All Publications

  • Nonmedical Transdisciplinary Perspectives of Black and Racially and Ethnically Diverse Individuals About Antiracism Practices: A Qualitative Study. JAMA network open Shankar, M., Cox, J., Baratta, J., De Leon, G., Shaw, J. G., Israni, S. T., Zulman, D. M., Brown-Johnson, C. G. 2022; 5 (2): e2147835


    Importance: Overwhelming evidence that anti-Black racism is associated with health inequities is driving clinician demand for antiracism practices that promote health equity.Objective: To investigate how nonmedical professionals address personally mediated, institutional, and internalized racism and to adapt these practices for the clinical setting.Design, Setting, and Participants: Using an approach from human-centered design for this qualitative study, virtual qualitative interviews were conducted among 40 professionals from nonmedical fields to investigate antiracism practices used outside of medicine. Inductive thematic analysis was conducted to identify latent themes and practices that may be adaptable to health care, subsequently using an established theoretical framework describing levels of racism to interpret and organize themes. Convenience and purposive sampling was used to recruit participants via email, social media, and electronic flyers.Main Outcomes and Measures: Antiracism practices adapted to medicine.Results: Among 40 professionals from nonmedical fields, most were younger than age 40 years (23 individuals [57.5%]) and there were 20 (50.0%) women; there were 25 Black or African American individuals (62.5%); 4 East Asian, Southeast Asian, or South Asian individuals (10.0%); 3 individuals with Hispanic, Latinx, or Spanish origin (7.5%); and 3 White individuals. Participants described personally mediated, institutional, and internalized antiracism practices that may be adaptable to promote health equity for Black patients. Personally mediated antiracism practices included dialogue and humble inquiry, building trust, and allyship and shared humanity; clinicians may be able to adopt these practices by focusing on patient successes, avoiding stigmatizing language in the electronic health record, and using specific phrases to address racism in the moment. Institutional antiracism practices included education, representation, and mentorship; in the health care setting, clinics may be able to develop staff affiliate groups, focus on improving racial health equity outcomes, and conduct antiracism trainings. Internalized antiracism practices centered on authenticity; clinicians may be able to write positionality statements reflecting their identity and the expertise they bring to clinical encounters.Conclusions and Relevance: This study's findings suggest that antiracism practices from outside the health care sector may offer innovative strategies to promote health equity by addressing personally mediated, institutional, and internalized racism in clinical care.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.47835

    View details for PubMedID 35138395

  • Developing best practices for PPE Portraits across 25 sites: a systematic assessment ofimplementation and spread of adaptations using FRAME. BMC health services research Baratta, J., Amano, A., Parsons, P. K., Vilendrer, S., Winter, S. G., Verano, M., Perez, C., Kalanithi, L., Asch, S. M., Heffernan, M. B., Brown-Johnson, C. 2021; 21 (1): 1182


    BACKGROUND: Adaptation, a form of modification that aims to improve an intervention's acceptability and sustainability in each context, is essential to successful implementation in some settings. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, clinicians have rapidly adapted how they deliver patient care. PPE Portraits are a form of adaptation, whereby health workers affix a postcard size portrait of themselves to the front of their personal protective equipment (PPE) to foster human connection during COVID-19.METHODS: We used the expanded framework for reporting adaptations and modifications to evidence-based interventions (FRAME) method to better understand the reasoning behind and results of each adaptation. We hypothesized that using the FRAME in conjunction with design-thinking would lead to emerging best practices and that we would find adaptation similarities across sites. Throughout multiple implementations across 25 institutions, we piloted, tracked, and analyzed adaptations using FRAME and design thinking. For each adaptation, we assessed the stage of implementation, whether the change was planned, decision makers involved, level of delivery impacted, fidelity to original intervention, and the goal and reasoning for adaptation. We added three crucial components to the FRAME: original purpose of the adaptation, unintended consequences, and alternative adaptations.RESULTS: When implementing PPE Portraits across settings, from a local assisted living center's memory unit to a pediatric emergency department, several requests for adaptations arose during early development stages before implementation. Adaptations primarily related to (1) provider convenience and comfort, (2) patient populations, and (3) scale. Providers preferred smaller portraits and rounded (rather than square) laminated edges that could potentially injure a patient. Affixing the portrait with a magnet was rejected given the potential choking hazard the magnetic strip presented for children. Other adaptations, related to ease of dissemination, included slowing the process down during early development and providing buttons, which could be produced easily at scale.CONCLUSIONS: The FRAME was used to curate the reasoning for each adaptation and to inform future dissemination. We look forward to utilizing FRAME including our additions and design thinking, to build out a range of PPE Portrait best practices with accompanying costs and benefits.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12913-021-06922-2

    View details for PubMedID 34717597

  • Implementation outcomes of Humanwide: integrated precision health in team-based family practice primary care. BMC family practice Brown-Johnson, C. G., Safaeinili, N., Baratta, J., Palaniappan, L., Mahoney, M., Rosas, L. G., Winget, M. 2021; 22 (1): 28


    BACKGROUND: Humanwide was precision health embedded in primary care aiming to leverage high-tech and high-touch medicine to promote wellness, predict and prevent illness, and tailor treatment to individual medical and psychosocial needs.METHODS: We conducted a study assessing implementation outcomes to inform spread and scale, using mixed methods of semi-structured interviews with diverse stakeholders and chart reviews. Humanwide included: 1) health coaching; 2) four digital health tools for blood-pressure, weight, glucose, and activity; 3) pharmacogenomic testing; and 4) genetic screening/testing. We examined implementation science constructs: reach/penetration, acceptability, feasibility, and sustainability. Chart reviews captured preliminary clinical outcomes.RESULTS: Fifty of 69 patients (72%) invited by primary care providers participated in the Humanwide pilot. We performed chart reviews for the 50 participating patients. Participants were diverse overall (50% non-white, 66% female). Over half of the participants were obese and 58% had one or more major cardiovascular risk factor: dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes. Reach/penetration of Humanwide components varied: pharmacogenomics testing 94%, health coaching 80%, genetic testing 72%, and digital health 64%. Interview participants (n=27) included patients (n=16), providers (n=9), and the 2 staff who were allocated dedicated time for Humanwide patient intake and orientation. Patients and providers reported Humanwide was acceptable; it engaged patients holistically, supported faster medication titration, and strengthened patient-provider relationships. All patients benefited clinically from at least one Humanwide component. Feasibility challenges included: low provider self-efficacy for interpreting genetics and pharmacogenomics; difficulties with data integration; patient technology challenges; and additional staffing needs. Patient financial burden concerns surfaced with respect to sustainability.CONCLUSION: This is the first report of implementation of a multi-component precision health model embedded in team-based primary care. We found acceptance from both patients and providers; however, feasibility barriers must be overcome to enable broad spread and sustainability. We found that barriers to implementation of precision health in a team-based primary care clinic are mundane and straightforward, though not necessarily easy to overcome. Future implementation endeavors should invest in basics: education, workflow, and reflection/evaluation. Strengthening fundamentals will enable healthcare systems to more nimbly accept the responsibility of meeting patients at the crossroads of innovative science and routinized clinical systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12875-021-01373-4

    View details for PubMedID 33530939