Ki-67 regulates global gene expression and promotes sequential stages of carcinogenesis
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2021; 118 (10)
Ki-67 is a nuclear protein that is expressed in all proliferating vertebrate cells. Here, we demonstrate that, although Ki-67 is not required for cell proliferation, its genetic ablation inhibits each step of tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis. Mice lacking Ki-67 are resistant to chemical or genetic induction of intestinal tumorigenesis. In established cancer cells, Ki-67 knockout causes global transcriptome remodeling that alters the epithelial-mesenchymal balance and suppresses stem cell characteristics. When grafted into mice, tumor growth is slowed, and metastasis is abrogated, despite normal cell proliferation rates. Yet, Ki-67 loss also down-regulates major histocompatibility complex class I antigen presentation and, in the 4T1 syngeneic model of mammary carcinoma, leads to an immune-suppressive environment that prevents the early phase of tumor regression. Finally, genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism are down-regulated, and cells are sensitized to various drug classes. Our results suggest that Ki-67 enables transcriptional programs required for cellular adaptation to the environment. This facilitates multiple steps of carcinogenesis and drug resistance, yet may render cancer cells more susceptible to antitumor immune responses.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.2026507118
View details for Web of Science ID 000627429100113
View details for PubMedID 33658388
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7958263
Cell-Cycle Regulation Accounts for Variability in Ki-67 Expression Levels
2017; 77 (10): 2722–34
The cell proliferation antigen Ki-67 is widely used in cancer histopathology, but estimations of Ki-67 expression levels are inconsistent and understanding of its regulation is limited. Here we show that cell-cycle regulation underlies variable Ki-67 expression in all situations analyzed, including nontransformed human cells, normal mouse intestinal epithelia and adenomas, human cancer cell lines with or without drug treatments, and human breast and colon cancers. In normal cells, Ki-67 was a late marker of cell-cycle entry; Ki-67 mRNA oscillated with highest levels in G2 while protein levels increased throughout the cell cycle, peaking in mitosis. Inhibition of CDK4/CDK6 revealed proteasome-mediated Ki-67 degradation in G1 After cell-cycle exit, low-level Ki-67 expression persisted but was undetectable in fully quiescent differentiated cells or senescent cells. CDK4/CDK6 inhibition in vitro and in tumors in mice caused G1 cell-cycle arrest and eliminated Ki-67 mRNA in RB1-positive cells but had no effect in RB1-negative cells, which continued to proliferate and express Ki-67. Thus, Ki-67 expression varies due to cell-cycle regulation, but it remains a reliable readout for effects of CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors on cell proliferation. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2722-34. ©2017 AACR.
View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-0707
View details for Web of Science ID 000401252900015
View details for PubMedID 28283655
The cell proliferation antigen Ki-67 organises heterochromatin
2016; 5: e13722
Antigen Ki-67 is a nuclear protein expressed in proliferating mammalian cells. It is widely used in cancer histopathology but its functions remain unclear. Here, we show that Ki-67 controls heterochromatin organisation. Altering Ki-67 expression levels did not significantly affect cell proliferation in vivo. Ki-67 mutant mice developed normally and cells lacking Ki-67 proliferated efficiently. Conversely, upregulation of Ki-67 expression in differentiated tissues did not prevent cell cycle arrest. Ki-67 interactors included proteins involved in nucleolar processes and chromatin regulators. Ki-67 depletion disrupted nucleologenesis but did not inhibit pre-rRNA processing. In contrast, it altered gene expression. Ki-67 silencing also had wide-ranging effects on chromatin organisation, disrupting heterochromatin compaction and long-range genomic interactions. Trimethylation of histone H3K9 and H4K20 was relocalised within the nucleus. Finally, overexpression of human or Xenopus Ki-67 induced ectopic heterochromatin formation. Altogether, our results suggest that Ki-67 expression in proliferating cells spatially organises heterochromatin, thereby controlling gene expression.
View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.13722
View details for Web of Science ID 000373893400001
View details for PubMedID 26949251
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4841783