Bio


Dr. Balakrishnan is a pediatric otolaryngologist specializing in the care of children with complex disorders of breathing, voice, and swallowing. He has a special interest in complex surgical reconstruction of the larynx (voice box) and trachea (windpipe) and in vascular anomalies of the head and neck. He has interests in improving the quality, safety, and value of pediatric surgical care, reducing costs of care, and optimizing the patient and caregiver healthcare experience. He has also developed expertise in how cognitive and implicit bias may affect medical decision-making and quality of patient care.

Dr. Balakrishnan has nationally and internationally recognized expertise in these areas, with multiple national and international invited presentations. He has published over 40 peer-reviewed papers, multiple textbook chapters, and one textbook (Evidence-Based Management of Head and Neck Vascular Anomalies, 2019). He has also served as Associate Editor for the journal Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery. He serves on multiple national and institutional quality committees and is founding co-chair of the national multicenter Aerodigestive Research Collaborative. His commitment to quality care for children and surgical patients has been recognized with fellowships in the American College of Surgeons and American Academy of Pediatrics.

Dr. Balakrishnan was born and raised in Baltimore, Maryland and attended college at Harvard University. After taking a year to work as a high school teacher in Baltimore, he attended medical school at Johns Hopkins, with an additional year to complete a Howard Hughes Medical Institute research fellowship. He then completed residency in Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery at the University of Washington. During residency, Dr. Balakrishnan completed a two-year NIH-funded research fellowship and a Master of Public Health degree with a focus on Health Services. He then completed a two-year fellowship at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital with a focus on complex reconstruction of the pediatric larynx and trachea and pediatric aerodigestive disorders.

In 2014, Dr. Balakrishnan joined the otolaryngology faculty at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, where he had a busy pediatric airway and aerodigestive practice and was a key contributor to the multidisciplinary aerodigestive, vascular anomalies, and velopharyngeal insufficiency programs. At the Mayo Clinic Children’s Center, Dr. Balakrishnan also served as a surgical quality leader and championed the development of a comprehensive pediatric surgical quality program. Dr. Balakrishnan joined the Stanford Department of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery and Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital faculty as associate professor in early 2020. With this appointment, he also took on the role of medical director for surgical performance improvement at Stanford Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital.

Clinical Focus


  • Pediatric Otolaryngology
  • Airway Reconstruction
  • Airway Obstruction
  • Laryngeal Stenosis
  • Tracheal Stenosis
  • Vocal Cord Paralysis
  • Airway
  • Airway Surgery
  • Choanal Atresia
  • Vascular Anomalies
  • Tracheostomy
  • Tracheostomy Dependence
  • Swallowing Disorders
  • Aspiration

Academic Appointments


  • Associate Professor - Med Center Line, Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery Divisions
  • Member, Bio-X

Administrative Appointments


  • Medical Director of Surgical Performance Improvement, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford (2020 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Fellow, American College of Surgeons
  • Fellow, American Academy of Pediatrics

Professional Education


  • MPH, University of Washington, Health Services (2008)
  • Board Certification: Otolaryngology, American Board of Otolaryngology (2013)
  • Residency:University of Washington Otolaryngology Residency (2012) WA
  • Internship:University of Washington Dept of Surgery (2006) WA
  • Medical Education:Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (2005) MD
  • Fellowship:Cincinnati Children's Medical Center Pediatric OtolaryngologyOH

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Dr. Balakrishnan studies ways to improve outcomes of pediatric airway reconstruction for diseases such as laryngotracheal, subglottic and tracheal stenosis, congenital tracheal stenosis and complete tracheal rings, laryngeal clefts, and vocal fold immobility and paralysis. He also examines the same questions for vascular malformations such as lymphatic malformations, venous malformations and hemangiomas.

Dr. Balakrishnan's research focuses on ways to standardize treatments and measure outcomes in these complex diseases, as well as ways to reduce treatment costs and medical errors, particularly those related to cognitive bias. By improving outcomes and reducing costs, he aims to improve the value of care, while also optimizing patient and caregiver experience during the care process.

Focus areas
1. Standardizing outcomes and processes in pediatric airway reconstruction. Dr. Balakrishnan co-leads unique international and national multidisciplinary collaborative groups to develop standard processes and outcome measures for airway surgery and aerodigestive (breathing/voice/swallowing) care in children. His previous work has led to the development of similar standards for lymphatic malformations in the head and neck and for reconstructive surgery of the larynx (voice box) and trachea (windpipe) in children. He has internationally recognized expertise in developing consensus statements for these complex questions.
2. Costs of otolaryngology care. Dr. Balakrishnan has studied thousands of patients and otolaryngology operations to identify factors that may predict more costly medical care. This will lead to process improvements that will allow Stanford and other institutions to reduce the cost burden that patients and the U.S. health care system face while maintaining quality and access to care. Dr. Balakrishnan's current work connects these costs to the outcomes and value of care provided.
3. Cognitive bias and implicit bias and medical error. Dr. Balakrishnan is working to improve otolaryngology resident and provider education related to the effects of cognitive and implicit bias on medical decision-making, and ways to reduce medical errors related to those biases.
4. Evidence-based care of vascular anomalies. Dr. Balakrishnan leads a task force of colleagues around the country to develop better scientific evidence to guide the care of challenging vascular anomalies such as lymphatic malformations.
5. Innovative approaches to pediatric airway reconstruction. Dr. Balakrishnan has studied several minimally invasive endoscopic approaches to airway surgery and is currently developing new robotic techniques to reconstruct the airway.

Significance to patient care
Complex and rare conditions such as airway stenosis and vascular malformations greatly impact children's survival and quality of life, but treatment pathways and standardization of care are still lacking. Dr. Balakrishnan hopes that increasing standardization of care and outcome reporting for these conditions will help doctors provide better care for these patients, with reduced costs and a better experience for children and their families and caregivers. Meanwhile, by developing and studying new and potentially better ways to do airway surgery, Dr. Balakrishnan hopes to provide families with innovative options that may better suit their children's needs.

All Publications


  • Patient Safety/Quality Improvement Primer, Part II: Prevention of Harm Through Root Cause Analysis and Action (RCA(2)) OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY Balakrishnan, K., Brenner, M. J., Gosbee, J. W., Schmalbach, C. E. 2019; 161 (6): 911–21

    Abstract

    With increasing emphasis on patient safety/quality improvement, health care systems are mirroring industry in the implementation of root cause analysis (RCA) for the identification and mitigation of errors. RCA uses a team approach with emphasis on the system, as opposed to the individual, to accrue empirical data on what happened and why. While many otolaryngologists have a broad understanding of RCA, practical experience is often lacking. Part II of this patient safety/quality improvement primer investigates the manner in which RCA is utilized in the prevention of medical errors. Attention is given to identifying system errors, recording adverse events, and determining which events warrant RCA. The primer outlines steps necessary to conduct an effective RCA, with emphasis placed on actions that arise from the RCA process through the root cause analysis and action (or RCA2) rubric. In addition, the article provides strategies for the implementation of RCA into clinical practice and medical education.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0194599819878683

    View details for Web of Science ID 000491698000001

    View details for PubMedID 31570058

  • Predictors of High Costs of Care among Otolaryngology Patients OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY Balakrishnan, K., Moriarty, J. P., Rosedahl, J., Driscoll, C. L., Borah, B. J. 2019; 161 (2): 271–77

    Abstract

    Identify predictors of high-cost otolaryngology care.Cross-sectional.Tertiary academic multispecialty hospital.All patients undergoing ≥1 otolaryngologic procedures from 2011 to 2015. Encounter costs were standardized using previously described methods approximating Medicare reimbursement. Patients were stratified by adult/pediatric and inpatient/outpatient. "Outliers" were defined as total encounter costs ≥95th percentile. Logistic regression measured predictors of outlier status.In total, 2433 adult inpatient encounters (95th percentile $57,611), 10,031 adult outpatient encounters ($10,772), 346 pediatric inpatient encounters ($84,639), and 3027 pediatric outpatient encounters ($8978) were included. For adult inpatient and outpatient, isolated head and neck oncologic procedures were the reference group. Among adult inpatients, laryngology and facial plastics procedures predicted higher odds of outlier status (odds ratio [OR] = 4.1 and 7.2). Involvement of multiple otolaryngology subspecialties increased the odds (OR = 4.7). Neck dissection and reconstructive procedures were the most common primary operations for adult inpatient outliers. For adult outpatients, several subspecialties had lower odds than head and neck (OR ≤0.44). Increased comorbidities predicted outliers for adult inpatient care (OR = 1.5); sex, age, race, and ethnicity did not. Cochlear implant was the most common primary operation among adult and pediatric outpatient outliers. Greater subspecialty involvement and increasing age predicted pediatric outpatient outliers (OR = 8.0 and 1.1); younger age and female sex predicted pediatric inpatient outliers (OR = 0.8 and 3.5). Airway procedures dominated pediatric inpatient outliers.This is the first large-scale study of high-cost otolaryngology care across multiple subspecialties. Specific procedures and subspecialties and increased comorbidities predicted high-cost care. Contrary to previous studies, patient sex, race, and ethnicity did not.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0194599819838843

    View details for Web of Science ID 000478631500011

    View details for PubMedID 30909852

  • The Impact of Cognitive and Implicit Bias on Patient Safety and Quality OTOLARYNGOLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Balakrishnan, K., Arjmand, E. M. 2019; 52 (1): 35–46

    Abstract

    Humans use cognitive shortcuts, or heuristics, to quickly assess and respond to situations and data. When applied inappropriately, heuristics have the potential to redirect analysis of available information in consistent ways, creating systematic biases resulting in decision errors. Heuristics have greater effect in high-pressure, high-stakes decisions, particularly when dealing with incomplete information, in other words, daily medical and surgical practice. This article discusses 2 major categories: cognitive biases, which affect how we perceive and interpret clinical data; and implicit biases, which affect how we perceive and respond to other individuals, and also discusses approaches to recognize and alleviate bias effects.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.otc.2018.08.016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000452819100006

    View details for PubMedID 30245040

  • Outcome measures for pediatric laryngotracheal reconstruction: International consensus statement LARYNGOSCOPE Balakrishnan, K., Sidell, D. R., Bauman, N. M., Bellia-Munzon, G. F., Boesch, R., Bromwich, M., Cofer, S. A., Daines, C., de Alarcon, A., Garabedian, N., Hart, C. K., Ida, J. B., Leboulanger, N., Manning, P. B., Mehta, D. K., Monnier, P., Myer, C. M., Prager, J. D., Preciado, D., Propst, E. J., Rahbar, R., Russell, J., Rutter, M. J., Thierry, B., Thompson, D. M., Torre, M., Varela, P., Vijayasekaran, S., White, D. R., Wineland, A. M., Wood, R. E., Wootten, C. T., Zur, K., Cotton, R. T. 2019; 129 (1): 244–55

    Abstract

    Develop multidisciplinary and international consensus on patient, disease, procedural, and perioperative factors, as well as key outcome measures and complications, to be reported for pediatric airway reconstruction studies.Standard Delphi methods were applied. Participants proposed items in three categories: 1) patient/disease characteristics, 2) procedural/intraoperative/perioperative factors, and 3) outcome measures and complications. Both general and anatomic site-specific measures were elicited. Participants also suggested specific operations to be encompassed by this project. We then used iterative ranking and review to develop consensus lists via a priori Delphi consensus criteria.Thirty-three pediatric airway experts from eight countries in North and South America, Europe, and Australia participated, representing otolaryngology (including International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group members), pulmonology, general surgery, and cardiothoracic surgery. Consensus led to inclusion of 19 operations comprising open expansion, resection, and slide procedures of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi as well as three endoscopic procedures. Consensus was achieved on multiple patient/comorbidity (10), disease/stenosis (7), perioperative-/intraoperative-/procedure-related (16) factors. Consensus was reached on multiple outcome and complication measures, both general and site-specific (8 general, 13 supraglottic, 15 glottic, 17 subglottic, 8 cervical tracheal, 12 thoracic tracheal). The group was able to clarify how each outcome should be measured, with specific instruments defined where applicable.This consensus statement provides a framework to communicate results consistently and reproducibly, facilitating meta-analyses, quality improvement, transfer of information, and surgeon self-assessment. It also clarifies expert opinion on which patient, disease, procedural, and outcome measures may be important to consider in any pediatric airway reconstruction patient.5 Laryngoscope, 129:244-255, 2019.

    View details for PubMedID 30152166

  • International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG): Juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis consensus recommendations. International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology Lawlor, C., Balakrishnan, K., Bottero, S., Boudewyns, A., Campisi, P., Carter, J., Cheng, A., Cocciaglia, A., DeAlarcon, A., Derkay, C., Fayoux, P., Hart, C., Hartnick, C., LeBoulanger, N., Moreddu, E., Muntz, H., Nicollas, R., Peer, S., Pransky, S., Rahbar, R., Russell, J., Rutter, M., Seedat, R., Sidell, D., Smith, R., Soma, M., Strychowsky, J., Thompson, D., Triglia, J. M., Trozzi, M., Wyatt, M., Zalzal, G., Zur, K. B., Nuss, R. 2019; 128: 109697

    Abstract

    To develop consensus recommendations for the evaluation and management of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP) in pediatric patients.Expert opinion by the members of the International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG). The mission of the IPOG is to develop expertise-based consensus recommendations for the management of pediatric otolaryngologic disorders with the goal of improving patient care. The consensus recommendations herein represent the first publication by the group.Consensus recommendations including diagnostic considerations, surgical management, systemic adjuvant therapies, postoperative management, surveillance, and voice evaluation. These recommendations are based on the collective opinion of the IPOG members and are targeted for otolaryngologists, primary care providers, pulmonologists, infectious disease specialists, and any other health care providers that manage patients with JORRP.Pediatric JORRP consensus recommendations are aimed at improving care and outcomes in this patient population.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.109697

    View details for PubMedID 31698245

  • Interdisciplinary aerodigestive care model improves risk, cost, and efficiency INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY Boesch, R., Balakrishnan, K., Grothe, R. M., Driscoll, S. W., Knoebel, E. E., Visscher, S. L., Cofer, S. A. 2018; 113: 119–23

    Abstract

    This study sought to evaluate the impact of an interdisciplinary care model for pediatric aerodigestive patients in terms of efficiency, risk exposure, and cost.Patients meeting a standard clinical inclusion definition were studied before and after implementation of the aerodigestive program.Aerodigestive patients seen in the interdisciplinary clinic structure achieved a reduction in time to diagnosis (6 vs 150 days) with fewer required specialist consultations (5 vs 11) as compared to those seen in the same institution prior. Post-implementation patients also experienced a significant reduction in risk, with fewer radiation exposures (2 vs 4) and fewer anesthetic episodes (1 vs 2). Total cost associated with the diagnostic evaluation was significantly reduced from a median of $10,374 to $6055.This is the first study to utilize a pre-post cohort to evaluate the reduction in diagnostic time, risk exposure, and cost attributable to the reorganization of existing resources into an interdisciplinary care model. This suggests that such a model yields improvements in care quality and value for aerodigestive patients, and likely for other pediatric patients with chronic complex conditions.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.07.038

    View details for Web of Science ID 000444666100027

    View details for PubMedID 30173969

  • Fetoscopic Therapy for Severe Pulmonary Hypoplasia in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: A First in Prenatal Regenerative Medicine at Mayo Clinic MAYO CLINIC PROCEEDINGS Ruano, R., Klinkner, D. B., Balakrishnan, K., Novoa, V., Davies, N., Potter, D. D., Carey, W. A., Colby, C. E., Kolbe, A. B., Arendt, K. W., Segura, L., Sviggum, H. P., Lemens, M. A., Famuyide, A., Terzic, A. 2018; 93 (6): 693–700

    Abstract

    To introduce the prenatal regenerative medicine service at Mayo Clinic for fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) care for severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).Two cases of prenatal management of severe CDH with FETO between January and August 2017 are reported. Per protocol, FETO was offered for life-threatening severe CDH at between 26 and 29 weeks' gestation. Regenerative outcome end point was fetal lung growth. Gestational age at procedure and maternal and perinatal outcomes were additional monitored parameters.Diagnosis by ultrasonography of severe CDH was based on extremely reduced lung size (observed-to-expected lung area to head circumference ratio [o/e-LHR], eg, o/e-LHR of 20.3% for fetus 1 and 23.0% for fetus 2) along with greater than one-third of the liver herniated into the chest in both fetuses. Both patients underwent successful FETO at 28 weeks. At the time of intervention, no maternal or fetal complications were observed. Postintervention, fetal lung growth was observed in both fetuses, reaching an o/e-LHR of 62.7% at 36 weeks in fetus 1 and 52.4% at 32 weeks in fetus 2. The balloons were removed successfully at 35 weeks and 4 days by ultrasound-guided puncture in the first patient and at 32 weeks and 3 days by ex utero intrapartum therapy-to-airway procedure in the second patient. Postnatal management followed standard of care with patch CDH therapy. At discharge, one patient was breathing normally, whereas the other required minimal nasal cannula oxygen support.The successful launch of the first fetoscopic therapy for CDH at Mayo Clinic reveals its feasibility and safety, with early signs of benefit documented by fetal lung growth and reversal of severe pulmonary hypoplasia.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: G170062.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mayocp.2018.02.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000434290600009

    View details for PubMedID 29803315

  • Structure and Functions of Pediatric Aerodigestive Programs: A Consensus Statement PEDIATRICS Boesch, R., Balakrishnan, K., Acra, S., Benscoter, D. T., Cofer, S. A., Collaco, J. M., Dahl, J. P., Daines, C. L., DeAlarcon, A., DeBoer, E. M., Deterding, R. R., Friedlander, J. A., Gold, B. D., Grothe, R. M., Hart, C. K., Kazachkov, M., Lefton-Greif, M. A., Miller, C., Moore, P. E., Pentiuk, S., Peterson-Carmichael, S., Piccione, J., Prager, J. D., Putnam, P. E., Rosen, R., Rutter, M. J., Ryan, M. J., Skinner, M. L., Torres-Silva, C., Wootten, C. T., Zur, K. B., Cotton, R. T., Wood, R. E. 2018; 141 (3)

    Abstract

    Aerodigestive programs provide coordinated interdisciplinary care to pediatric patients with complex congenital or acquired conditions affecting breathing, swallowing, and growth. Although there has been a proliferation of programs, as well as national meetings, interest groups and early research activity, there is, as of yet, no consensus definition of an aerodigestive patient, standardized structure, and functions of an aerodigestive program or a blueprint for research prioritization. The Delphi method was used by a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional panel of aerodigestive providers to obtain consensus on 4 broad content areas related to aerodigestive care: (1) definition of an aerodigestive patient, (2) essential construct and functions of an aerodigestive program, (3) identification of aerodigestive research priorities, and (4) evaluation and recognition of aerodigestive programs and future directions. After 3 iterations of survey, consensus was obtained by either a supermajority of 75% or stability in median ranking on 33 of 36 items. This included a standard definition of an aerodigestive patient, level of participation of specific pediatric disciplines in a program, essential components of the care cycle and functions of the program, feeding and swallowing assessment and therapy, procedural scope and volume, research priorities and outcome measures, certification, coding, and funding. We propose the first consensus definition of the aerodigestive care model with specific recommendations regarding associated personnel, infrastructure, research, and outcome measures. We hope that this may provide an initial framework to further standardize care, develop clinical guidelines, and improve outcomes for aerodigestive patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2017-1701

    View details for Web of Science ID 000426361800035

    View details for PubMedID 29437862

  • Outcomes and Resource Utilization of Endoscopic Mass-Closure Technique for Laryngeal Clefts OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY Balakrishnan, K., Cheng, E., de Alarcon, A., Sidell, D. R., Hart, C. K., Rutter, M. J. 2015; 153 (1): 119-123

    Abstract

    To compare resource utilization and clinical outcomes between endoscopic mass-closure and open techniques for laryngeal cleft repair.Case series with chart review.Tertiary academic children's hospital.Pediatric patients undergoing repair for Benjamin-Inglis type 1-3 laryngeal clefts over a 15-year period. All 20 patients undergoing endoscopic repair were included. Eight control patients undergoing open repair were selected using matching by age and cleft type. Demographic, clinical, and resource utilization data were collected.Twenty-eight patients were included (20 endoscopic, 8 open). Mean age, rates of tracheostomy and vocal fold immobility, and distribution of cleft types were not different between the 2 groups (all P > .2). Mean operative time (P = .004) and duration of hospital stay (P < .001) were significantly shorter in the endoscopic group. All repairs were intact in both groups at final postoperative endoscopy. Rates of persistent laryngeal penetration or aspiration on swallow study were not different between groups (P = 1.000), although results were available for only 11 patients.Endoscopic laryngeal cleft repair using a mass-closure technique provides a durable result while requiring significantly shorter operative times and hospital stays than open repair and avoiding the potential morbidity of laryngofissure. However, open repair may allow the simultaneous performance of other airway reconstructive procedures and may be a useful salvage technique when endoscopic repair fails. Postoperative swallowing results require further study.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0194599815576718

    View details for Web of Science ID 000357297000019

    View details for PubMedID 25782984

  • Standardized Outcome and Reporting Measures in Pediatric Head and Neck Lymphatic Malformations OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY Balakrishnan, K., Bauman, N., Chun, R. H., Darrow, D. H., Grimmer, J. F., Perkins, J. A., Richter, G. T., Shin, J. J., Shivaram, G. M., Sidell, D. R., Elluru, R. G. 2015; 152 (5): 948-953

    Abstract

    To develop general and site-specific treatment effect and outcome measures to standardize the reporting of head and neck lymphatic malformation (HNLM) treatments.Consensus statement/expert opinion.Multiple tertiary academic institutions.The modified Delphi method is an iterative process of collecting expert opinions, refining opinions through discussion and feedback, statistically aggregating opinions, and using these aggregates to generate consensus opinion in the absence of other data. The modified Delphi method was used by a multi-institutional group of otolaryngology and interventional radiology experts in the field of vascular anomalies to formulate a list of recommended reporting outcomes for the study and treatment of head and neck lymphatic malformations.Through 3 rounds of iteration, 10 expert panelists refined 98 proposed outcome measures and 9 outcome categories to a final consensus set of 50 recommended outcome measures in 3 global categories (general, demographics, and treatment complications) and 5 site-specific categories (orbit, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and neck).We propose the first consensus set of standardized reporting measures for clinical and treatment outcomes in studies of HNLMs. Consistent outcome measures across future studies will facilitate comparison of treatment options and allow systematic review. We hope that these guidelines facilitate the design and reporting of subsequent HNLM studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0194599815577602

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354261400029

    View details for PubMedID 25829389

  • Primary Surgery vs Primary Sclerotherapy for Head and Neck Lymphatic Malformations JAMA OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD & NECK SURGERY Balakrishnan, K., Menezes, M. D., Chen, B. S., Magit, A. E., Perkins, J. A. 2014; 140 (1): 41–45

    Abstract

    The optimal treatment for head and neck lymphatic malformations (LMs) is unknown. To our knowledge, this is the first head-to-head comparison of primary surgery and sclerotherapy for this condition.To compare surgery and sclerotherapy as initial treatment for head and neck LMs.Retrospective cohort study including patients in 2 pediatric vascular anomaly programs receiving treatment for head and neck LMs.Primary surgery or primary sclerotherapy and any subsequent therapy within 1 year.Treatment effectiveness was measured by (1) need for further therapy after first treatment and within 1 year and (2) change in Cologne Disease Score (CDS). Resource utilization was reflected by total intervention number, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) days, and tracheostomy placement.A total of 174 patients were studied. Their mean (SD) age at presentation was 4.2 (4.7) years; 45.1% were female. The initial treatment was surgery in 55.8%, sclerotherapy in 35.1%, and other interventions in 9.1%. The LM stage ranged from 1 to 5, with similar distributions (P = .15) across initial treatment types; 31.2% of LMs were macrocystic, 34.8% were microcystic, and 33.9% were mixed, with similar distributions across treatment types. Patients receiving sclerotherapy had worse pretreatment CDS subscores for respiration, nutrition, and speech (all P ≤ .02). In univariate analysis, initial surgery and initial sclerotherapy had similar effectiveness after the first intervention (P = .21) and at 1 year (P = .30). In multivariate analysis controlling for lesion stage and type, initial surgery and sclerotherapy did not differ in effectiveness after the first intervention (P = .28) or at 1 year (P = .97). Total CDS and subscale changes were similar between treatment types except for the nutrition subscale. Treatment type did not predict total number of interventions (P = .64), total hospital days (P = .34), total ICU days (P = .59), or higher likelihood of subsequent tracheostomy (P = .36). Higher LM stage predicted more hospital and ICU days and higher likelihood of tracheostomy (all P ≤ .02).In this multisite comparison, initial surgery and sclerotherapy for head and neck LMs were similar in effectiveness and resource utilization. Higher stage predicted greater resource utilization.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaoto.2013.5849

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331369700007

    View details for PubMedID 24288004

  • Sclerotherapy for lymphatic malformations of head and neck: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of vascular surgery. Venous and lymphatic disorders De Maria, L., De Sanctis, P., Balakrishnan, K., Tollefson, M., Brinjikji, W. 2020; 8 (1): 154–64

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Percutaneous sclerotherapy is a commonly used modality for treatment of lymphatic malformations (LMs) of the head, face, and neck. The safety and efficacy of sclerotherapy with various agents for diverse pathologic types of LMs have not been fully established. We present the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the safety and efficacy of percutaneous sclerotherapy for treatment of LMs of the head, face, and neck.METHODS: We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase from 2000 to 2018 for studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of percutaneous sclerotherapy of head, face, and neck LMs. Two independent reviewers selected studies and abstracted data. The primary outcomes were complete and partial resolution of the LM. Data were analyzed using random-effects meta-analysis.RESULTS: There were 25 studies reporting on 726 patients included. The overall rate of complete cure of any pathologic type of LM after percutaneous sclerotherapy with any agent was 50.5% (95% confidence interval, 36.6%-64.3%). Macrocystic lesions had a cure rate of 53.1% compared with cure rates of 35.1% for microcystic lesions and 31.1% for mixed lesions. Regarding agents, doxycycline had the highest cure rate (62.4%) compared with all other agents. Overall permanent morbidity or mortality was 1.2% (95% confidence interval, 0.4%-2.0%) with no deaths. I2 values were >50% for most outcomes, indicating substantial heterogeneity.CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review and meta-analysis of 25 studies and >700 patients found that percutaneous sclerotherapy is a safe and effective modality for treatment of LMs of the head, neck, and face.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvsv.2019.09.007

    View details for PubMedID 31734224

  • Sclerotherapy for Venous Malformations of Head and Neck: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Neurointervention De Maria, L., De Sanctis, P., Balakrishnan, K., Tollefson, M., Brinjikji, W. 2020

    Abstract

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies performing sclerotherapy for treatment of venous malformations (VMs) of the face, head and neck. It is our hope that data from this study could be used to better inform providers and patients regarding the benefits and risks of percutaneous sclerotherapy for treatment of face, head and neck VMs. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE from 2000-2018 for studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of percutaneous sclerotherapy of neck, face and head VMs. Two independent reviewers selected studies and abstracted data. The primary outcomes were complete and partial resolution of the VM. Data were analyzed using random-effects meta-analysis. Thirty-seven studies reporting on 2,067 patients were included. The overall rate of complete cure following percutaneous sclerotherapy with any agent was 64.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 57.4-72.0%). Sodium tetradecyl sulfate had the lowest complete cure rate at 55.5% (95% CI, 36.1-74.9%) while pingyangmycin had the highest cure rate at 82.9% (95% CI, 71.1-94.7%). Overall patient satisfaction rates were 91.0% (95% CI, 86.1-95.9%). Overall quality of life improvement was 78.9% (95% CI, 67.0-90.8%). Overall permanent morbidity/mortality was 0.8% (95% CI, 0.3-1.3%) with no cases of mortality. Our systematic review and meta-analysis of 37 studies and over 2,000 patients found that percutaneous sclerotherapy is a very safe and effective treatment modality for treatment of VMs of the head, neck and face.

    View details for DOI 10.5469/neuroint.2019.00213

    View details for PubMedID 31940716

  • Coordinated approach to spinal and tracheal reconstruction in a patient with morquio syndrome. International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology Kiessling, P., Stans, A. A., Dearani, J. A., Boesch, R. P., Fogelson, J. L., Matsumoto, J. M., Haile, D. T., Balakrishnan, K. 2020; 128: 109721

    Abstract

    Morquio syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease with manifestations ranging from mild to severe phenotype. Mechanical spinal cord injury and airway insufficiency are major causes of mortality. A 17-year-old male patient with severe Morquio syndrome presented with cervical and upper thoracic spinal stenosis with spinal cord myelopathy, and progressive severe tracheal stenosis. Coordinated care among otolaryngology, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, anesthesiology, cardiovascular surgery, radiology, and pulmonology teams facilitated the successful planning and execution of two major surgical interventions in rapid succession. This is the first description of a successful coordinated spine and airway repair in the literature.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.109721

    View details for PubMedID 31639621

  • International Pediatric ORL Group (IPOG) Robin Sequence consensus recommendations. International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology Fayoux, P., Daniel, S. J., Allen, G., Balakrishnan, K., Boudewyns, A., Cheng, A., De Alarcon, A., Goel, D., Hart, C. K., Leboulanger, N., Lee, G., Moreddu, E., Muntz, H., Rahbar, R., Nicollas, R., Rogers-Vizena, C. R., Russell, J., Rutter, M. J., Smith, R. J., Wyatt, M., Zalzal, G., Resnick, C. M. 2019; 130: 109855

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: To provide recommendations for the comprehensive management of airway obstruction in patients with Robin Sequence.METHODS: Expert opinion by the members of the International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG).RESULTS: The consensus statement provides recommendations for medical specialists who manage infants with Robin Sequence including: evaluation and treatment considerations for commonly debated issues in post-natal airway obstruction, assessment of antenatal obstruction and perinatal airway management.CONCLUSION: Consensus recommendations are aimed at improving management of airway obstruction in patients with Robin Sequence.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.109855

    View details for PubMedID 31896499

  • Inability to Mask Ventilate During Myringotomy Tube Replacement: A Case Report. A&A practice Wong, A. V., Balakrishnan, K., Nemergut, M. E. 2019

    Abstract

    We present the case of a 3-year-old female with multiple congenital anomalies, including postprandial otorrhea, who developed the inability to be mask ventilated secondary to a combination of velopharyngeal insufficiency and tympanic membrane perforation. When applied by mask, positive pressure ventilation was observed to preferentially escape the patient's left ear, resulting in significant air leak, insufficient tidal volumes, hypoventilation, and severe hypoxemia. The problem was remedied by the insertion of a finger into the patient's external auditory meatus, which controlled the air leak until the surgical team could provide definitive surgical correction of the velopharyngeal insufficiency and nasopharyngeal reflux.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/XAA.0000000000001151

    View details for PubMedID 31850923

  • Competency-Based Assessment Tool for Pediatric Tracheotomy: International Modified Delphi Consensus. The Laryngoscope Propst, E. J., Wolter, N. E., Ishman, S. L., Balakrishnan, K., Deonarain, A. R., Mehta, D., Zalzal, G., Pransky, S. M., Roy, S., Myer, C. M., Torre, M., Johnson, R. F., Ludemann, J. P., Derkay, C. S., Chun, R. H., Hong, P., Molter, D. W., Prager, J. D., Nguyen, L. H., Rutter, M. J., Myer, C. M., Zur, K. B., Sidell, D. R., Johnson, L. B., Cotton, R. T., Hart, C. K., Willging, J. P., Zdanski, C. J., Manoukian, J. J., Lam, D. J., Bauman, N. M., Gantwerker, E. A., Husein, M., Inglis, A. F., Green, G. E., Javia, L. R., Schraff, S., Soma, M. A., Deutsch, E. S., Sobol, S. E., Ida, J. B., Choi, S., Uwiera, T. C., Shah, U. K., White, D. R., Wootten, C. T., El-Hakim, H., Bromwich, M. A., Richter, G. T., Vijayasekaran, S., Smith, M. E., Vaccani, J., Hartnick, C. J., Faucett, E. A. 2019

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Create a competency-based assessment tool for pediatric tracheotomy.STUDY DESIGN: Blinded, modified, Delphi consensus process.METHODS: Using the REDCap database, a list of 31 potential items was circulated to 65 expert surgeons who perform pediatric tracheotomy. In the first round, items were rated as "keep" or "remove," and comments were incorporated. In the second round, experts were asked to rate the importance of each item on a seven-point Likert scale. Consensus criteria were determined a priori with a goal of 7 to 25 final items.RESULTS: The first round achieved a response rate of 39/65 (60.0%), and returned questionnaires were 99.5% complete. All items were rated as "keep," and 137 comments were incorporated. In the second round, 30 task-specific and seven previously validated global rating items were distributed, and the response rate was 44/65 (67.7%), with returned questionnaires being 99.3% complete. Of the Task-Specific Items, 13 reached consensus, 10 were near consensus, and 7 did not achieve consensus. For the 7 previously validated global rating items, 5 reached consensus and two were near consensus.CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to reach consensus on the important steps involved in pediatric tracheotomy using a modified Delphi consensus process. These items can now be considered to create a competency-based assessment tool for pediatric tracheotomy. Such a tool will hopefully allow trainees to focus on the important aspects of this procedure and help teaching programs standardize how they evaluate trainees during this procedure.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 5 Laryngoscope, 2019.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lary.28461

    View details for PubMedID 31821571

  • Temporary bronchial stenting for airway compression in the interstage palliation of functional single ventricle ANNALS OF PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY Barnes, J., Boesch, R., Balakrishnan, K., Said, S. M., Van Dorn, C. S. 2019; 12 (3): 308–11

    Abstract

    The Norwood procedure is the first of three palliative surgical procedures offered for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). Due to the small size of the thorax and proximity of airway and vascular structures, compression of the airway is possible following the Norwood procedure. We describe the management of an infant with HLHS following Stage I surgical palliation who developed refractory respiratory failure secondary to severe left bronchial compression.

    View details for DOI 10.4103/apc.APC_94_18

    View details for Web of Science ID 000482007400018

    View details for PubMedID 31516290

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6716319

  • Impact of a Formal Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Curriculum: A Prospective, Controlled Trial LARYNGOSCOPE Jamal, N., Bowe, S. N., Brenner, M. J., Balakrishnan, K., Bent, J. P. 2019; 129 (5): 1100–1106

    Abstract

    To assess the impact of implementing a dedicated Patient Safety and Quality Improvement (PSQI) curriculum for otolaryngology residents.Residents in two otolaryngology residency programs were recruited to participate in the study. Residents at institution A (intervention group) participated in a formal, newly developed, year-long PSQI curriculum. Residents at institution B (control group) participated in traditional, morbidity, and mortality conference-based PSQI education, with no formal curriculum in place. Curriculum participants completed anonymous surveys to assess learner satisfaction. Validated instruments were administered to assess for changes in resident confidence in the ability to develop PSQI projects, their attitudes toward patient safety, and PSQI-related knowledge. The number and quality of PSQI-related resident projects were also assessed.Survey responses demonstrated excellent learner satisfaction with the curriculum. Based on validated instrument-based responses, both programs demonstrated similar confidence scores (P = 0.05), safety attitudes (P = 0.82), and PSQI knowledge (P = 0.29) at the beginning of the year. The residents of institution A demonstrated significant improvement in confidence (P = 0.00009) and knowledge (P = 0.0006) after completing the curriculum, with no improvement noted for residents at institution B in either confidence (P = 0.06) or knowledge (P = 0.79). Neither program demonstrated improvement in attitudes toward patient safety at the end of the year-long curriculum.Implementing a formal curriculum dedicated to PSQI led to an improvement in PSQI-related project development confidence and PSQI knowledge. Attitudes toward safety did not improve over the course of a year. Longer-term studies involving multiple institutions and other interventions are needed to evaluate the impact and duration of changes that occur.1b Laryngoscope, 129:1100-1106, 2019.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lary.27527

    View details for Web of Science ID 000467083900029

    View details for PubMedID 30443935

  • Identification of aggressive Gardner syndrome phenotype associated with a de novo APC variant, c.4666dup COLD SPRING HARBOR MOLECULAR CASE STUDIES Kiessling, P., Dowling, E., Huang, Y., Ho, M., Balakrishnan, K., Weigel, B. J., Highsmith, W., Niu, Z., Schimmenti, L. A. 2019; 5 (2)

    Abstract

    Gardner syndrome describes a variant phenotype of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), primarily characterized by extracolonic lesions including osteomas, dental abnormalities, epidermal cysts, and soft tissue tumors. We describe a 2-yr-old boy presenting with a 2-cm soft tissue mass of the forehead. Pathologic evaluation revealed a nuchal-type/Gardner-associated fibroma. Sequencing of the APC gene revealed a pathologic variant c.4666dupA. Parental sequencing of both blood and buccal tissue supported the de novo occurrence of this pathologic variant. Further imaging revealed a number of additional lesions including a large lumbar paraspinal desmoid, a 1-cm palpable lesion posterior to the left knee, firm lesions on bilateral heels, and multiple subdermal lesions. Colonoscopy was negative. This case illustrates a genetic variant of Gardner syndrome resulting in an aggressive early childhood phenotype and highlights the need for an individualized approach to treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1101/mcs.a003640

    View details for Web of Science ID 000462938400004

    View details for PubMedID 30696621

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6549566

  • Medialization laryngoplasty/arytenoid adduction: US outcomes, discharge status, and utilization trends LARYNGOSCOPE Ekbom, D. C., Orbelo, D. M., Sangaralingham, L. R., Mwangi, R., Van Houten, H. K., Balakrishnan, K. 2019; 129 (4): 952–60

    Abstract

    To evaluate trends, outcomes, and healthcare utilization following medialization laryngoplasty (ML) with or without arytenoid adduction (AA) over 10 years.Retrospective observational study.Using OptumLabs Data Warehouse, trends, outcomes, and healthcare utilization from 2006 to 2015 were examined with a focus on discharge type (same day or not). Predictors of postoperative emergency department (ED) use and hospitalization were determined by multivariable logistic regression.Overall rate of ML was 1.09 per 100 thousand enrollees per year. Of these, 7.8% ML were combined with an AA. Outpatient same-day discharge represented 62.0% (1,142 of 1,843) of total patients, steadily increasing over the 10-year period (P < 0.01). There was a 5.9% revision ML rate and 1.0% rate of tracheotomy within 1 day of ML. A total of 5.6% visited an ED, and 5.4% were admitted to a hospital following initial discharge within 30 days. Same-day discharge was found to be a predictor of hospitalization within 30 days after ML (odds ratio [OR] 1.74, P = 0.0452), along with Elixhauser comorbidity index of 4 + (OR 5.74, P = 0.0001). Pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and weight loss were top predictors of ED visit or hospitalization.To our knowledge, this is the first search evaluating national claims data for ML with or without AA. Overall rate of ML is low, and same-day discharge has become more common over a 10-year period, with an associated higher 30-day hospital admission risk. Correct patient selection criteria for disposition status cannot be fully determined based on current data, but a high Elixhauser comorbidity index clearly carries increased risk for hospitalization after initial discharge.4 Laryngoscope, 129:952-960, 2019.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lary.27538

    View details for Web of Science ID 000462650400043

    View details for PubMedID 30467860

  • Tracheal Submucosal Lymphovenous Malformation AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Bourne, M. H., Kern, R. M., White, D., Balakrishnan, K. 2019; 199 (4): E26–E27

    View details for DOI 10.1164/rccm.201803-0496IM

    View details for Web of Science ID 000458886800001

    View details for PubMedID 30281321

  • International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG) consensus recommendations: Diagnosis, pre-operative, operative and post-operative pediatric choanal atresia care. International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology Moreddu, E., Rizzi, M., Adil, E., Balakrishnan, K., Chan, K., Cheng, A., Daniel, S. J., de Alarcon, A., Hart, C., Hartnick, C., Inglis, A., Leboulanger, N., Pransky, S., Rahbar, R., Russell, J., Rutter, M., Sidell, D., Smith, R. J., Soma, M., Spratley, J., Thompson, D., Trozzi, M., Ward, R., Wyatt, M., Yeung, J., Zalzal, G., Zur, K., Nicollas, R. 2019; 123: 151–55

    Abstract

    To provide recommendations to otolaryngologists and allied physicians for the comprehensive management of young infants who present with signs or symptoms of choanal atresia.A two-iterative delphi method questionnaire was used to establish expert recommendations by the members of the International Otolaryngology Group (IPOG), on the diagnostic, intra-operative, post-operative and revision surgery considerations.Twenty-eight members completed the survey, in 22 tertiary-care center departments representing 8 countries. The main consensual recommendations were: nasal endoscopy or fiberscopy and CT imaging are recommended for diagnosis; unilateral choanal atresia repair should be delayed after at least age 6 months whenever possible; transnasal endoscopic repair is the preferred technique; long term follow-up is recommended (minimum one year) using nasal nasofiberscopy or rigid endoscopy, without systematic imaging.Choanal atresia care consensus recommendations are aimed at improving patient-centered care in neonates, infants and children with choanal atresia.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.05.010

    View details for PubMedID 31103745

  • Revision Thoracic Slide Tracheoplasty: Outcomes Following Unsuccessful Tracheal Reconstruction LARYNGOSCOPE Sidell, D. R., Hart, C. K., Tabangin, M. E., Bryant, R., Rutter, M. J., Manning, P. B., Meinzen-Derr, J., Balakrishnan, K., Yang, C., de Alarcon, A. 2018; 128 (9): 2181–86

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lary.27145

    View details for Web of Science ID 000446523700040

  • Cost comparison and safety of emergency department conscious sedation for the removal of ear foreign bodies INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY Olson, M. D., Saw, J., Visscher, S. L., Balakrishnan, K. 2018; 110: 140–43

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relative cost and safety of ear foreign body (FB) removal via conscious sedation in the emergency department.A retrospective review of patients presenting from 2000 to 2015 to the emergency department at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota was performed. 63 patients requiring sedation for ear foreign body removal were identified. Descriptive data, safety data, and costs were obtained for the study.There were no appreciable differences in patient safety outcomes and otologic outcomes in patients who received sedation in the emergency department or anesthesia in the operating room for FB removal. Cost analysis demonstrated increased cost associated with operating room utilization verses conscious sedation in the emergency department, with the greatest cost increase being in patients evaluated first in the emergency department and then sent to the operating room.Ear foreign body removal in the emergency department is shows a similar safety profile to removal in the operating room, but at a markedly lower cost. Emergency department conscious sedation should be considered a viable option in appropriately selected patients with this common problem given these results.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.05.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000442844700029

    View details for PubMedID 29859576

  • Revision thoracic slide tracheoplasty: Outcomes following unsuccessful tracheal reconstruction. The Laryngoscope Sidell, D. R., Hart, C. K., Tabangin, M. E., Bryant, R. 3., Rutter, M. J., Manning, P. B., Meinzen-Derr, J., Balakrishnan, K., Yang, C., de Alarcon, A. 2018

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Over the past decade, thoracic slide tracheoplasty (TST) has become the principal operation in the management of congenital tracheal stenosis. The purpose of this report was to describe our experience with revision TST following unsuccessful prior tracheal reconstruction.STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis at an academic children's hospital.METHODS: Patients undergoing TST on cardiopulmonary bypass between January 2005 and May 2014 were reviewed. Patients with a history of prior airway surgery were extracted for further analysis. Preoperative patient variables and postoperative outcomes were evaluated and compared between patients undergoing revision slide tracheoplasty (RTST) and a control group of 26 matched patients undergoing primary surgery TST.RESULTS: Twenty-six revision patients (25 referrals, one primary patient) of 162 patients reviewed over the study period met inclusion criteria. Twenty-three patients had a history of complete tracheal rings, and three patients had cartilaginous deficiency. A total of 41 airway reconstruction procedures had been performed prior to RTST. When compared to primary TST, patients undergoing RTST required fewer cardiac procedures intraoperatively, and fewer mean ventilator hours (P=.01) postoperatively. There was no significant difference in the median length of stay, requirement of >48 hours ventilation, or postoperative complications between groups. There was one nonsurgical postoperative mortality following RTST.CONCLUSIONS: Despite some differences in the postoperative management when compared to nonrevision cases, revision TST can be successfully performed after prior tracheal reconstruction with good postoperative outcomes.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 2018.

    View details for PubMedID 29729016

  • Indirect management of full-thickness tracheal erosion in a complex pediatric patient INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY Trousdale, W. H., Boesch, R., Orvidas, L. J., Balakrishnan, K. 2018; 107: 155–59

    Abstract

    Prolonged tracheostomy dependence in pediatric patients can be associated with significant complications, including damage to the tracheal wall requiring reconstruction. We present a case of an 8 year-old female with full-thickness tracheal erosion secondary to the presence of a tracheostomy tube combined with a narrow thoracic inlet. A direct tracheal reconstruction was considered but eliminated due to the poor tissue quality of the trachea. Instead, a multi-disciplinary surgical team conceived of a novel indirect approach to manage the patient's tracheal defect. To our knowledge the use of indirect repair of a full-thickness tracheal defect has not been reported in the literature.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.02.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000428492100030

    View details for PubMedID 29501299

  • Trans-nasal flexible bronchoscopy in wheezing children: Diagnostic yield, impact on therapy, and prevalence of laryngeal cleft PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY Boesch, R. P., Baughn, J. M., Cofer, S. A., Balakrishnan, K. 2018; 53 (3): 310–15

    Abstract

    Persistent or recurrent wheezing is a common indication for flexible bronchoscopy, as anatomic and infectious or inflammatory changes are highly prevalent. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of anatomic, infectious, and inflammatory disease in a cohort of children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy for wheezing or poorly controlled asthma.We retrospectively reviewed all children <18 years old who underwent flexible bronchoscopy at our center from October 29, 2012-December 31, 2016 for the primary or secondary indication of wheezing (persistent, frequently recurring, or atypical) or poorly controlled asthma.A total of 101 procedures were identified in 94 patients, aged 3 months to 18 years. Potential anatomic causes for wheezing identified in 45.7% of patients and inflammatory changes in 49.5% of procedures. This included the identification of a laryngeal cleft in 17% for which half required medical or surgical management. Tracheobronchomalacia was the most commonly identified anatomic lesion. Thirty children from this cohort had poorly controlled asthma. Among this subgroup, 54% had increased neutrophils on BAL and 30% had an anatomic contributor to wheezing, including one with a laryngeal cleft. Based on findings from flexible bronchoscopy, management changes made in 63.8% of patients. This included medication changes in 54 and surgical intervention in 9.We conclude that transnasal flexible bronchoscopy has high yield in children with recurrent, persistent, or atypical wheezing and those with poorly controlled asthma. Laryngeal cleft has a reasonably high prevalence that warrants specific evaluation in this population.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ppul.23829

    View details for Web of Science ID 000425450000009

    View details for PubMedID 28910519

  • Definitive airway management after prehospital supraglottic rescue airway in pediatric trauma Hernandez, M. C., Antiel, R. M., Balakrishnan, K., Zielinski, M. D., Klinkner, D. B. W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. 2018: 352–56

    Abstract

    Supraglottic airway (SGA) use and outcomes in pediatric trauma are poorly understood. We compared outcomes between patients receiving prehospital SGA versus bag mask ventilation (BVM).We reviewed pediatric multisystem trauma patients (2005-2016), comparing SGA and BVM. Primary outcome was adequacy of oxygenation and ventilation. Additional measures included tracheostomy, mortality and abbreviated injury scores (AIS).Ninety patients were included (SGA, n=17 and BVM, n=73). SGA patients displayed increased median head AIS (5 [4-5] vs 2 [0-4], p=0.001) and facial AIS (1 [0-2] vs 0 [0-0], p=0.03). SGA indications were multiple failed intubation attempts (n=12) and multiple failed attempts with poor visualization (n=5). Median intubation attempts were 2 [1-3] whereas BVM patients had none. Compared to BVM, SGA patients demonstrated inadequate oxygenation/ventilation (75% vs 41%), increased tracheostomy rates (31% vs 8.1%), and increased 24-h (38% vs 10.8%) and overall mortality (75% vs 14%) (all p<0.05).Escalating intubation attempts and severe facial AIS were associated with tracheostomy. Inadequacy of oxygenation/ventilation was more frequent in SGA compared to BVM patients. SGA patients demonstrate poor clinical outcomes; however, SGAs may be necessary in increased craniofacial injury patterns. These factors may be incorporated into a management algorithm to improve definitive airway management after SGA.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2017.10.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000425899500038

    View details for PubMedID 29096887

  • National Multispecialty Survey Results: Comparing Morbidity and Mortality Conference Practices within and outside Otolaryngology OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY Balakrishnan, K., Arjmand, E. M., Nussenbaum, B., Snyderman, C. 2018; 158 (2): 273–79

    Abstract

    Objective The objective is to describe variations in the otolaryngology morbidity and mortality (M&M) conference and to compare with other specialties. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting The setting included otolaryngology departments across the United States and nonotolaryngology medical and surgical departments at 4 academic medical centers. Subjects and Methods Participants were members of a national otolaryngology quality/safety network and nonotolaryngology quality leaders at 4 large academic hospitals. Surveys were administered January 2017. Respondents described M&M conference practices, goals, and educational role. Results Twenty-eight of 39 individuals representing 28 institutions completed the otolaryngology survey (72% response rate). Of 197 individuals, 60 (30% response rate) representing 11 surgical and 20 nonsurgical specialties completed the comparison survey. Twenty-seven of 28 otolaryngologists (46 of 60 nonotolaryngologists) worked in academic settings. All otolaryngology programs conducted an M&M conference: 54% discussed all adverse events and errors; 32% used standard case selection processes; 70% used structured discussion, usually root cause analysis (64%); and 32% classified harm level. In comparison with other specialties, otolaryngology programs were more likely to discuss all adverse events and errors ( P = .01). Most conferences led to quality projects and intrainstitutional communication: 22% communicated to patients and families; 73% of respondents thought that M&M conferences should be standardized or use "best practices." In both surveys, improving patient care was rated the conference's most important function, followed by trainee education and culture change. Patient care and practice-based learning were rated the most relevant Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Core Competencies in both surveys. Conclusions Academic otolaryngology M&M practices generally align with other specialties, but specifics vary widely, making collaborative quality improvement challenging. Educational and administrative priorities cross specialties. Most respondents thought that standardization and best practices are worthwhile. Nonacademic practice data are needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0194599817737993

    View details for Web of Science ID 000424058700012

    View details for PubMedID 29064313

  • Primary cervical leiomyoma: A rare cause of a posterior neck mass in a pediatric patient INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY Oliver, J. D., Anzalone, C., Balakrishnan, K. 2018; 104: 166–69

    Abstract

    A 13-year-old male presents for evaluation of a right-sided posterolateral neck mass, first noted four years prior to presentation; incisional biopsy two years ago suggested a benign lymph node. Recent growth and increased pain prompted referral to our tertiary care center. MR imaging revealed a densely calcified mass in the right posterior paraspinous muscles with intense enhancement with gadolinium contrast, approximately 5 cm × 2.8 cm x 4.6 cm. Incisional biopsy showed leiomyoma with extensive dystrophic calcifications. This case describes a rare finding of extraesophageal leiomyoma of the neck; this is only the second such case reported in a pediatric patient.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.11.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000423646800034

    View details for PubMedID 29287860

  • International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group: Consensus guidelines on the diagnosis and management of type I laryngeal clefts INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY Yeung, J. C., Balakrishnan, K., Cheng, A. L., Daniel, S. J., Garabedian, E., Hart, C. K., Inglis, A. F., Leboulanger, N., Liming, B. J., Moreddu, E., Nicollas, R., Russell, J. D., Rutter, M. J., Sidell, D. R., Spratley, J., Soma, M., Thierry, B., Thompson, D. M., Triglia, J., Watters, K., Wyatt, M., Zalzal, G. H., Zur, K. B., Rahbar, R. 2017; 101: 51–56

    Abstract

    The diagnosis and management of type I laryngeal clefts can be controversial and varies across centers and surgeons. Using existing peer-reviewed literature to develop an expert-based consensus will help guide physicians in the treatment of these patients as well as develop research hypotheses to further study this condition.To provide recommendations for the diagnosis and management of type I laryngeal clefts.Determination of current expert- and literature-based recommendations, via a survey of the International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group, using a modified Delphi method.Multinational, multi-institutional, tertiary pediatric hospitals.Consensus recommendations include diagnostic workup, medical management, pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative considerations for type I laryngeal clefts.This guide on the diagnosis and management of patients with type I laryngeal clefts is aimed at improving patient care and promoting future hypothesis generation and research to validate the recommendations made here.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.07.016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000413713100010

    View details for PubMedID 28964310

  • Three-dimensional printed models in multidisciplinary planning of complex tracheal reconstruction LARYNGOSCOPE Balakrishnan, K., Cofer, S., Matsumoto, J. M., Dearani, J. A., Boesch, R. 2017; 127 (4): 967–70

    Abstract

    Three-dimensional printed models are increasingly used in medicine and surgery, but applications of these models in the planning of operative procedures is not well described. In particular, their benefits have not been documented in complex, multiservice, high-risk operations. We describe five cases of complex pediatric tracheal reconstruction for which three-dimensional models had specific benefits in planning as well as in education of trainees, operating room staff, and patient families. We also describe our method for producing models so that others can adopt the technology if desired. Laryngoscope, 127:967-970, 2017.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lary.26353

    View details for Web of Science ID 000397572700040

    View details for PubMedID 27753107

  • Endoscopic anterior-posterior cricoid split for pediatric bilateral vocal fold paralysis. Laryngoscope Rutter, M. J., Hart, C. K., Alarcon, A. d., Daniel, S., Parikh, S. R., Balakrishnan, K., Lam, D., Johnson, K., Sidell, D. R. 2017

    Abstract

    Children with bilateral true vocal fold immobility (BTVFI) may present with significant airway distress necessitating tracheostomy. The objective of this study was to review our preliminary experience with the anterior-posterior cricoid split (APCS), an endoscopic intervention used as an alternative to tracheostomy in children with BTVFI.Multicenter review.A review of patients undergoing endoscopic APCS for BTVFI at four institutions was performed. Patients were evaluated for the ability to ventilate without the requirement for tracheostomy or reintubation. Additional data extracted included the duration of intubation following APCS, the requirement for additional procedures, and demographics. Surgical success was defined as the ability to avoid tracheostomy and to cap or decannulate without respiratory symptoms if a tracheostomy was present prior to APCS.Nineteen APCS procedures were performed between October 2010 and June 2016. There were 12 male patients, the mean age at APCS was 4.7 months. BTVFI was primarily idiopathic (58%) and associated with other comorbidities (74%). All patients were candidates for tracheostomy prior to APCS. Fourteen patients (74%) were considered surgical successes. Of the unsuccessful patients, three (66%) required tracheostomy following APCS, and one was treated with a posterior cartilage graft. There was one nonsurgical mortality greater than 2 months after APCS and thought to be unrelated to the airway.Endoscopic APCS appears to be a safe and effective intervention for pediatric BTVFI. Under the correct circumstances, this can be performed as a single procedure, obviating tracheostomy. Further study is warranted.4 Laryngoscope, 2017.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lary.26547

    View details for PubMedID 28271539

  • Education on, Exposure to, and Management of Vascular Anomalies During Otolaryngology Residency and Pediatric Otolaryngology Fellowship JAMA OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD & NECK SURGERY Chun, R., Jabbour, N., Balakrishnan, K., Bauman, N., Darrow, D. H., Elluru, R., Grimmer, J., Perkins, J., Richter, G., Shin, J. 2016; 142 (7): 648–51

    Abstract

    The field of vascular anomalies presents diverse challenges in diagnosis and management. Although many lesions involve the head and neck, training in vascular anomalies is not universally included in otolaryngology residencies and pediatric otolaryngology (POTO) fellowships.To explore the education in, exposure to, and comfort level of otolaryngology trainees with vascular anomalies.A survey was distributed to 39 POTO fellows and 44 residents in postgraduate year 5 who matched into POTO fellowships from April 22 through June 16, 2014.Survey responses from trainees on exposure to, education on, and comfort with vascular anomalies.Forty-four residents in postgraduate year 5 who applied to POTO fellowships and 39 POTO fellows were emailed the survey. Fourteen respondents were unable to be contacted owing to lack of a current email address. Thirty-six of 69 residents and fellows (18 fellows and 18 residents [52%]) responded to the survey. Twenty-seven trainees (75%) reported no participation in a vascular anomalies clinic during residency; 6 of these 27 individuals (22%) trained at institutions with a vascular anomalies clinic but did not participate in the clinic, and 28 of the 36 respondents (78%) reported that they had less than adequate or no exposure to vascular anomalies in residency. Among POTO fellows, 11 of 17 (65%) did not participate in a vascular anomalies clinic during fellowship, even though 8 of the 11 had a vascular anomalies clinic at their fellowship program. During fellowship training, 12 of 18 fellows (67%) reported that they had adequate exposure to vascular anomalies. Only 20 respondents (56%) felt comfortable distinguishing among diagnoses of vascular anomalies, and only 4 residents (22%) and 9 fellows (50%) felt comfortable treating patients with vascular anomalies. All fellows believed that training in vascular anomalies was important in fellowship, and 100% of respondents indicated that increased exposure to diagnosis and management of vascular anomalies would have been beneficial to their ability to care for patients.These data indicate that most otolaryngology trainees do not receive formal training in vascular anomalies in residency and that such training is valued among graduating trainees. Conversely, most POTO fellows felt their exposure was adequate and 50% of fellows felt comfortable treating vascular anomalies. However, 65% of POTO fellows had no participation in a vascular anomalies clinic, where many patients are managed by a multidisciplinary team. This finding may indicate that POTO fellows may have a false sense of confidence in managing patients with vascular anomalies and that residency and fellowship programs may consider changes in didactic and clinical programs.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaoto.2016.0605

    View details for Web of Science ID 000380264600006

    View details for PubMedID 27124736

  • Predicting CPAP Use and Treatment Outcomes Using Composite Indices of Sleep Apnea Severity JOURNAL OF CLINICAL SLEEP MEDICINE Balakrishnan, K., James, K. T., Weaver, E. M. 2016; 12 (6): 849–54

    Abstract

    Measures of baseline sleep apnea disease burden (apnea-hypopnea index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale) predict continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence, but composite indices of sleep apnea severity (Sleep Apnea Severity Index, Modified Sleep Apnea Severity Index) may be more robust measures of disease burden. We tested the relative prognostic ability of each measure of sleep apnea disease burden to predict subsequent CPAP adherence and subjective sleep outcomes.Prospective cohort study at a tertiary academic sleep center. Patients (n = 323) underwent initial diagnostic polysomnography for suspected obstructive sleep apnea and 6 mo of subsequent CPAP therapy.Baseline apnea-hypopnea index and both composite indices predicted adherence to CPAP therapy at 6 mo in multivariate analyses (all p ≤ 0.001). Baseline Epworth Sleepiness Scale did not predict CPAP adherence (p = 0.22). Both composite indices were statistically stronger predictors of CPAP adherence at 6 mo than apnea-hypopnea index (p < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, baseline apnea-hypopnea index (p < 0.05) and both composite indices (both p < 0.04) predicted change in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, whereas only the composite indices predicted changes in Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (both p < 0.001). Adjustment for treatment adherence did not affect the relationship of the composite indices with change in Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (both p ≤ 0.005).Composite indices of baseline sleep apnea severity better predict objective CPAP adherence and subjective treatment outcomes than baseline apnea-hypopnea index and baseline Epworth Sleepiness Scale.

    View details for DOI 10.5664/jcsm.5884

    View details for Web of Science ID 000378334500011

    View details for PubMedID 26857052

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4877317

  • The Lymphatic Malformation Function (LMF) Instrument OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY Kirkham, E. M., Edwards, T. C., Weaver, E. M., Balakrishnan, K., Perkins, J. A. 2015; 153 (4): 656–62

    Abstract

    The Lymphatic Malformation Function (LMF) instrument is a preliminary parent-report assessment designed to measure outcomes in children with cervicofacial lymphatic malformation (LM). This study aimed to assess the measurement properties of the LMF, refine it, test criterion validity, and evaluate the test-retest reliability.Cross-sectional.Two pediatric tertiary referral centers.Parents of 60 children from 6 months to 15 years old with cervicofacial LM.Parents were recruited via mail and online. The LMF was administered on paper or online initially and again within 21 days. Response distributions and interitem correlations were examined for item reduction. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on retained items. Cronbach's α, Spearman correlation, and intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients were calculated to test internal consistency, criterion validity (compared to stage), and test-retest reliability, respectively.One item was removed due to a floor effect. The response scale was collapsed from a 5-point scale to a 3-point scale due to skewness. Six items were discarded due to redundancy (interitem correlations >0.7); 2 items were discarded due to factor loadings <0.4. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 2-factor structure explaining 84% of variance, and the domains Signs and Impacts had good internal consistency (all Cronbach's α >0.80 and <0.90), significant association with stage (P < .05), and good overall test-retest reliability (ICC, 0.82).The LMF has been refined into a 12-item, 2-domain instrument measuring LM-specific signs and impacts with internal consistency, criterion validity, and test-retest reliability.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0194599815594776

    View details for Web of Science ID 000362445800031

    View details for PubMedID 26195574

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5938064

  • Applying Cost Accounting to Operating Room Staffing in Otolaryngology: Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing and Outpatient Adenotonsillectomy OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY Balakrishnan, K., Goico, B., Arjmand, E. M. 2015; 152 (4): 684–90

    Abstract

    (1) To describe the application of a detailed cost-accounting method (time-driven activity-cased costing) to operating room personnel costs, avoiding the proxy use of hospital and provider charges. (2) To model potential cost efficiencies using different staffing models with the case study of outpatient adenotonsillectomy.Prospective cost analysis case study.Tertiary pediatric hospital.All otolaryngology providers and otolaryngology operating room staff at our institution.Time-driven activity-based costing demonstrated precise per-case and per-minute calculation of personnel costs. We identified several areas of unused personnel capacity in a basic staffing model. Per-case personnel costs decreased by 23.2% by allowing a surgeon to run 2 operating rooms, despite doubling all other staff. Further cost reductions up to a total of 26.4% were predicted with additional staffing rearrangements.Time-driven activity-based costing allows detailed understanding of not only personnel costs but also how personnel time is used. This in turn allows testing of alternative staffing models to decrease unused personnel capacity and increase efficiency.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0194599814568273

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352580000023

    View details for PubMedID 25623288

  • Prognostic Value of a Simplified Anatomically Based Nomenclature for Fetal Nuchal Lymphatic Anomalies OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY Longstreet, B., Balakrishnan, K., Saltzman, B., Perkins, J. A., Dighe, M. 2015; 152 (2): 342–47

    Abstract

    To propose an anatomic classification for fetal nuchal lymphatic anomalies that will be clinically useful and to evaluate the classification's value in predicting chromosomal abnormalities, pregnancy outcomes, other associated fetal anomalies, and spontaneous resolution of these lesions.Retrospective cohort study.Tertiary academic hospital and affiliated tertiary children's hospital.Mother-baby pairs diagnosed with fetal nuchal lymphatic anomalies in a prenatal ultrasound database. Anomalies were classified as nuchal thickening, dorsal lymphatic malformation, or ventral lymphatic malformation. Pregnancy outcomes, prevalence of chromosomal and anatomic abnormalities, and rates of spontaneous lesion resolution were determined for each group.The study included 189 patients: 58 with nuchal thickening, 120 with dorsal lymphatic malformation, and 11 with ventral lymphatic malformation. In fetuses for whom chromosomal analysis was available, chromosomal abnormalities were strongly associated with dorsal lymphatic malformations (83%), less associated with nuchal thickening (29%), and not associated with ventral lymphatic malformations. Dorsal lymphatic malformation predicted high rates of elective (43%) and spontaneous (20%) termination of pregnancy and showed the strongest association with cardiac, renal, and skeletal anomalies. Nuchal thickening was more likely to resolve in utero than dorsal lymphatic malformations, while no ventral lymphatic malformation resolved spontaneously.Fetal nuchal anomalies demonstrate significant and clinically important prognostic differences depending on their anatomic location. The simple classification system proposed here therefore provides useful information to clinicians involved in the pre- and postnatal management of children with these anomalies.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0194599814559190

    View details for Web of Science ID 000349468100027

    View details for PubMedID 25411310

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4672725

  • Composite Severity Indices Reflect Sleep Apnea Disease Burden More Comprehensively Than the Apnea-Hypopnea Index OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY Balakrishnan, K., James, K. T., Weaver, E. M. 2013; 148 (2): 324–30

    Abstract

    To compare 2 composite indices of sleep apnea disease burden with the commonly used apnea-hypopnea index with regard to baseline measurement of subjective and objective disease burden.Cross-sectional study.Tertiary academic medical center sleep laboratory.Patients with suspected diagnosis of sleep apnea undergoing first diagnostic polysomnography. Subjective data were collected via validated questionnaires; objective data were obtained by standardized physical examination, chart extraction, and polysomnography. Four subjective (patient-reported) disease burden measures and 3 objective (anatomic and physiologic) disease burden measures were used for validation. Associations between composite indices or apnea-hypopnea index and these 7 construct validation measures were compared using bootstrapped correlation coefficients.Two hundred sixteen subjects were included in the final analysis. Both composite disease burden indices showed clinically important or nearly important associations with 3 of 4 subjective validation measures and all 3 objective validation measures, whereas the apnea-hypopnea index was associated only with the objective validation measures.Composite indices of sleep apnea disease burden may capture the breadth of baseline sleep apnea disease burden, particularly subjective disease burden, better than the apnea-hypopnea index.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0194599812464468

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318361700023

    View details for PubMedID 23077154

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5940927

  • Management of Head and Neck Lymphatic Malformations FACIAL PLASTIC SURGERY Balakrishnan, K., Perkins, J. 2012; 28 (6): 596–602

    Abstract

    Lymphatic malformations are congenital vascular malformations most commonly found in the head and neck and typically presenting early in life. Although this disease entity has been recognized for more than a century, there is currently no standardization of disease staging or classification, of treatment paradigms, or of outcome measures. A wide variety of treatment modalities have been proposed. This article reviews diagnostic, evaluation, and treatment strategies for head and neck lymphatic malformations. It also provides the reader specific information to improve treatment outcomes in patients with these lesions. Finally, it advocates for standardization of LM assessment and treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0032-1329934

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311663000008

    View details for PubMedID 23188687

  • Applications and Outcomes of Orbital and Transorbital Endoscopic Surgery Balakrishnan, K., Moe, K. S. SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD. 2011: 815–20

    Abstract

    To prospectively evaluate the safety, effectiveness, and utility of orbital and transorbital endoscopic surgery.Case series with planned data collection.Level 1 trauma center and tertiary academic hospital.Consecutive sample of 107 patients undergoing orbital or transorbital endoscopic operations.Ability to achieve intraoperative goals using endoscopic approach; occurrence of predetermined intraoperative or postoperative complications.One hundred seven patients (aged 6-83 years) underwent orbital or transorbital endoscopic surgery for 6 different indications. Seven incisions were used. Endoscopic orbitotomies were made through all 4 orbital walls to access surrounding structures. Intraoperative goals were achieved endoscopically in 106 patients. Mean follow-up was 3 months (mean ± SD, 3.0 ± 3.5). No complication was directly related to surgical approach or use of endoscopy. Seventeen complications were detected in 2 categories: persistent diplopia and persistent vision change. No patient had vision loss. No nonfracture patient suffered a complication. Subgroup analysis demonstrated no difference in surgical success rates when compared with transnasal and transantral medial orbital wall and orbital floor repair and cerebrospinal fluid leak repair. Endoscopic visualization was advantageous in several respects: superior visualization and lighting, particularly posterior to the equator of the globe; image magnification; and video monitoring for education and operating room staff involvement. It also facilitated surgical navigation and computer-aided reconstruction.Orbital and transorbital endoscopy are versatile, effective, and safe approaches useful for addressing diverse urgent and elective problems. In appropriate clinical situations, these procedures may offer better access and visualization than open or transnasal approaches.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0194599810397285

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293998600027

    View details for PubMedID 21493355

  • Head and Neck Lymphatic Tumors and Bony Abnormalities: A Clinical and Molecular Review LYMPHATIC RESEARCH AND BIOLOGY Balakrishnan, K., Majesky, M., Perkins, J. A. 2011; 9 (4): 205–12

    Abstract

    Lymphatic malformations and lymphatic-derived tumors commonly involve the head and neck, where they may be associated with bony abnormalities and other systemic symptoms. The reasons for the association between these disorders and local skeletal changes are largely unknown, but such changes may cause significant disease-related morbidity. Ongoing work in molecular and developmental biology is beginning to uncover potential reasons for the bony abnormalities found in head and neck lymphatic disease; this article summarizes current knowledge on possible mechanisms underlying this association.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/lrb.2011.0018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299009200007

    View details for PubMedID 22196287

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3391938

  • Management of airway hemangiomas. Expert review of respiratory medicine Balakrishnan, K., Perkins, J. A. 2010; 4 (4): 455–62

    Abstract

    Airway infantile hemangiomas can cause life-threatening airway compromise from the first year of life. Diagnosis, treatment protocols and outcome measures are not standardized for this condition, making systematic assessment of treatments and outcomes difficult. This article summarizes the treatment options in use and provides an overview of their benefits and drawbacks. It also emphasizes the need for further investigation in this field and discusses the standardization that is required for such research to proceed in a useful manner. The article is divided into discussions of airway infantile hemangioma in general, medical therapy and surgical therapy. It concludes with predictions about the near future of airway infantile hemangioma research and therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1586/ers.10.46

    View details for PubMedID 20658907

  • Heat shock protein 70 binds its own messenger ribonucleic acid as part of a gene expression self-limiting mechanism CELL STRESS & CHAPERONES Balakrishnan, K., De Maio, A. 2006; 11 (1): 44–50

    Abstract

    Expression of heat shock proteins is a cellular response to a variety of stressors. HSP70, the major stress-induced heat shock protein, is involved in repair and protection after the insult. However, the prolonged presence of this protein is detrimental. Consequently, Hsp70 expression must be tightly regulated. We have previously shown an increase in the degradation of Hsp70 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) paralleling the accumulation of HSP70. Incubation of cells with transcriptional and translational inhibitors after heat shock resulted in a significant reduction in Hsp70 mRNA degradation. These observations suggest that newly synthesized, stress-induced factors might be involved in the decay of Hsp70 mRNA. We found that HSP70 binds directly to Hsp70 mRNA, as demonstrated by immunoprecipitation. This observation was confirmed by RNA gel-shift assays. These results are evidence for a novel and likely direct interaction between HSP70 and Hsp70 mRNA in cells after stress. This interaction may be part of a self-limiting mechanism to reduce HSP70 production, thus avoiding potential toxic effects of this protein in the absence of stress.

    View details for DOI 10.1379/CSC-136R1.1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236266000005

    View details for PubMedID 16572728

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1400612

  • Dendrite development regulated by CREST, a calcium-regulated transcriptional activator SCIENCE Aizawa, H., Hu, S. C., Bobb, K., Balakrishnan, K., Ince, G., Gurevich, Cowan, M., Ghosh, A. 2004; 303 (5655): 197–202

    Abstract

    The lasting effects of neuronal activity on brain development involve calcium-dependent gene expression. Using a strategy called transactivator trap, we cloned a calcium-responsive transactivator called CREST (for calcium-responsive transactivator). CREST is a SYT-related nuclear protein that interacts with adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) and is expressed in the developing brain. Mice that have a targeted disruption of the crest gene are viable but display defects in cortical and hippocampal dendrite development. Cortical neurons from crest mutant mice are compromised in calcium-dependent dendritic growth. Thus, calcium activation of CREST-mediated transcription helps regulate neuronal morphogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1089845

    View details for Web of Science ID 000187908500039

    View details for PubMedID 14716005