, only HB-EGF (heparin-binding-epidermal growth factor) induced significant mucosal epithelial hyperplasia in vitro. Subsequent quantification of HB-EGF protein expression in vivo via Western blot analysis confirmed that the protein is highly expressed from 6 hours to 24 hours after bacterial inoculation, while immunohistochemistry revealed production by middle ear epithelial cells and infiltrating lymphocytes.Our data suggest an active role for HB-EGF in the hyperplasia of the middle ear mucosal epithelium during otitis media. These results imply that therapies targeting HB-EGF could ameliorate mucosal growth during otitis media, and thereby reduce detrimental sequelae of this childhood disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0102739

    View details for Web of Science ID 000339418300086

    View details for PubMedID 25033458

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4102546

  • Surgical Technique and Recurrence in Cholesteatoma: A Meta-Analysis AUDIOLOGY AND NEURO-OTOLOGY Tomlin, J., Chang, D., McCutcheon, B., Harris, J. 2013; 18 (3): 135-142


    Conflicting reports and surgeon opinions have contributed to a long-standing debate regarding the merits of the intact canal wall versus canal wall down approach to cholesteatoma. The objective of this analysis was to identify and synthesize available data concerning rates of recidivism after the two primary types of cholesteatoma surgery. PubMed, Cochrane Collaboration, and Google Scholar searches were performed and articles filtered based on predetermined exclusion criteria. Individually reported rates of recurrent and residual disease were extracted and recorded. Meta-analysis demonstrated a relative risk of 2.87 with a confidence interval of 2.45-3.37, confirming a significantly increased incidence of postoperative cholesteatoma when using an intact canal wall approach rather than a canal wall down approach. Next, rates of recidivism following the typical two-stage intact canal wall operation were compared with a single-stage canal wall down operation and found to be similar. In conclusion, we advocate that greater consideration should be given to the canal wall down procedure in initial surgical management and identify the need for further exploration of rates of recidivism after staged or second-look procedures.

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000346140

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322113000001

    View details for PubMedID 23327931