Department of Neurosurgery, and Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine (2012 - Present)
Chair of Neuroscience Seminar Committee, Wu Tsai Neuroscience Institute (2015 - Present)
Chair of Admission Committee, Neuroscience PhD Program (2020 - Present)
Honors & Awards
K99/R00 Pathway to Independence Award, NIH/NINDS (2011)
Postdoctoral Fellowship, Parkinsons Disease Foundation (2011)
Klingenstein Fellowship Awards in Neuroscience, Klingenstein Foundation (2013)
Kavli Fellow, Kavli Foundation (2014)
Ph.D., Interdepartmental Neuroscience PhD Program , Department of Physiology, Northwestern University, Neuroscience (2007)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests
The interplay between motor cortex, sensory cortex, thalamus and basal ganglia is essential for neural computations involved in generating voluntary movements. Our goal is to dissect the functional organization of motor circuits, particularly cortico-thalamo-basal ganglia networks, using electrophysiology, 2-photon microscopy, optogenetics, and genetic tools. The long-term scientific goal of the lab is to construct functional circuit diagrams and establish causal relationships between activity in specific groups of neurons, circuit function, animal motor behavior and motor learning, and thereby to decipher how the basal ganglia process information and guide motor behavior. We will achieve this by investigating the synaptic organization and function that involve the cortex, thalamus and basal ganglia at the molecular, cellular and circuit level. Currently, we are focusing on several questions:
How are excitatory and inhibitory inputs integrated in the striatum?
How do feed-forward and recurrent local inhibitions balance the excitation in the striatum?
How are functional maps modulated in motor behavior and motor learning?
Our goal is to bridge the gap between molecular or cellular events and the circuit mechanisms that underlie motor behavior. In addition, we aim to further help construct the details of psychomotor disorder circuit diagrams, such as the pathophysiological changes in Parkinsons disease.
Graduate and Fellowship Programs
Motor learning selectively strengthens cortical and striatal synapses of motor engram neurons.
Learning and consolidation of new motor skills require plasticity in the motor cortex and striatum, two key motor regions of the brain. However, how neurons undergo synaptic changes and become recruited during motor learning to form a memory engram remains unknown. Here, we train mice on a motor learning task and use a genetic approach to identify and manipulate behavior-relevant neurons selectively in the primary motor cortex (M1). We find that the degree of M1 engram neuron reactivation correlates with motor performance. We further demonstrate that learning-induced dendritic spine reorganization specifically occurs in these M1 engram neurons. In addition, we find that motor learning leads to an increase in the strength of M1 engram neuron outputs onto striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) and that these synapses form clusters along SPN dendrites. These results identify a highly specific synaptic plasticity during the formation of long-lasting motor memory traces in the corticostriatal circuit.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2022.06.006
View details for PubMedID 35809573
Enhancing motor learning by increasing the stability of newly formed dendritic spines in the motor cortex.
Dendritic spine dynamics are thought to be substrates for motor learning and memory, and altered spine dynamics often lead to impaired performance. Here, we describe an exception to this rule by studying mice lacking paired immunoglobulin receptor B (PirB-/-). Pyramidal neuron dendrites in PirB-/- mice have increased spine formation rates and density. Surprisingly, PirB-/- mice learn a skilled reaching task faster than wild-type (WT) littermates. Furthermore, stabilization of learning-induced spines is elevated in PirB-/- mice. Mechanistically, single-spine uncaging experiments suggest that PirB is required for NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent spine shrinkage. The degree of survival of newly formed spines correlates with performance, suggesting that increased spine stability is advantageous for learning. Acute inhibition of PirB function in M1 of adult WT mice increases the survival of learning-induced spines and enhances motor learning. These results demonstrate that there are limits on motor learning that can be lifted by manipulating PirB, even in adulthood.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2021.07.030
View details for PubMedID 34437845
Periodic Remodeling in a Neural Circuit Governs Timing of Female Sexual Behavior.
Behaviors are inextricably linked to internal state. We have identified a neural mechanism that links female sexual behavior with the estrus, the ovulatory phase of the estrous cycle. We find that progesterone-receptor (PR)-expressing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) are active and required during this behavior. Activating these neurons, however, does not elicit sexual behavior in non-estrus females. We show that projections of PR+ VMH neurons to the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus change across the 5-day mouse estrous cycle, with 3-fold more termini and functional connections during estrus. This cyclic increase in connectivity is found in adult females, but not males, and regulated by estrogen signaling in PR+ VMH neurons. We further show that these connections are essential for sexual behavior in receptive females. Thus, estrogen-regulated structural plasticity of behaviorally salient connections in the adult female brain links sexual behavior to the estrus phase of the estrous cycle.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2019.10.025
View details for PubMedID 31735496
The THO Complex Coordinates Transcripts for Synapse Development and Dopamine Neuron Survival.
Synaptic vesicle and active zone proteins are required for synaptogenesis. The molecular mechanisms for coordinated synthesis of these proteins are not understood. Using forward genetic screens, we identified the conserved THO nuclear export complex (THOC) as an important regulator of presynapse development in C.elegans dopaminergic neurons. In THOC mutants, synaptic messenger RNAs are retained in the nucleus, resulting in dramatic decrease of synaptic protein expression, near complete loss of synapses, and compromised dopamine function. CRE binding protein (CREB) interacts with THOC to mark synaptic transcripts for efficient nuclear export. Deletion of Thoc5, a THOC subunit, in mouse dopaminergic neurons causes severe defects in synapse maintenance and subsequent neuronal death in the substantia nigra compacta. These cellular defects lead to abrogated dopamine release, ataxia, and animal death. Together, our results argue that nuclear export mechanisms can select specific mRNAs and be a rate-limiting step for neuronal differentiation and survival.
View details for PubMedID 30146163
Cell-type-specific inhibition of the dendritic plateau potential in striatal spiny projection neurons.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
2017; 114 (36): E7612–E7621
Striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) receive convergent excitatory synaptic inputs from the cortex and thalamus. Activation of spatially clustered and temporally synchronized excitatory inputs at the distal dendrites could trigger plateau potentials in SPNs. Such supralinear synaptic integration is crucial for dendritic computation. However, how plateau potentials interact with subsequent excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs remains unknown. By combining computational simulation, two-photon imaging, optogenetics, and dual-color uncaging of glutamate and GABA, we demonstrate that plateau potentials can broaden the spatiotemporal window for integrating excitatory inputs and promote spiking. The temporal window of spiking can be delicately controlled by GABAergic inhibition in a cell-type-specific manner. This subtle inhibitory control of plateau potential depends on the location and kinetics of the GABAergic inputs and is achieved by the balance between relief and reestablishment of NMDA receptor Mg2+ block. These findings represent a mechanism for controlling spatiotemporal synaptic integration in SPNs.
View details for PubMedID 28827326
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5594658
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 mediates a GABA synthesis pathway in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.
2015; 350 (6256): 102-106
Midbrain dopamine neurons are an essential component of the basal ganglia circuitry, playing key roles in the control of fine movement and reward. Recently, it has been demonstrated that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter, is co-released by dopamine neurons. Here, we show that GABA co-release in dopamine neurons does not use the conventional GABA-synthesizing enzymes, glutamate decarboxylases GAD65 and GAD67. Our experiments reveal an evolutionarily conserved GABA synthesis pathway mediated by aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 (ALDH1a1). Moreover, GABA co-release is modulated by ethanol (EtOH) at concentrations seen in blood alcohol after binge drinking, and diminished ALDH1a1 leads to enhanced alcohol consumption and preference. These findings provide insights into the functional role of GABA co-release in midbrain dopamine neurons, which may be essential for reward-based behavior and addiction.
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aac4690
View details for PubMedID 26430123
Dynamic rewiring of neural circuits in the motor cortex in mouse models of Parkinson's disease.
2015; 18 (9): 1299-1309
Dynamic adaptations in synaptic plasticity are critical for learning new motor skills and maintaining memory throughout life, which rapidly decline with Parkinson's disease (PD). Plasticity in the motor cortex is important for acquisition and maintenance of motor skills, but how the loss of dopamine in PD leads to disrupted structural and functional plasticity in the motor cortex is not well understood. Here we used mouse models of PD and two-photon imaging to show that dopamine depletion resulted in structural changes in the motor cortex. We further discovered that dopamine D1 and D2 receptor signaling selectively and distinctly regulated these aberrant changes in structural and functional plasticity. Our findings suggest that both D1 and D2 receptor signaling regulate motor cortex plasticity, and loss of dopamine results in atypical synaptic adaptations that may contribute to the impairment of motor performance and motor memory observed in PD.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nn.4082
View details for PubMedID 26237365
- Depth random-access two-photon Bessel light-sheet imaging in brain tissue OPTICS EXPRESS 2022; 30 (15): 26396-26406
Motor Impairments and Dopaminergic Defects Caused by Loss of Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 Function in Mice.
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the pathogenic mechanism underlying LRRK2 mutations remains unresolved. In this study, we investigate the consequence of inactivation of LRRK2 and its functional homolog LRRK1 in male and female mice up to 25months of age using behavioral, neurochemical, neuropathological, and ultrastructural analyses. We report that LRRK1 and LRRK2 double knock-out (LRRK DKO) mice exhibit impaired motor coordination at 12months of age before the onset of DA neuron loss in the substantia nigra (SNpc). Moreover, LRRK DKO mice develop age-dependent, progressive loss of DA terminals in the striatum. Evoked dopamine release measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in the dorsal striatum is also reduced in the absence of LRRK. Furthermore, LRRK DKO mice at 20-25months of age show substantial loss of DA neurons in the SNpc. The surviving SNpc neurons in LRRK DKO mice at 25months of age accumulate large numbers of autophagic and autolysosomal vacuoles and are accompanied with microgliosis. Surprisingly, the cerebral cortex is unaffected, as shown by normal cortical volume and neuron number as well as unchanged number of apoptotic cells and microglia in LRRK DKO mice at 25months. These findings show that loss of LRRK function causes impairments in motor coordination, degeneration of DA terminals, reduction of evoked DA release, and selective loss of DA neurons in the SNpc, indicating that LRRK DKO mice are unique models for better understanding DA neurodegeneration in PD.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTOur current study employs a genetic approach to uncover the normal function of the LRRK family in the brain during mouse life span. Our multidisciplinary analysis demonstrates a critical normal physiological role of LRRK in maintaining the integrity and function of dopaminergic terminals and neurons in the aging brain, and show that LRRK DKO mice recapitulate several key features of PD and provide unique mouse models for elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD.
View details for DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0140-22.2022
View details for PubMedID 35534227
Identification of cis-regulatory modules for adeno-associated virus-based cell type-specific targeting in the retina and brain.
The Journal of biological chemistry
Adeno Associated Viruses (AAVs) targeting specific cell types are powerful tools for studying distinct cell types in the central nervous system (CNS). Cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), e.g., enhancers, are highly cell type-specific and can be integrated into AAVs to render cell type specificity. Chromatin accessibility has been commonly used to nominate CRMs, which have then been incorporated into AAVs and tested for cell type-specificity in the CNS. However, chromatin accessibility data alone cannot accurately annotate active CRMs, as many chromatin-accessible CRMs are not active and fail to drive gene expression in vivo. Using available large-scale datasets on chromatin accessibility, such as those published by the ENCODE project, here we explored strategies to increase efficiency in identifying active CRMs for AAV-based cell type-specific labeling and manipulation. We found that pre-screening of chromatin-accessible putative CRMs based on the density of cell type-specific transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) can significantly increase efficiency in identifying active CRMs. In addition, generation of synthetic CRMs by stitching chromatin-accessible regions flanking cell type-specific genes can render cell type-specificity in many cases. Using these straightforward strategies, we generated AAVs that can target the extensively studied interneuron and glial cell types in the retina and brain. Both strategies utilize available genomic datasets and can be employed to generate AAVs targeting specific cell types in CNS without conducting comprehensive screening and sequencing experiments, making a step forward in cell type-specific research.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jbc.2022.101674
View details for PubMedID 35148987
Fluorescence Imaging of Mitochondrial DNA Base Excision Repair Reveals Dynamics of Oxidative Stress Responses.
Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English)
Mitochondrial function in cells declines with aging and with neurodegeneration, due in large part to accumulated mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that arise from deficient DNA repair. However, measuring this repair activity is challenging. Here we employ a molecular approach for visualizing mitochondrial base excision repair (BER) activity in situ by use of a fluorescent probe ( UBER ) that reacts rapidly with AP sites resulting from BER activity. Administering the probe to cultured cells revealed signals that were localized to mitochondria, enabling selective observation of mtDNA BER intermediates. The probe showed elevated DNA repair activity under oxidative stress, and responded to suppression of glycosylase activity. Furthermore, the probe illuminated the time lag between the initiation of oxidative stress and the initial step of BER. Absence of MTH1 in cells resulted in elevated demand for BER activity upon extended oxidative stress, while the absence of OGG1 activity limited glycosylation capacity.
View details for DOI 10.1002/anie.202111829
View details for PubMedID 34851014
A fluorescent sensor for spatiotemporally resolved imaging of endocannabinoid dynamics in vivo.
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are retrograde neuromodulators with important functions in a wide range of physiological processes, but their in vivo dynamics remain largely uncharacterized. Here we developed a genetically encoded eCB sensor called GRABeCB2.0. GRABeCB2.0 consists of a circular-permutated EGFP and the human CB1 cannabinoid receptor, providing cell membrane trafficking, second-resolution kinetics with high specificity for eCBs, and shows a robust fluorescence response at physiological eCB concentrations. Using GRABeCB2.0, we monitored evoked and spontaneous changes in eCB dynamics in cultured neurons and acute brain slices. We observed spontaneous compartmentalized eCB transients in cultured neurons and eCB transients from single axonal boutons in acute brain slices, suggesting constrained, localized eCB signaling. When GRABeCB2.0 was expressed in the mouse brain, we observed foot shock-elicited and running-triggered eCB signaling in the basolateral amygdala and hippocampus, respectively. In a mouse model of epilepsy, we observed a spreading wave of eCB release that followed a Ca2+ wave through the hippocampus. GRABeCB2.0 is a robust probe for eCB release in vivo.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41587-021-01074-4
View details for PubMedID 34764491
Modulating the Electrical and Mechanical Microenvironment to Guide Neuronal Stem Cell Differentiation.
Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
2021; 8 (7): 2002112
The application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in disease modeling and regenerative medicine can be limited by the prolonged times required for functional human neuronal differentiation and traditional 2D culture techniques. Here, a conductive graphene scaffold (CGS) to modulate mechanical and electrical signals to promote human iPSC-derived neurons is presented. The soft CGS with cortex-like stiffness (≈3 kPa) and electrical stimulation (±800 mV/100 Hz for 1 h) incurs a fivefold improvement in the rate (14d) of generating iPSC-derived neurons over some traditional protocols, with an increase in mature cellular markers and electrophysiological characteristics. Consistent with other culture conditions, it is found that the pro-neurogenic effects of mechanical and electrical stimuli rely on RhoA/ROCK signaling and de novo ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) production respectively. Thus, the CGS system creates a combined physical and continuously modifiable, electrical niche to efficiently and quickly generate iPSC-derived neurons.
View details for DOI 10.1002/advs.202002112
View details for PubMedID 33854874
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8025039
Structured illumination imaging with quasi periodic patterns.
Journal of biophotonics
Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is a well established method for optical sectioning and superresolution. The core of structured illumination is using a periodic pattern to excite image signals. This work reports a method for estimating minor pattern distortions from the raw image data and correcting these distortions during SIM image processing. The method was tested with both simulated and experimental image data from two-photon Bessel light sheet SIM. The results proves the method is effective in challenging situations, where strong scattering background exists, SNR is low and the sample structure is sparse. Experimental results demonstrate restoring synaptic structures in deep brain tissue, despite the presence of strong light scattering and tissue-induced SIM pattern distortion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jbio.201960209
View details for PubMedID 32101369
Massively parallel microwire arrays integrated with CMOS chips for neural recording.
2020; 6 (12): eaay2789
Multi-channel electrical recordings of neural activity in the brain is an increasingly powerful method revealing new aspects of neural communication, computation, and prosthetics. However, while planar silicon-based CMOS devices in conventional electronics scale rapidly, neural interface devices have not kept pace. Here, we present a new strategy to interface silicon-based chips with three-dimensional microwire arrays, providing the link between rapidly-developing electronics and high density neural interfaces. The system consists of a bundle of microwires mated to large-scale microelectrode arrays, such as camera chips. This system has excellent recording performance, demonstrated via single unit and local-field potential recordings in isolated retina and in the motor cortex or striatum of awake moving mice. The modular design enables a variety of microwire types and sizes to be integrated with different types of pixel arrays, connecting the rapid progress of commercial multiplexing, digitisation and data acquisition hardware together with a three-dimensional neural interface.
View details for DOI 10.1126/sciadv.aay2789
View details for PubMedID 32219158
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7083623
Cerebellar nuclei evolved by repeatedly duplicating a conserved cell-type set.
Science (New York, N.Y.)
2020; 370 (6523)
How have complex brains evolved from simple circuits? Here we investigated brain region evolution at cell-type resolution in the cerebellar nuclei, the output structures of the cerebellum. Using single-nucleus RNA sequencing in mice, chickens, and humans, as well as STARmap spatial transcriptomic analysis and whole-central nervous system projection tracing, we identified a conserved cell-type set containing two region-specific excitatory neuron classes and three region-invariant inhibitory neuron classes. This set constitutes an archetypal cerebellar nucleus that was repeatedly duplicated to form new regions. The excitatory cell class that preferentially funnels information to lateral frontal cortices in mice becomes predominant in the massively expanded human lateral nucleus. Our data suggest a model of brain region evolution by duplication and divergence of entire cell-type sets.
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.abd5059
View details for PubMedID 33335034
Functional and molecular heterogeneity of D2R neurons along dorsal ventral axis in the striatum.
2020; 11 (1): 1957
Action control is a key brain function determining the survival of animals in their environment. In mammals, neurons expressing dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in the dorsal striatum (DS) and the nucleus accumbens (Acb) jointly but differentially contribute to the fine regulation of movement. However, their region-specific molecular features are presently unknown. By combining RNAseq of striatal D2R neurons and histological analyses, we identified hundreds of novel region-specific molecular markers, which may serve as tools to target selective subpopulations. As a proof of concept, we characterized the molecular identity of a subcircuit defined by WFS1 neurons and evaluated multiple behavioral tasks after its temporally-controlled deletion of D2R. Consequently, conditional D2R knockout mice displayed a significant reduction in digging behavior and an exacerbated hyperlocomotor response to amphetamine. Thus, targeted molecular analyses reveal an unforeseen heterogeneity in D2R-expressing striatal neuronal populations, underlying specific D2R's functional features in the control of specific motor behaviors.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-020-15716-9
View details for PubMedID 32327644
Ultrafast Two-Photon Imaging of a High-Gain Voltage Indicator in Awake Behaving Mice.
2019; 179 (7): 1590
Optical interrogation of voltage in deep brain locations with cellular resolution would be immensely useful for understanding how neuronal circuits process information. Here, we report ASAP3, a genetically encoded voltage indicator with 51% fluorescence modulation by physiological voltages, submillisecond activation kinetics, and full responsivity under two-photon excitation. We also introduce an ultrafast local volume excitation (ULoVE) method for kilohertz-rate two-photon sampling invivo with increased stability and sensitivity. Combining a soma-targeted ASAP3 variant and ULoVE, we show single-trial tracking ofspikes and subthreshold events for minutes in deep locations, with subcellular resolution and with repeated sampling over days. In the visual cortex, we use soma-targeted ASAP3 to illustrate cell-type-dependent subthreshold modulation by locomotion. Thus, ASAP3 and ULoVE enable high-speed optical recording of electrical activity in genetically defined neurons at deep locations during awake behavior.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2019.11.004
View details for PubMedID 31835034
Neuronal O-GlcNAcylation Improves Cognitive Function in the Aged Mouse Brain.
Current biology : CB
Mounting evidence in animal models indicates potential for rejuvenation of cellular and cognitive functions in the aging brain. However, the ability to utilize this potential is predicated on identifying molecular targets that reverse the effects of aging in vulnerable regions of the brain, such as the hippocampus. The dynamic post-translational modification O-linked N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) has emerged as an attractive target for regulating aging-specific synaptic alterations as well as neurodegeneration. While speculation exists about the role of O-GlcNAc in neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, its role in physiological brain aging remains largely unexplored. Here, we report that countering age-related decreased O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) expression and O-GlcNAcylation ameliorates cognitive impairments in aged mice. Mimicking an aged condition in young adults by abrogating OGT, using a temporally controlled neuron-specific conditional knockout mouse model, recapitulated cellular and cognitive features of brain aging. Conversely, overexpressing OGT in mature hippocampal neurons using a viral-mediated approach enhanced associative fear memory in young adult mice. Excitingly, in aged mice overexpressing neuronal OGT in the aged hippocampus rescued in part age-related impairments in spatial learning and memory as well as associative fear memory. Our data identify O-GlcNAcylaton as a key molecular mediator promoting cognitive rejuvenation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2019.08.003
View details for PubMedID 31588002
Balanced Activity between Kv3 and Nav Channels Determines Fast-Spiking in Mammalian Central Neurons.
2018; 9: 120–37
Fast-spiking (FS) neurons can fire action potentials (APs) up to 1,000Hz and play key roles in vital functions such as sound location, motor coordination, and cognition. Here we report that the concerted actions of Kv3 voltage-gated K+ (Kv) and Na+ (Nav) channels are sufficient and necessary for inducing and maintaining FS. Voltage-clamp analysis revealed a robust correlation between the Kv3/Nav current ratio and FS. Expressing Kv3 channels alone could convert 30%-60% slow-spiking (SS) neurons to FS in culture. In contrast, co-expression of either Nav1.2 or Nav1.6 together with Kv3.1 or Kv3.3, but not alone or with Kv1.2, converted SS to FS with 100% efficiency. Furthermore, RNA-sequencing-based genome-wide analysis revealed that the Kv3/Nav ratio and Kv3 expression levels strongly correlated with the maximal AP frequencies. Therefore, FS is established by the properly balanced activities of Kv3 and Nav channels and could be further fine-tuned by channel biophysical features and localization patterns.
View details for PubMedID 30390433
Diametric neural ensemble dynamics in parkinsonian and dyskinetic states.
Loss of dopamine in Parkinson's disease is hypothesized to impede movement by inducing hypo- and hyperactivity in striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) of the direct (dSPNs) and indirect (iSPNs) pathways in the basal ganglia, respectively. The opposite imbalance might underlie hyperkinetic abnormalities, such as dyskinesia caused by treatment of Parkinson's disease with the dopamine precursor L-DOPA. Here we monitored thousands of SPNs in behaving mice, before and after dopamine depletion and during L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Normally, intermingled clusters of dSPNs and iSPNs coactivated before movement. Dopamine depletion unbalanced SPN activity rates and disrupted the movement-encoding iSPN clusters. Matching their clinical efficacy, L-DOPA or agonism of the D2 dopamine receptor reversed these abnormalities more effectively than agonism of the D1 dopamine receptor. The opposite pathophysiology arose in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, during which iSPNs showed hypoactivity and dSPNs showed unclustered hyperactivity. Therefore, both the spatiotemporal profiles and rates of SPN activity appear crucial to striatal function, and next-generation treatments for basal ganglia disorders should target both facets of striatal activity.
View details for PubMedID 29720658
- A cell-type-specific jolt for motor disorders. Nature neuroscience 2017; 20 (6): 763-765
Motor Learning in Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease: Aberrant Synaptic Plasticity in the Motor Cortex
2017; 32 (4): 487-497
In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopamine depletion causes major changes in the brain, resulting in the typical cardinal motor features of the disease. PD neuropathology has been restricted to postmortem examinations, which are limited to only a single time of PD progression. Models of PD in which dopamine tone in the brain is chemically or physically disrupted are valuable tools in understanding the mechanisms of the disease. The basal ganglia have been well studied in the context of PD, and circuit changes in response to dopamine loss have been linked to the motor dysfunctions in PD. However, the etiology of the cognitive dysfunctions that are comorbid in PD patients has remained unclear until now. In this article, we review recent studies exploring how dopamine depletion affects the motor cortex at the synaptic level. In particular, we highlight our recent findings on abnormal spine dynamics in the motor cortex of PD mouse models through in vivo time-lapse imaging and motor skill behavior assays. In combination with previous studies, a role of the motor cortex in skill learning and the impairment of this ability with the loss of dopamine are becoming more apparent. Taken together, we conclude with a discussion on the potential role for the motor cortex in PD, with the possibility of targeting the motor cortex for future PD therapeutics. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
View details for DOI 10.1002/mds.26938
View details for Web of Science ID 000399758800003
View details for PubMedID 28343366
The Locomotion Tug-of-War: Cholinergic and Dopaminergic Interactions Outside the Striatum.
2017; 96 (6): 1208–10
In this issue of Neuron, Moehle et al. (2017) demonstrate that presynaptic muscarinic receptors counteract the effects of dopamine in an output nucleus of the basal ganglia. They provide intracellular, anatomical, and network-level mechanisms for this cholinergic-dopaminergic interplay.
View details for PubMedID 29268090
Selective activation of parvalbumin interneurons prevents stress-induced synapse loss and perceptual defects.
Stress, a prevalent experience in modern society, is a major risk factor for many psychiatric disorders. Although sensorimotor abnormalities are often present in these disorders, little is known about how stress affects the sensory cortex. Combining behavioral analyses with in vivo synaptic imaging, we show that stressful experiences lead to progressive, clustered loss of dendritic spines along the apical dendrites of layer (L) 5 pyramidal neurons (PNs) in the mouse barrel cortex, and such spine loss closely associates with deteriorated performance in a whisker-dependent texture discrimination task. Furthermore, the activity of parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory interneurons (PV+ INs) decreases in the stressed mouse due to reduced excitability of these neurons. Importantly, both behavioral defects and structural changes of L5 PNs are prevented by selective pharmacogenetic activation of PV+INs in the barrel cortex during stress. Finally, stressed mice raised under environmental enrichment (EE) maintain normal activation of PV+ INs, normal texture discrimination, and L5 PN spine dynamics similar to unstressed EE mice. Our findings suggest that the PV+ inhibitory circuit is crucial for normal synaptic dynamics in the mouse barrel cortex and sensory function. Pharmacological, pharmacogenetic and environmental approaches to prevent stress-induced maladaptive behaviors and synaptic malfunctions converge on the regulation of PV+ IN activity, pointing to a potential therapeutic target for stress-related disorders.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 1 August 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.159.
View details for DOI 10.1038/mp.2017.159
View details for PubMedID 28761082
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5794672
TGF-beta Signaling in Dopaminergic Neurons Regulates Dendritic Growth, Excitatory-Inhibitory Synaptic Balance, and Reversal Learning
2016; 17 (12): 3233-3245
Neural circuits involving midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons regulate reward and goal-directed behaviors. Although local GABAergic input is known to modulate DA circuits, the mechanism that controls excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance in DA neurons remains unclear. Here, we show that DA neurons use autocrine transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling to promote the growth of axons and dendrites. Surprisingly, removing TGF-β type II receptor in DA neurons also disrupts the balance in TGF-β1 expression in DA neurons and neighboring GABAergic neurons, which increases inhibitory input, reduces excitatory synaptic input, and alters phasic firing patterns in DA neurons. Mice lacking TGF-β signaling in DA neurons are hyperactive and exhibit inflexibility in relinquishing learned behaviors and re-establishing new stimulus-reward associations. These results support a role for TGF-β in regulating the delicate balance of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic input in local microcircuits involving DA and GABAergic neurons and its potential contributions to neuropsychiatric disorders.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2016.11.068
View details for Web of Science ID 000390895600014
View details for PubMedID 28009292
Input- and Cell-Type-Specific Endocannabinoid-Dependent LTD in the Striatum.
2015; 10 (1): 75-87
Changes in basal ganglia plasticity at the corticostriatal and thalamostriatal levels are required for motor learning. Endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression (eCB-LTD) is known to be a dominant form of synaptic plasticity expressed at these glutamatergic inputs; however, whether eCB-LTD can be induced at all inputs on all striatal neurons is still debatable. Using region-specific Cre mouse lines combined with optogenetic techniques, we directly investigated and distinguished between corticostriatal and thalamostriatal projections. We found that eCB-LTD was successfully induced at corticostriatal synapses, independent of postsynaptic striatal spiny projection neuron (SPN) subtype. Conversely, eCB-LTD was only nominally present at thalamostriatal synapses. This dichotomy was attributable to the minimal expression of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors on thalamostriatal terminals. Furthermore, coactivation of dopamine receptors on SPNs during LTD induction re-established SPN-subtype-dependent eCB-LTD. Altogether, our findings lay the groundwork for understanding corticostriatal and thalamostriatal synaptic plasticity and for striatal eCB-LTD in motor learning.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2014.12.005
View details for PubMedID 25543142
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4286501
Live-Cell Superresolution Imaging by Pulsed STED Two-Photon Excitation Microscopy
2013; 104 (4): 770-777
Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM) allows fluorescence imaging in thick biological samples where absorption and scattering typically degrade resolution and signal collection of one-photon imaging approaches. The spatial resolution of conventional 2PLSM is limited by diffraction, and the near-infrared wavelengths used for excitation in 2PLSM preclude the accurate imaging of many small subcellular compartments of neurons. Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy is a superresolution imaging modality that overcomes the resolution limit imposed by diffraction and allows fluorescence imaging of nanoscale features. Here, we describe the design and operation of a superresolution two-photon microscope using pulsed excitation and STED lasers. We examine the depth dependence of STED imaging in acute tissue slices and find enhancement of 2P resolution ranging from approximately fivefold at 20 μm to approximately twofold at 90-μm deep. The depth dependence of resolution is found to be consistent with the depth dependence of depletion efficiency, suggesting resolution is limited by STED laser propagation through turbid tissue. Finally, we achieve live imaging of dendritic spines with 60-nm resolution and demonstrate that our technique allows accurate quantification of neuronal morphology up to 30-μm deep in living brain tissue.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bpj.2012.12.053
View details for Web of Science ID 000315320200007
View details for PubMedID 23442955
Dopaminergic neurons inhibit striatal output through non-canonical release of GABA
2012; 490 (7419): 262-?
The substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area contain the two largest populations of dopamine-releasing neurons in the mammalian brain. These neurons extend elaborate projections in the striatum, a large subcortical structure implicated in motor planning and reward-based learning. Phasic activation of dopaminergic neurons in response to salient or reward-predicting stimuli is thought to modulate striatal output through the release of dopamine to promote and reinforce motor action. Here we show that activation of dopamine neurons in striatal slices rapidly inhibits action potential firing in both direct- and indirect-pathway striatal projection neurons through vesicular release of the inhibitory transmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid). GABA is released directly from dopaminergic axons but in a manner that is independent of the vesicular GABA transporter VGAT. Instead, GABA release requires activity of the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2, which is the vesicular transporter for dopamine. Furthermore, VMAT2 expression in GABAergic neurons lacking VGAT is sufficient to sustain GABA release. Thus, these findings expand the repertoire of synaptic mechanisms used by dopamine neurons to influence basal ganglia circuits, show a new substrate whose transport is dependent on VMAT2 and demonstrate that GABA can function as a bona fide co-transmitter in monoaminergic neurons.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature11466
View details for Web of Science ID 000309733300050
View details for PubMedID 23034651
Fasting Activation of AgRP Neurons Requires NMDA Receptors and Involves Spinogenesis and Increased Excitatory Tone
2012; 73 (3): 511-522
AgRP neuron activity drives feeding and weight gain whereas that of nearby POMC neurons does the opposite. However, the role of excitatory glutamatergic input in controlling these neurons is unknown. To address this question, we generated mice lacking NMDA receptors (NMDARs) on either AgRP or POMC neurons. Deletion of NMDARs from AgRP neurons markedly reduced weight, body fat and food intake whereas deletion from POMC neurons had no effect. Activation of AgRP neurons by fasting, as assessed by c-Fos, Agrp and Npy mRNA expression, AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs, depolarization and firing rates, required NMDARs. Furthermore, AgRP but not POMC neurons have dendritic spines and increased glutamatergic input onto AgRP neurons caused by fasting was paralleled by an increase in spines, suggesting fasting induced synaptogenesis and spinogenesis. Thus glutamatergic synaptic transmission and its modulation by NMDARs play key roles in controlling AgRP neurons and determining the cellular and behavioral response to fasting.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.11.027
View details for Web of Science ID 000300140600012
View details for PubMedID 22325203
Semaphorin 3E-Plexin-D1 signaling controls pathway-specific synapse formation in the striatum.
2012; 15 (2): 215-223
The proper formation of synaptic connectivity in the mammalian brain is critical for complex behavior. In the striatum, balanced excitatory synaptic transmission from multiple sources onto two classes of principal neurons is required for coordinated and voluntary motor control. Here we show that the interaction between the secreted semaphorin 3E (Sema3E) and its receptor Plexin-D1 is a critical determinant of synaptic specificity in cortico-thalamo-striatal circuits in mice. We find that Sema3e (encoding Sema3E) is highly expressed in thalamostriatal projection neurons, whereas in the striatum Plxnd1 (encoding Plexin-D1) is selectively expressed in direct-pathway medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Despite physical intermingling of the MSNs, genetic ablation of Plxnd1 or Sema3e results in functional and anatomical rearrangement of thalamostriatal synapses specifically in direct-pathway MSNs without effects on corticostriatal synapses. Thus, our results demonstrate that Sema3E and Plexin-D1 specify the degree of glutamatergic connectivity between a specific source and target in the complex circuitry of the basal ganglia.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nn.3003
View details for PubMedID 22179111
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3267860
Muscarinic modulation of striatal function and circuitry.
Handbook of experimental pharmacology
Striatal cholinergic interneurons are pivotal modulators of the striatal circuitry involved in action selection and decision making. Although nicotinic receptors are important transducers of acetylcholine release in the striatum, muscarinic receptors are more pervasive and have been more thoroughly studied. In this review, the effects of muscarinic receptor signaling on the principal cell types in the striatum and its canonical circuits will be discussed, highlighting new insights into their role in synaptic integration and plasticity. These studies, and those that have identified new circuit elements driven by activation of nicotinic receptors, make it clear that temporally patterned activity in cholinergic interneurons must play an important role in determining the effects on striatal circuitry. These effects could be critical to the response to salient environmental stimuli that serve to direct behavior.
View details for DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-23274-9_10
View details for PubMedID 22222701
Cholinergic modulation of synaptic integration and dendritic excitability in the striatum
CURRENT OPINION IN NEUROBIOLOGY
2011; 21 (3): 425-432
Modulatory interneurons such as, the cholinergic interneuron, are always a perplexing subject to study. Far from clear-cut distinctions such as excitatory or inhibitory, modulating interneurons can have many, often contradictory effects. The striatum is one of the most densely expressing brain areas for cholinergic markers, and actylcholine (ACh) plays an important role in regulating synaptic transmission and cellular excitability. Every cell type in the striatum has receptors for ACh. Yet even for a given cell type, ACh affecting different receptors can have seemingly opposing roles. This review highlights relevant effects of ACh on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum and suggests how its many effects may work in concert to modulate MSN firing properties.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.conb.2011.04.004
View details for Web of Science ID 000294097100010
View details for PubMedID 21550798
Thalamic Gating of Corticostriatal Signaling by Cholinergic Interneurons
2010; 67 (2): 294-307
Salient stimuli redirect attention and suppress ongoing motor activity. This attentional shift is thought to rely upon thalamic signals to the striatum to shift cortically driven action selection, but the network mechanisms underlying this interaction are unclear. Using a brain slice preparation that preserved cortico- and thalamostriatal connectivity, it was found that activation of thalamostriatal axons in a way that mimicked the response to salient stimuli induced a burst of spikes in striatal cholinergic interneurons that was followed by a pause lasting more than half a second. This patterned interneuron activity triggered a transient, presynaptic suppression of cortical input to both major classes of principal medium spiny neuron (MSN) that gave way to a prolonged enhancement of postsynaptic responsiveness in striatopallidal MSNs controlling motor suppression. This differential regulation of the corticostriatal circuitry provides a neural substrate for attentional shifts and cessation of ongoing motor activity with the appearance of salient environmental stimuli.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.06.017
View details for Web of Science ID 000280461500013
View details for PubMedID 20670836
Supraresolution Imaging in Brain Slices using Stimulated-Emission Depletion Two-Photon Laser Scanning Microscopy
2009; 63 (4): 429-437
Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM) has allowed unprecedented fluorescence imaging of neuronal structure and function within neural tissue. However, the resolution of this approach is poor compared to that of conventional confocal microscopy. Here, we demonstrate supraresolution 2PLSM within brain slices. Imaging beyond the diffraction limit is accomplished by using near-infrared (NIR) lasers for both pulsed two-photon excitation and continuous wave stimulated emission depletion (STED). Furthermore, we demonstrate that Alexa Fluor 594, a bright fluorophore commonly used for both live cell and fixed tissue fluorescence imaging, is suitable for STED 2PLSM. STED 2PLSM supraresolution microscopy achieves approximately 3-fold improvement in resolution in the radial direction over conventional 2PLSM, revealing greater detail in the structure of dendritic spines located approximately 100 microns below the surface of brain slices. Further improvements in resolution are theoretically achievable, suggesting that STED 2PLSM will permit nanoscale imaging of neuronal structures located in relatively intact brain tissue.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.07.011
View details for Web of Science ID 000269570400004
View details for PubMedID 19709626
Corticostriatal and thalamostriatal synapses have distinctive properties
JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE
2008; 28 (25): 6483-6492
The two principal excitatory glutamatergic inputs to striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) arise from neurons in the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Although there have been many electrophysiological studies of MSN glutamatergic synapses, little is known about how corticostriatal and thalamostriatal synapses differ. Using mouse brain slices that allowed each type of synapse to be selectively activated, electrophysiological approaches were used to characterize their properties in identified striatopallidal and striatonigral MSNs. At corticostriatal synapses, a single afferent volley increased the glutamate released by a subsequent volley, leading to enhanced postsynaptic depolarization with repetitive stimulation. This was true for both striatonigral and striatopallidal MSNs. In contrast, at thalamostriatal synapses, a single afferent volley decreased glutamate released by a subsequent volley, leading to a depressed postsynaptic depolarization with repetitive stimulation. Again, this response pattern was the same in striatonigral and striatopallidal MSNs. These differences in release probability and short-term synaptic plasticity suggest that corticostriatal and thalamostriatal projection systems code information in temporally distinct ways, constraining how they regulate striatal circuitry.
View details for DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0435-08.2008
View details for Web of Science ID 000256890000022
View details for PubMedID 18562619
Re-emergence of striatal cholinergic interneurons in movement disorders
TRENDS IN NEUROSCIENCES
2007; 30 (10): 545-553
Twenty years ago, striatal cholinergic neurons were central figures in models of basal ganglia function. But since then, they have receded in importance. Recent studies are likely to lead to their re-emergence in our thinking. Cholinergic interneurons have been implicated as key players in the induction of synaptic plasticity and motor learning, as well as in motor dysfunction. In Parkinson's disease and dystonia, diminished striatal dopaminergic signalling leads to increased release of acetylcholine by interneurons, distorting network function and inducing structural changes that undoubtedly contribute to the symptoms. By contrast, in Huntington's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, there is a fall in striatal cholinergic markers. This review gives an overview of these recent experimental and clinical studies, placing them within the context of the pathogenesis of movement disorders.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tins.2007.07.008
View details for Web of Science ID 000250679500009
View details for PubMedID 17904652
D1 and D2 dopamine-receptor modulation of striatal glutamatergic signaling in striatal medium spiny neurons
TRENDS IN NEUROSCIENCES
2007; 30 (5): 228-235
Dopamine shapes a wide variety of psychomotor functions. This is mainly accomplished by modulating cortical and thalamic glutamatergic signals impinging upon principal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum. Several lines of evidence suggest that dopamine D1 receptor signaling enhances dendritic excitability and glutamatergic signaling in striatonigral MSNs, whereas D2 receptor signaling exerts the opposite effect in striatopallidal MSNs. The functional antagonism between these two major striatal dopamine receptors extends to the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Recent studies, using transgenic mice in which cells express D1 and D2 receptors, have uncovered unappreciated differences between MSNs that shape glutamatergic signaling and the influence of DA on synaptic plasticity. These studies have also shown that long-term alterations in dopamine signaling produce profound and cell-type-specific reshaping of corticostriatal connectivity and function.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tins.2007.03.008
View details for Web of Science ID 000246752000007
View details for PubMedID 17408758
RGS4-dependent attenuation of M-4 autoreceptor function in striatal cholinergic interneurons following dopamine depletion
2006; 9 (6): 832-842
Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disorder whose symptoms are caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons innervating the striatum. As striatal dopamine levels fall, striatal acetylcholine release rises, exacerbating motor symptoms. This adaptation is commonly attributed to the loss of interneuronal regulation by inhibitory D(2) dopamine receptors. Our results point to a completely different, new mechanism. After striatal dopamine depletion, D(2) dopamine receptor modulation of calcium (Ca(2+)) channels controlling vesicular acetylcholine release in interneurons was unchanged, but M(4) muscarinic autoreceptor coupling to these same channels was markedly attenuated. This adaptation was attributable to the upregulation of RGS4-an autoreceptor-associated, GTPase-accelerating protein. This specific signaling adaptation extended to a broader loss of autoreceptor control of interneuron spiking. These observations suggest that RGS4-dependent attenuation of interneuronal autoreceptor signaling is a major factor in the elevation of striatal acetylcholine release in Parkinson disease.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nn1700
View details for Web of Science ID 000237895200024
View details for PubMedID 16699510
Dopaminergic control of corticostriatal long-term synaptic depression in medium spiny neurons is mediated by cholinergic interneurons
2006; 50 (3): 443-452
Long-term depression (LTD) of the synapse formed between cortical pyramidal neurons and striatal medium spiny neurons is central to many theories of motor plasticity and associative learning. The induction of LTD at this synapse is thought to depend upon D(2) dopamine receptors localized in the postsynaptic membrane. If this were true, LTD should be inducible in neurons from only one of the two projection systems of the striatum. Using transgenic mice in which neurons that contribute to these two systems are labeled, we show that this is not the case. Rather, in both cell types, the D(2) receptor dependence of LTD induction reflects the need to lower M(1) muscarinic receptor activity-a goal accomplished by D(2) receptors on cholinergic interneurons. In addition to reconciling discordant tracts of the striatal literature, these findings point to cholinergic interneurons as key mediators of dopamine-dependent striatal plasticity and learning.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2006.04.010
View details for Web of Science ID 000237726800013
View details for PubMedID 16675398
Selective elimination of glutamatergic synapses on striatopallidal neurons in Parkinson disease models
2006; 9 (2): 251-259
Parkinson disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder that leads to difficulty in effectively translating thought into action. Although it is known that dopaminergic neurons that innervate the striatum die in Parkinson disease, it is not clear how this loss leads to symptoms. Recent work has implicated striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in this process, but how and precisely why these neurons change is not clear. Using multiphoton imaging, we show that dopamine depletion leads to a rapid and profound loss of spines and glutamatergic synapses on striatopallidal MSNs but not on neighboring striatonigral MSNs. This loss of connectivity is triggered by a new mechanism-dysregulation of intraspine Cav1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels. The disconnection of striatopallidal neurons from motor command structures is likely to be a key step in the emergence of pathological activity that is responsible for symptoms in Parkinson disease.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nn1632
View details for Web of Science ID 000234990100021
View details for PubMedID 16415865