Bio


Dr. Carrie Armel is a research associate at Stanford’s Precourt Energy Efficiency Center (PEEC) where she investigates the diverse ways in which an understanding of human behavior can lead to improvements in energy efficiency. For example, the application of behavioral principles can produce significant energy reductions through interventions implemented at the policy, technology, built environment, media/marketing, and organizational/community levels. Dr. Armel co-chairs the Behavior, Energy, and Climate Change Conference; oversees Precourt Institute’s Behavior and Energy Bibliographic Database and Website; and teaches courses on behavior and energy at Stanford.

In addition to these initiatives, Dr. Armel develops specific energy efficiency interventions that apply behavioral and design principles, and develops measures to evaluate the efficacy of such interventions. Her most recent project involves a collaboration between academic and non-academic organizations to design and evaluate a technology that takes advantage of smart meters to provide feedback to residents on home electricity use.

Dr. Armel completed a Ph.D. in Cognitive Neuroscience from the University of California at San Diego, and postdoctoral work in Neuro-Economics at Stanford. In these programs she employed behavioral, psychophysiological, and neuroscientific methods to investigate how affect and motivation influence behavior. She most recently completed postdoctoral work at Stanford’s School of Medicine, translating intervention techniques used in health promotion work into the domain of energy efficiency.

Academic Appointments


  • Social Science Research Associate, Precourt Energy Efficiency Center

Honors & Awards


  • President’s Dissertation Fellowship, University of California (2001-2002)
  • Behavior Website and Literature Database, Precourt Energy Efficiency Center (PEEC) (2007)
  • Energy Feedback Infrastructure Project, Precourt Energy Efficiency Center (PEEC) (2009)
  • High School Climate Behavior Change Curriculum, Precourt Energy Efficiency Center (2009)
  • ARPA-E Sensor & Behavior Initiative, Advanced Research Projects Agency for Energy (ARPA-E), California Energy Commission (2010-2013)

Professional Education


  • Ph.D, University of California, San Diego, Psychology & Cognitive Science with Concentration in Neuroscience (2003)
  • M.A., University of California, San Diego (1997)
  • B.A., North Carolina State University, Psychology with minors in Pre-Medicine & Cognitive Science (1995)

Stanford Advisees


All Publications


  • Is disaggregation the holy grail of energy efficiency? The case of electricity ENERGY POLICY Armel, K. C., Gupta, A., Shrimali, G., Albert, A. 2013; 52: 213-234
  • Real-time Feedback and Electricity Consumption: A Field Experiment Assessing the Potential for Savings and Persistence ENERGY JOURNAL Houde, S., Todd, A., Sudarshan, A., Flora, J. A., Armel, K. C. 2013; 34 (1): 87-102
  • The Stanford Climate Change Behavior Survey (SCCBS): assessing greenhouse gas emissions-related behaviors in individuals and populations CLIMATIC CHANGE Armel, K. C., Yan, K., Todd, A., Robinson, T. N. 2011; 109 (3-4): 671-694
  • The smart gut: Tracking affective associative learning with measures of "liking", facial electromyography, and preferential looking LEARNING AND MOTIVATION Armel, K. C., Pulido, C., Wixted, J. T., Chiba, A. A. 2009; 40 (1): 74-93
  • Biasing simple choices by manipulating relative visual attention JUDGMENT AND DECISION MAKING Armel, K. C., Beaumel, A., Rangel, A. 2008; 3 (5): 396-403
  • The impact of computation time and experience on decision values 120th Annual Meeting of the American-Economic-Association Armel, K. C., Rangel, A. AMER ECONOMIC ASSOC. 2008: 163–68