Doctor of Philosophy, Hebrew University Of Jerusalem (2013)
Richard Zare, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Oncogene KRAS activates fatty acid synthase, resulting in specific ERK and lipid signatures associated with lung adenocarcinoma
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2017; 114 (17): 4300-4305
KRAS gene mutation causes lung adenocarcinoma. KRAS activation has been associated with altered glucose and glutamine metabolism. Here, we show that KRAS activates lipogenesis, and this activation results in distinct proteomic and lipid signatures. By gene expression analysis, KRAS is shown to be associated with a lipogenesis gene signature and specific induction of fatty acid synthase (FASN). Through desorption electrospray ionization MS imaging (DESI-MSI), specific changes in lipogenesis and specific lipids are identified. By the nanoimmunoassay (NIA), KRAS is found to activate the protein ERK2, whereas ERK1 activation is found in non-KRAS-associated human lung tumors. The inhibition of FASN by cerulenin, a small molecule antibiotic, blocked cellular proliferation of KRAS-associated lung cancer cells. Hence, KRAS is associated with activation of ERK2, induction of FASN, and promotion of lipogenesis. FASN may be a unique target for KRAS-associated lung adenocarcinoma remediation.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1617709114
View details for Web of Science ID 000399995600034
View details for PubMedID 28400509
Pancreatic Cancer Surgical Resection Margins: Molecular Assessment by Mass Spectrometry Imaging.
2016; 13 (8)
Surgical resection with microscopically negative margins remains the main curative option for pancreatic cancer; however, in practice intraoperative delineation of resection margins is challenging. Ambient mass spectrometry imaging has emerged as a powerful technique for chemical imaging and real-time diagnosis of tissue samples. We applied an approach combining desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) statistical method to diagnose pancreatic tissue sections and prospectively evaluate surgical resection margins from pancreatic cancer surgery.Our methodology was developed and tested using 63 banked pancreatic cancer samples and 65 samples (tumor and specimen margins) collected prospectively during 32 pancreatectomies from February 27, 2013, to January 16, 2015. In total, mass spectra for 254,235 individual pixels were evaluated. When cross-validation was employed in the training set of samples, 98.1% agreement with histopathology was obtained. Using an independent set of samples, 98.6% agreement was achieved. We used a statistical approach to evaluate 177,727 mass spectra from samples with complex, mixed histology, achieving an agreement of 81%. The developed method showed agreement with frozen section evaluation of specimen margins in 24 of 32 surgical cases prospectively evaluated. In the remaining eight patients, margins were found to be positive by DESI-MSI/Lasso, but negative by frozen section analysis. The median overall survival after resection was only 10 mo for these eight patients as opposed to 26 mo for patients with negative margins by both techniques. This observation suggests that our method (as opposed to the standard method to date) was able to detect tumor involvement at the margin in patients who developed early recurrence. Nonetheless, a larger cohort of samples is needed to validate the findings described in this study. Careful evaluation of the long-term benefits to patients of the use of DESI-MSI for surgical margin evaluation is also needed to determine its value in clinical practice.Our findings provide evidence that the molecular information obtained by DESI-MSI/Lasso from pancreatic tissue samples has the potential to transform the evaluation of surgical specimens. With further development, we believe the described methodology could be routinely used for intraoperative surgical margin assessment of pancreatic cancer.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002108
View details for PubMedID 27575375
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5019340
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Formation of curcumin nanoparticles by flash nanoprecipitation from emulsions
JOURNAL OF COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE
2014; 434: 65-70
Nanometric particles of a model hydrophobic substance curcumin were prepared by a novel method, namely, flash nanoprecipitation from a coarse oil-in-water emulsion. The method employs turbulent co-mixing of water with curcumin-loaded emulsion using manually-operated confined impingement jets mixer. A clear and stable dispersion of nanoparticles was formed in this process, and could be converted to dry, easily water-dispersible powder by spray drying. The mean size of the particles was about 40 nm by DLS, confirmed by Cryo-TEM. The obtained particles contained 20.4 wt% curcumin, X-ray analysis showed it was amorphous. The significant advantages of the studied process are its feasibility, speed and low cost. It does not require any special high-energy input equipment to reduce the droplet size of the initial emulsion as required by the vast majority of other methods, and relies on rapid turbulent mixing and on flow-induced shear stress formed in the simple, manually-operated mixer. Control experiments clearly indicate that employing emulsion, instead of a plain solution and flash nanoprecipitation instead of a simple antisolvent precipitation are advantageous in terms of particle size and stability.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcis.2014.07.040
View details for Web of Science ID 000342866000008