Junjie Lu holds a Master of Public Health degree from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, where he specialized in Health and Social Behavior. He also earned his MBBS and MS from Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. He worked as an intern doctor at a university hospital for two years. During this time, he led a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) to examine the impact of acupuncture on depressive symptoms, showcasing his interest in innovative healthcare approaches.

Junjie's research focuses on the social determinants of minority health, epidemiological methods, and clinical effectiveness. He is dedicated to understanding the disparities affecting minority populations and is committed to using his skills in epidemiological methods to conduct rigorous research. His clinical background enables him to apply research findings to real-world situations.

Honors & Awards

  • Harvard University MPH Scholarship, Harvard University (August 2021 – March 2023)
  • National Scholarship, Ministry of Eduction (June 2017)

Education & Certifications

  • M.P.H., Harvard University T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Health and Social Behavior (2023)
  • M.S., Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Medical Science (2020)
  • M.B.B.S., Shanghai Jiao Tong University & Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine - Joint Program, Medicine (2018)

Current Clinical Interests

  • Epidemiology
  • Psychometrics
  • Complementary Therapies
  • Acupuncture Therapy

All Publications

  • Just give the contrast? Appraisal of guidelines on intravenous iodinated contrast media use in patients with kidney disease. Insights into imaging Zhong, J., Chen, L., Xing, Y., Lu, J., Shi, Y., Wang, Y., Deng, Y., Jiang, R., Lu, W., Wang, S., Hu, Y., Ge, X., Ding, D., Zhang, H., Zhu, Y., Yao, W. 2024; 15 (1): 77


    To appraise the quality of guidelines on intravenous iodinated contrast media (ICM) use in patients with kidney disease, and to compare the recommendations among them.We searched four literature databases, eight guideline libraries, and ten homepages of radiological societies to identify English and Chinese guidelines on intravenous ICM use in patients with kidney disease published between January 2018 and June 2023. The quality of the guidelines was assessed with the Scientific, Transparent, and Applicable Rankings (STAR) tool.Ten guidelines were included, with a median STAR score of 46.0 (range 28.5-61.5). The guidelines performed well in "Recommendations" domain (31/40, 78%), while poor in "Registry" (0/20, 0%) and "Protocol" domains (0/20, 0%). Nine guidelines recommended estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 as the cutoff for referring patients to discuss the risk-benefit balance of ICM administration. Three guidelines further suggested that patients with an eGFR < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 and high-risk factors also need referring. Variable recommendations were seen in the acceptable time interval between renal function test and ICM administration, and that between scan and repeated scan. Nine guidelines recommended to use iso-osmolar or low-osmolar ICM, while no consensus has been reached for the dosing of ICM. Nine guidelines supported hydration after ICM use, but their protocols varied. Drugs or blood purification therapy were not recommended as preventative means.Guidelines on intravenous ICM use in patients with kidney disease have heterogeneous quality. The scientific societies may consider joint statements on controversial recommendations for variable timing and protocols.The heterogeneous quality of guidelines, and their controversial recommendations, leave gaps in workflow timing, dosing, and post-administration hydration protocols of contrast-enhanced CT scans for patients with kidney diseases, calling for more evidence to establish a safer and more practicable workflow.• Guidelines concerning iodinated contrast media use in kidney disease patients vary. • Controversy remains in workflow timing, contrast dosing, and post-administration hydration protocols. • Investigations are encouraged to establish a safer iodinated contrast media use workflow.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s13244-024-01644-5

    View details for PubMedID 38499879

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10948651

  • The endorsement of general and artificial intelligence reporting guidelines in radiological journals: a meta-research study. BMC medical research methodology Zhong, J., Xing, Y., Lu, J., Zhang, G., Mao, S., Chen, H., Yin, Q., Cen, Q., Jiang, R., Hu, Y., Ding, D., Ge, X., Zhang, H., Yao, W. 2023; 23 (1): 292


    Complete reporting is essential for clinical research. However, the endorsement of reporting guidelines in radiological journals is still unclear. Further, as a field extensively utilizing artificial intelligence (AI), the adoption of both general and AI reporting guidelines would be necessary for enhancing quality and transparency of radiological research. This study aims to investigate the endorsement of general reporting guidelines and those for AI applications in medical imaging in radiological journals, and explore associated journal characteristic variables.This meta-research study screened journals from the Radiology, Nuclear Medicine & Medical Imaging category, Science Citation Index Expanded of the 2022 Journal Citation Reports, and excluded journals not publishing original research, in non-English languages, and instructions for authors unavailable. The endorsement of fifteen general reporting guidelines and ten AI reporting guidelines was rated using a five-level tool: "active strong", "active weak", "passive moderate", "passive weak", and "none". The association between endorsement and journal characteristic variables was evaluated by logistic regression analysis.We included 117 journals. The top-five endorsed reporting guidelines were CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials, 58.1%, 68/117), PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, 54.7%, 64/117), STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology, 51.3%, 60/117), STARD (Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy, 50.4%, 59/117), and ARRIVE (Animal Research Reporting of In Vivo Experiments, 35.9%, 42/117). The most implemented AI reporting guideline was CLAIM (Checklist for Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging, 1.7%, 2/117), while other nine AI reporting guidelines were not mentioned. The Journal Impact Factor quartile and publisher were associated with endorsement of reporting guidelines in radiological journals.The general reporting guideline endorsement was suboptimal in radiological journals. The implementation of reporting guidelines for AI applications in medical imaging was extremely low. Their adoption should be strengthened to facilitate quality and transparency of radiological study reporting.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12874-023-02117-x

    View details for PubMedID 38093215

    View details for PubMedCentralID 2874506

  • A marginal structural model analysis for the effect modification by education on the association between cancer diagnosis history and major depressive symptoms: Findings from Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS). Journal of affective disorders Liu, L., Lu, J., Yang, J., Dong, Y., Yin, P., Chen, Y. 2023; 341: 202-210


    BACKGROUND: Limited research has employed a longitudinal approach to investigate the role of education level as an effect modifier on the relationship between cancer diagnosis history and the experience of major depressive disorder (MDD) with a nationally representative sample.METHODS: We harnessed data from three installments of the MIDUS Longitudinal study (n=7108). A Marginal Structural Model facilitated the investigation of associations between a history of cancer diagnosis, MDD, and potential modifying effects of education level. Inverse probability weighting helped manage confounding factors.RESULTS: Findings indicated that a cancer diagnosis made one year prior was linked with 3.741 times greater odds of experiencing MDD (95% CI: 1.411-9.918, p<0.01). This connection was absent for diagnoses made two years earlier. Among individuals with education up to high school, a recent cancer diagnosis significantly increased the likelihood of MDD in the subsequent wave by 3.45 times (95% CI: 1.31-9.08, p<0.05). This pattern was not apparent among better-educated individuals.LIMITATIONS: As the exposure variable was dependent on self-reported questionnaires, recall bias could be a potential limitation. Moreover, unaccounted variables like genetic factors could introduce confounding.CONCLUSIONS: A recent cancer diagnosis, particularly among less educated individuals, correlated with an increased probability of MDD, while the impact was not observed for older diagnoses. These findings emphasize that the timing of a cancer diagnosis and education level need consideration in the mental health assessment of cancer survivors.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jad.2023.08.123

    View details for PubMedID 37640112

  • An overview of meta-analyses on radiomics: more evidence is needed to support clinical translation INSIGHTS INTO IMAGING Zhong, J., Lu, J., Zhang, G., Mao, S., Chen, H., Yin, Q., Hu, Y., Xing, Y., Ding, D., Ge, X., Zhang, H., Yao, W. 2023; 14 (1): 111


    To conduct an overview of meta-analyses of radiomics studies assessing their study quality and evidence level.A systematical search was updated via peer-reviewed electronic databases, preprint servers, and systematic review protocol registers until 15 November 2022. Systematic reviews with meta-analysis of primary radiomics studies were included. Their reporting transparency, methodological quality, and risk of bias were assessed by PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) 2020 checklist, AMSTAR-2 (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews, version 2) tool, and ROBIS (Risk Of Bias In Systematic reviews) tool, respectively. The evidence level supporting the radiomics for clinical use was rated.We identified 44 systematic reviews with meta-analyses on radiomics research. The mean ± standard deviation of PRISMA adherence rate was 65 ± 9%. The AMSTAR-2 tool rated 5 and 39 systematic reviews as low and critically low confidence, respectively. The ROBIS assessment resulted low, unclear and high risk in 5, 11, and 28 systematic reviews, respectively. We reperformed 53 meta-analyses in 38 included systematic reviews. There were 3, 7, and 43 meta-analyses rated as convincing, highly suggestive, and weak levels of evidence, respectively. The convincing level of evidence was rated in (1) T2-FLAIR radiomics for IDH-mutant vs IDH-wide type differentiation in low-grade glioma, (2) CT radiomics for COVID-19 vs other viral pneumonia differentiation, and (3) MRI radiomics for high-grade glioma vs brain metastasis differentiation.The systematic reviews on radiomics were with suboptimal quality. A limited number of radiomics approaches were supported by convincing level of evidence.The evidence supporting the clinical application of radiomics are insufficient, calling for researches translating radiomics from an academic tool to a practicable adjunct towards clinical deployment.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s13244-023-01437-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 001015034300003

    View details for PubMedID 37336830

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10279606

  • The descriptive analysis of depressive symptoms and White Blood Cell (WBC) count between the sexual minorities and heterosexual identifying individuals in a nationally representative sample: 2005-2014 BMC PUBLIC HEALTH Lu, J., Yang, J., Liang, J., Mischoulon, D., Nyer, M. 2023; 23 (1): 294


    Sexual minorities are at a higher risk of suffering from depressive symptoms compared with heterosexual individuals. Only a few studies have examined the conditions of having depressive symptoms within different sexual minority groups, especially people with sexual orientation uncertainty in a nationally representative sample. Furthermore, few studies have explored whether the mean white blood count (WBC) is different between people with and without depressive symptoms among different sexual minority groups in a nationally representative sample.We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 2005 to 2014 with a sample of 14,090 subjects. We compared the prevalence of depressive symptoms in subpopulations stratified by sex, sexual minority status, and race. We also examined the difference in mean WBC count between depressed and non-depressed people among heterosexual individuals and different sexual minority groups. Additionally, two multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms, treating sexual minority status as both a binary and categorical variable.Female sex (OR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.72-2.22) and sexual minority status (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.47-2.17) were both independently associated with depressive symptoms. Within the sexual minority population, subjects who were unsure about their sexual identities had the highest odds of having depressive symptoms (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.40-4.68). In the subgroup analysis considering intersectionality, black sexual minority females had the highest rate of depressive symptoms (19.4%, 95% CI: 7.72-40.98). Finally, the mean WBC count differed significantly between people with and without depressive symptoms among male heterosexual individuals, female heterosexual individuals, and female sexual minorities, but not among male sexual minorities.Based on sex, race, and sexual minority status, black females of sexual minority status had the highest rate of depressive symptoms. Within sexual minority groups, participants who were unsure about their sexual identities had the highest odds of having depressive symptoms. Finally, the mean WBC count was significantly higher among people with depressive symptoms than those without depressive symptoms only among male heterosexuals, female heterosexuals, and female sexual minorities, but not among male sexual minorities. Future research should investigate the social and biological mechanisms of the differences.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12889-022-14847-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000931457900006

    View details for PubMedID 36759803

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9909981

  • Does the association between Herpes Simplex 2 infection and depressive symptoms vary among different sexual minority statuses and sex groups? Findings from a nationally representative sample JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS Lu, J., Liang, J., Yang, J., Mischoulon, D., Nyer, M. 2023; 327: 226-229


    Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) has been associated with depression, but the relationship has yet to be explored with respect to gender and sexual orientation in a nationally representative sample to help identify individuals at higher risk for depression.A dataset from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2014 was used in this study. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to test effect modification on both the multiplicative and additive scale using a sample of 57,684 subjects.Effect modification by sexual minority status was not significant on either the multiplicative scale (Ratio of ORs: 0.74, 95 % CI: 0.37-1.50, p = 0.395) or the additive scale (RERI: -0.22, 95%CI: -2.27-1.84, p = 0.833). Meanwhile, biological sex assigned at birth was a significant modifier only on the additive scale (RERI: 0.82, 95 % CI: 0.004-1.64, P = 0.049). Specifically, females (OR: 1.43, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.97, P = 0.032) had greater odds of having depressive symptoms compared with males (OR: 1.20, 95 % CI: 0.69-2.08, p = 0.509) after the HSV-2 infection.The analysis was based on a cross-sectional study; further investigation using longitudinal datasets might be beneficial.Sexual minority status did not modify the association between HSV-2 infection and having depressive symptoms. However, biological sex assigned at birth was a modifier only on the additive but not the multiplicative scale. Health workers should be alert for depression symptoms in females with HSV-2 infection.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jad.2023.01.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000991739100001

    View details for PubMedID 36623565