Clinical Focus

  • Obstetrics

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • CoDirector of OBSIm Program, Center for Pediatric and Perinatal Education (2004 - Present)
  • CoDirector of Disaster Planning, The Johnson Center at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (2013 - Present)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Director of OB simulation, Stanford Children's Health (2004 - Present)
  • National OB/Gyn Simulation Consortium, ACOG (2009 - 2018)
  • Co-DIrector of Disaster Planning, Johnson Center for Pregnancy and Newborns Stanford Children's Health (2017 - Present)
  • Faculty Fellow with the Center for Innovation in Global Health, Stanford University (2015 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Medical Education: University of Colorado Anschutz Campus Registrar (1983) CO
  • Internship and Residency, Kaiser Permanente,Oakland, Obstetrics and Gynecology (1987)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology (1989)

Community and International Work



    global women's health education

    Populations Served




    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Use of Simulation to train in country OB/GYN residents in low resource areas, HEODRA hosptial


    ob emergencies, vaginal hysterectomy

    Populations Served




    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Special interest in :
1.Ob simulation as a teaching and training tool
2. Disaster planning for OB units
3. Global women's health

2023-24 Courses

All Publications

  • Virtual simulation training for postpartum hemorrhage in low-to-moderate-volume hospitals in the US. AJOG global reports Minor, K. C., Bianco, K., Mayo, J. A., Abir, G., Judy, A. E., Lee, H. C., Leonard, S. A., Ayotte, S., Hedli, L. C., Schaffer, K., Sie, L., Daniels, K. 2024; 4 (3): 100357


    Maternal mortality in the United States is rising and many deaths are preventable. Emergencies, such as postpartum hemorrhage, occur less frequently in non-teaching, rural, and urban low-birth volume hospitals. There is an urgent need for accessible, evidence-based, and sustainable inter-professional education that creates the opportunity for clinical teams to practice their response to rare, but potentially devastating events.To assess the feasibility of virtual simulation training for the management of postpartum hemorrhage in low-to-moderate-volume delivery hospitals.The study occurred between December 2021 and March 2022 within 8 non-academic hospitals in the United States with low-to-moderate-delivery volumes, randomized to one of two models: direct simulation training and train-the-trainer. In the direct simulation training model, simulation faculty conducted a virtual simulation training program with participants. In the train-the-trainer model, simulation faculty conducted virtual lessons with new simulation instructors on how to prepare and conduct a simulation course. Following this training, the instructors led their own simulation training program at their respective hospitals. The direct simulation training participants and students trained by new instructors from the train-the-trainer program were evaluated with a multiple-choice questionnaire on postpartum hemorrhage knowledge and a confidence and attitude survey at 3 timepoints: prior to, immediately after, and at 3 months post-training. Paired t-tests were performed to assess for changes in knowledge and confidence within teaching models across time points. ANOVA was performed to test cross-sectionally for differences in knowledge and confidence between teaching models at each time point.Direct simulation training participants (n=22) and students of the train-the-trainer instructors (n=18) included nurses, certified nurse midwives and attending physicians in obstetrics, family practice or anesthesiology. Mean pre-course knowledge and confidence scores were not statistically different between direct simulation participants and the students of the instructors from the train-the-trainer course (79%+/-13 versus 75%+/-14, respectively, P-value=.45). Within the direct simulation group, knowledge and confidence scores significantly improved from pre- to immediately post-training (knowledge score mean difference 9.81 [95% CI 3.23-16.40], P-value<.01; confidence score mean difference 13.64 [95% CI 6.79-20.48], P-value<.01), which were maintained 3-months post-training. Within the train-the-trainer group, knowledge and confidence scores immediate post-intervention were not significantly different compared with pre-course or 3-month post-course scores. Mean knowledge scores were significantly greater for the direct simulation group compared to the train-the-trainer group immediately post-training (89%+/-7 versus 74%+/-8, P-value<.01) and at 3-months (88%+/-7 versus 76%+/-12, P-value<.01). Comparisons between groups showed no difference in confidence and attitude scores at these timepoints. Both direct simulation participants and train-the-trainer instructors preferred virtual education, or a hybrid structure, over in-person education.Virtual education for obstetric simulation training is feasible, acceptable, and effective. Utilizing a direct simulation model for postpartum hemorrhage management resulted in enhanced knowledge acquisition and retention compared to a train-the-trainer model.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.xagr.2024.100357

    View details for PubMedID 38975047

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC11227018

  • Mixed methods evaluation of simulation-based training for postpartum hemorrhage management in Guatemala. BMC pregnancy and childbirth Parameshwar, P. S., Bianco, K., Sherwin, E. B., Meza, P. K., Tolani, A., Bates, P., Sie, L., Lopez Enriquez, A. S., Sanchez, D. E., Herrarte, E. R., Daniels, K. 2022; 22 (1): 513


    BACKGROUND: To assess if simulation-based training (SBT) of B-Lynch suture and uterine balloon tamponade (UBT) for the management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) impacted provider attitudes, practice patterns, and patient management in Guatemala, using a mixed-methods approach.METHODS: We conducted an in-country SBT course on the management of PPH in a governmental teaching hospital in Guatemala City, Guatemala. Participants were OB/GYN providers (n=39) who had or had not received SBT before. Surveys and qualitative interviews evaluated provider knowledge and experiences with B-Lynch and UBT to treat PPH.RESULTS: Multiple-choice surveys indicated that providers who received SBT were more comfortable performing and teaching B-Lynch compared to those who did not (p=0.003 and 0.005). Qualitative interviews revealed increased provider comfort with B-Lynch compared to UBT and identified multiple barriers to uterine balloon tamponade implementation.CONCLUSIONS: Simulation-based training had a stronger impact on provider comfort with B-Lynch compared to uterine balloon tamponade. Qualitative interviews provided insight into the challenges that hinder uptake of uterine balloon tamponade, namely resource limitations and decision-making hierarchies. Capturing data through a mixed-methods approach allowed for more comprehensive program evaluation.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12884-022-04845-2

    View details for PubMedID 35751071

  • Changing the Landscape of Obstetric Resident Education in LMIC Using Simulation-Based Training. International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics Meza, P. K., Bianco, K., Herrarte, E., Daniels, K. 2020


    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate simulation-based training (SBT) in low-and-middle-income countries (LMIC) and the long-term retention of knowledge and self-efficacy.METHODS: We conducted a SBT course on the management of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH), shoulder dystocia (SD), and maternal cardiac arrest (MCA) in three governmental teaching hospitals in Guatemala. We evaluated changes in knowledge and self-efficacy using a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) for 46 OB/GYN residents. A paired Student t-test was used to analyze changes at one week and six months after the SBT.RESULTS: There was an increase in scores in clinical knowledge of MCA, P <0. 001, 95% CI [0.81, 1.49], and SD, P<0.001, 95% CI [0.41, 1.02] one week following SBT and a statistically insignificant increase in PPH scores, P= 0.617, 95% CI [-0.96, 0.60]. This increase in scores was maintained after six months, for MCA, P< 0.001, 95% CI [0.69, 1.53], SD, P= 0.02 95% CI [0.07-0.85] and PPH, P=0.04 95% CI [0.01, 1.26]. For MCA and SD levels of self-efficacy were increased one-week following training, P<0.001 95% CI [0.83, 2.30] and P= 0.008 95% CI [0.60, 3.92], respectively, and at six-months P<0.001 95% CI [0.79, 2.42] and P= 0.006 95% CI [0.66, 3.81], respectively. There was a slight increase in PPH self-efficacy scores one-week after SBT, P=0.73, 95% CI [-6.05, 4.41], maintained after six-months P= 0.38 95% CI [-6.85, 2.85].CONCLUSION: SBT was found to be an effective and feasible method to increase short and long-term clinical knowledge and self-efficacy of obstetric emergencies in LMIC.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ijgo.13526

    View details for PubMedID 33314149

  • Steps Toward a National Disaster Plan for Obstetrics OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Daniels, K., Oakeson, A. M., Hilton, G. 2014; 124 (1): 154-158


    Hospitals play a central role in disasters by receiving an influx of casualties and coordinating medical efforts to manage resources. However, plans have not been fully developed in the event the hospital itself is severely damaged, either from natural disasters like earthquakes or tornados or manmade events such as a massive electrical failure or terrorist attacks. Of particular concern is the limited awareness of the obstetric units' specialized needs in the world of disaster planning. Within the same footprint of any obstetric unit, there exists a large variety of patient acuity and needs including laboring women, postoperative patients, and healthy postpartum patients with their newborns. An obstetric-specific triage method is paramount to accurately assess and rapidly triage patients during a disaster. An example is presented here called OB TRAIN (Obstetric Triage by Resource Allocation for Inpatient). To accomplish a comprehensive obstetric disaster plan, there must be 1) national adoption of a common triage and evacuation language including an effective patient tracking system to avoid maternal-neonatal separation; 2) a stratification of maternity hospital levels of care; and 3) a collaborative network of obstetric hospitals, both regionally and nationally. However, obstetric disaster planning goes beyond evacuation and must include plans for shelter-in-place and surge capacity, all uniquely designed for the obstetric patient. Disasters, manmade or natural, are neither predictable nor preventable, but we can and should prepare for them.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000326

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337734000022

    View details for PubMedID 24901273

  • Labor Room Setting Compared With the Operating Room for Simulated Perimortem Cesarean Delivery A Randomized Controlled Trial OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Lipman, S., Daniels, K., Cohen, S. E., Carvalho, B. 2011; 118 (5): 1090-1094


    To compare the labor room and operating room for perimortem cesarean delivery during simulated maternal arrests occurring outside the operating room. We hypothesized transport to the operating room for perimortem cesarean delivery would delay incision and other important resuscitation milestones.We randomized 15 teams composed of obstetricians, nurses, anesthesiologists, and neonatal staff to perform perimortem cesarean delivery in the labor room or operating room. A manikin with an abdominal model overlay was used for simulated cesarean delivery. The scenario began in the labor room with maternal cardiopulmonary arrest and fetal bradycardia. The primary outcome was time to incision. Secondary outcomes included times to important milestones, percentage of tasks completed, and type of incision.The median (interquartile range) times from time zero to incision were 4:25 (3:59-4:50) and 7:53 (7:18-8:57) minutes in the labor room and operating room groups, respectively (P=.004). Fifty-seven percent of labor room teams and 14% of operating room teams achieved delivery within 5 minutes. Contacting the neonatal team, placing the defibrillator, resuming compressions after analysis, and endotracheal intubation all occurred more rapidly in the labor room group.Perimortem cesarean delivery performed in the labor room was significantly faster than perimortem cesarean delivery performed after moving to the operating room. Delivery within 5 minutes was challenging in either location despite optimal study conditions (eg, the manikin was light and easily moved; teams knew the scenario mandated perimortem cesarean delivery and were aware of being timed). Our findings imply that perimortem cesarean delivery during actual arrest would require more than 5 minutes and should be performed in the labor room rather than relocating to the operating room.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182319a08

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296292600017

    View details for PubMedID 22015877

  • In Virtual Simulation is Teaching to Fish Better Than Giving a Fish? Bianco, K., Minor, K., Schaffer, K., Sei, L., Mayo, J., Leonard, S. A., Daniels, K. SPRINGER HEIDELBERG. 2023: 215A-216A
  • Single-center task analysis and user-centered assessment of physical space impacts on emergency Cesarean delivery. PloS one Sotto, K. T., Hedli, L. C., Sie, L., Padua, K., Yamada, N., Lee, H., Halamek, L., Daniels, K., Nathan-Roberts, D., Austin, N. S. 2021; 16 (6): e0252888


    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to begin to address this gap using validated techniques in human factors to perform a participatory user-centered analysis of physical space during emergency Cesarean.METHODS: This study employed a mixed-methods design. Focus group interviews and surveys were administered to a convenience sample (n = 34) of multidisciplinary obstetric teams. Data collected from focus group interviews were used to perform a task and equipment analysis. Survey data were coded and mapped by specialty to identify reported areas of congestion and time spent, and to identify themes related to physical space of the OR and labor and delivery unit.RESULTS: Task analysis revealed complex interdependencies between specialties. Thirty task groupings requiring over 20 pieces of equipment were identified. Perceived areas of congestion and areas of time spent in the OR varied by clinical specialty. The following categories emerged as main challenges encountered during an emergency Cesarean: 1) size of physical space and equipment, 2) layout and orientation, and 3) patient transport.CONCLUSION: User insights on physical space and workflow processes during emergency Cesarean section at the institution studied revealed challenges related to getting the patients into the OR expediently and having space to perform tasks without crowding or staff injury. By utilizing human factors techniques, other institutions may build upon our findings to improve safety during emergency situations on labor and delivery.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0252888

    View details for PubMedID 34111177

  • A strategy for disaster preparedness in obstetrics. American journal of disaster medicine Daniels, K., Monga, M., Gupta, S., Abir, G., Chanisse, M., Newton, C. 2021; 16 (3): 207-213


    Many hospital units, including obstetric (OB) units, were unprepared when the novel coronavirus began sweeping through communities. National and international bodies, including the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control Prevention, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, directed enormous efforts to present the latest evidence-based practices to healthcare institutions and communities. The first hospitals that were affected in China and the United States (US) did heroic work in assisting their colleagues with best practices they had acquired. Despite these resources, many US hospitals struggled with how to best incorporate and implement this new information into disaster plans, and many protocol changes had to be established de novo. In general, disaster planning for OB units lagged behind other disaster planning performed by specialties such as emergency medicine, trauma, and pediatrics.Fortunately, two pre-existing collaborative disaster groups, the OB Disaster Planning Workgroup and the Western Regional Alliance for Pediatric Emergency Management, were able to rapidly deploy during the pandemic due to their pre-established networks and shared goals.These groups were able to share best practices, identify and address knowledge gaps, and disseminate information on a broad scale. The case will be made that the OB community needs to establish more such regional and national disaster committees that meet year-round. This will ensure that in times of urgency, these groups can increase the cadence of their meetings, and thus rapidly disperse time-sensitive policies and procedures for OB units nationwide.Given the unique patient population, it is imperative that OB units establish regional coalitions to facilitate a coordinated response to local and national disasters.

    View details for DOI 10.5055/ajdm.2021.0403

    View details for PubMedID 34904705

  • What's in a Name? Enhancing Communication in the Operating Room with the Use of Names and Roles on Surgical Caps. Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety Brodzinsky, L. n., Crowe, S. n., Lee, H. C., Goldhaber-Fiebert, S. N., Sie, L. n., Padua, K. L., Daniels, K. n. 2021; 47 (4): 258–64


    A pilot study was conducted in a tertiary referral center to assess whether wearing caps labeled with providers' names and roles has an impact on communication in the operating room (OR).Two obstetricians observed surgeries for name uses and missed communications. Following each case, all providers were given a short survey that queried their attitude about the use of labeled surgical caps, their ability to know the names and roles of other providers during a case, and the impact of scrub attire on identifying others. They were also asked to rate the ease of communication and their ability to recall name and roles of the personnel specific to the case. Patients were asked how they perceived the use of labeled caps by providers.Twenty scheduled cesarean deliveries were randomized to either labeled (10) or nonlabeled (10) surgical caps. A total of 129 providers participated in the study, with 117 providing responses to the survey. Providers reported knowing the names and roles of colleagues more often with labeled caps vs. nonlabeled caps (names: 77.8% vs. 55.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 64.4%-88.0% vs. 41.6%-67.9%, p = 0.011; roles: 92.5% vs. 78.3%, 95% CI = 81.8%-98.0% vs. 65.8%-88.0%, p = 0.036). Name uses increased (43 vs. 34, p = 0.208), and missed communications decreased (16 vs. 20, p = 0.614) when labeled caps were worn. Providers and patients had an overwhelmingly positive response to labeled caps.This pilot study demonstrated that wearing labeled caps in the OR led to more frequent name uses and less frequent missed communications. Providers and patients embraced the concept of labeled caps and perceived wearing labeled caps as improving communication in the OR.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcjq.2020.11.012

    View details for PubMedID 33384215

  • Changing the Landscape of Obstetric Resident Education in LMIC Using Simulation Based Training Meza, P. K., Bianco, K., Herrarte, E., Daniels, K. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2020: 80S
  • Safety and Ergonomic Challenges of Ventilating a Premature Infant During Delayed Cord Clamping CHILDREN-BASEL Lapcharoensap, W., Cong, A., Sherman, J., Schwandt, D., Crowe, S., Daniels, K., Lee, H. C. 2019; 6 (4)
  • Safety and Ergonomic Challenges of Ventilating a Premature Infant During Delayed Cord Clamping. Children (Basel, Switzerland) Lapcharoensap, W. n., Cong, A. n., Sherman, J. n., Schwandt, D. n., Crowe, S. n., Daniels, K. n., Lee, H. C. 2019; 6 (4)


    Delayed cord clamping (DCC) is endorsed by multiple professional organizations for both term and preterm infants. In preterm infants, DCC has been shown to reduce intraventricular hemorrhage, lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, and reduce the need for transfusions. Furthermore, in preterm animal models, ventilation during DCC leads to improved hemodynamics. While providing ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during DCC may benefit infants, the logistics of performing such a maneuver can be complicated. In this simulation-based study, we sought to explore attitudes of providers along with the safety and ergonomic challenges involved with safely resuscitating a newborn infant while attached to the placenta. Multidisciplinary workshops were held simulating vaginal and Caesarean deliveries, during which providers started positive pressure ventilation and transitioned to holding CPAP on a preterm manikin. Review of videos identified 5 themes of concerns: sterility, equipment, mobility, space and workflow, and communication. In this study, simulation was a key methodology for safe identification of various safety and ergonomic issues related to implementation of ventilation during DCC. Centers interested in implementing DCC with ventilation are encouraged to form multidisciplinary work groups and utilize simulations prior to performing care on infants.

    View details for PubMedID 31013884

  • Analyzing the heterogeneity of labor and delivery units: A quantitative analysis of space and design PLOS ONE Austin, N., Kristensen-Cabrera, A., Sherman, J., Schwandt, D., McDonald, A., Hedli, L., Sie, L., Lipman, S., Daniels, K., Halamek, L. P., Lee, H. C. 2018; 13 (12)
  • Development of the TeamOBS-PPH - targeting clinical performance in postpartum hemorrhage ACTA OBSTETRICIA ET GYNECOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA Brogaard, L., Hvidman, L., Hinshaw, K., Kierkegaard, O., Manser, T., Musaeus, P., Arafeh, J., Daniels, K. I., Judy, A. E., Uldbjerg, N. 2018; 97 (6): 677–87


    This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable TeamOBS-PPH tool for assessing clinical performance in the management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). The tool was evaluated using video-recordings of teams managing PPH in both real-life and simulated settings.A Delphi panel consisting of 12 obstetricians from the UK, Norway, Sweden, Iceland, and Denmark achieved consensus on (i) the elements to include in the assessment tool, (ii) the weighting of each element, and (iii) the final tool. The validity and reliability were evaluated according to Cook and Beckman. (Level 1) Four raters scored four video-recordings of in situ simulations of PPH. (Level 2) Two raters scored 85 video-recordings of real-life teams managing patients with PPH ≥1000 mL in two Danish hospitals. (Level 3) Two raters scored 15 video-recordings of in situ simulations of PPH from a US hospital.The tool was designed with scores from 0 to 100. (Level 1) Teams of novices had a median score of 54 (95% CI 48-60), whereas experienced teams had a median score of 75 (95% CI 71-79; p < 0.001). (Level 2) The intra-rater [intra-class correlation (ICC) = 0.96] and inter-rater (ICC = 0.83) agreements for real-life PPH were strong. The tool was applicable in all cases: atony, retained placenta, and lacerations. (Level 3) The tool was easily adapted to in situ simulation settings in the USA (ICC = 0.86).The TeamOBS-PPH tool appears to be valid and reliable for assessing clinical performance in real-life and simulated settings. The tool will be shared as the free TeamOBS App.

    View details for PubMedID 29485679

  • Analyzing the heterogeneity of labor and delivery units: A quantitative analysis of space and design. PloS one Austin, N., Kristensen-Cabrera, A., Sherman, J., Schwandt, D., McDonald, A., Hedli, L., Sie, L., Lipman, S., Daniels, K., Halamek, L. P., Lee, H. C. 2018; 13 (12): e0209339


    This study assessed labor and delivery (L&D) unit space and design, and also considered correlations between physical space measurements and clinical outcomes. Design and human factors research has increased standardization in high-hazard industries, but is not fully utilized in medicine. Emergency department and intensive care unit space has been studied, but optimal L&D unit design is undefined. In this prospective, observational study, a multidisciplinary team assessed physical characteristics of ten L&D units. Design measurements were analyzed with California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative (CMQCC) data from 34,161 deliveries at these hospitals. The hospitals ranged in delivery volumes (<1000->5000 annual deliveries) and cesarean section rates (19.6%-39.7%). Within and among units there was significant heterogeneity in labor room (LR) and operating room (OR) size, count, and number of configurations. There was significant homogeneity of room equipment. Delivery volumes correlated with unit size, room counts, and cesarean delivery rates. Relative risk of cesarean section was modestly increased when certain variables were above average (delivery volume, unit size, LR count, OR count, OR configuration count, LR to OR distance, unit utilization) or below average (LR size, OR size, LR configuration count). Existing variation suggests a gold standard design has yet to be adopted for L&D. A design-centered approach identified opportunities for standardization: 1) L&D unit size and 2) room counts based on current or projected delivery volume, and 3) LR and OR size and equipment. When combined with further human factors research, these guidelines could help design the L&D unit of the future.

    View details for PubMedID 30586446

  • Opportunities to Foster Efficient Communication in Labor and Delivery Using Simulation. AJP reports Daniels, K., Hamilton, C., Crowe, S., Lipman, S. S., Halamek, L. P., Lee, H. C. 2017; 7 (1): e44-e48


    Introduction Communication errors are an important contributing factor in adverse outcomes in labor and delivery (L&D) units. The objective of this study was to identify common lapses in verbal communication using simulated obstetrical scenarios and propose alternative formats for communication. Methods Health care professionals in L&D participated in three simulated clinical scenarios. Scenarios were recorded and reviewed to identify questions repeated within and across scenarios. Questions that were repeated more than once due to ineffective communication were identified. The frequency with which the questions were asked across simulations was identified. Results Questions were commonly repeated both within and across 27 simulated scenarios. The median number of questions asked was 27 per simulated scenario. Commonly repeated questions focused on three general topics: (1) historical data/information (i.e., estimated gestational age), (2) maternal clinical status (i.e., estimated blood loss), and (3) personnel (i.e., "Has anesthesiologist been called?"). Conclusion Inefficient verbal communication exists in the process of transferring information during obstetric emergencies. These findings can inform improved training and development of information displays to improve teamwork and communication. A visual display that can report static historical information and specific dynamic clinical data may facilitate optimal human performance.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0037-1599123

    View details for PubMedID 28255522

  • Building Comprehensive Strategies for Obstetric Safety: Simulation Drills and Communication. Anesthesia and analgesia Austin, N., Goldhaber-Fiebert, S., Daniels, K., Arafeh, J., Grenon, V., Welle, D., Lipman, S. 2016; 123 (5): 1181-1190


    As pioneers in the field of patient safety, anesthesiologists are uniquely suited to help develop and implement safety strategies to minimize preventable harm on the labor and delivery unit. Most existing obstetric safety strategies are not comprehensive, lack input from anesthesiologists, are designed with a relatively narrow focus, or lack implementation details to allow customization for different units. This article attempts to address these gaps and build more comprehensive strategies by discussing the available evidence and multidisciplinary authors' local experience with obstetric simulation drills and optimization of team communication.

    View details for PubMedID 27749353

  • Impact of the Electronic Medical Record on Nurse's Time Allocation During Cesarean Tan, M., Lipman, S., Lee, H., Sie, L., Carvalho, B., Daniels, K. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2016: 154S
  • Simulation Study Assessing Healthcare Provider's Knowledge of Pre-Eclampsia and Eclampsia in a Tertiary Referral Center. Simulation in healthcare Hilton, G., Daniels, K., Carvalho, B. 2016; 11 (1): 25-31


    The aim of the study was to assess knowledge of labor and delivery healthcare providers at a tertiary referral center in the management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.Thirteen multidisciplinary teams participated in this institutional review board-exempt study. Each group encountered the same scenario that involved a pre-eclamptic parturient who progressed to eclampsia. The participants were unaware of the scenario topic before the drill and that key interventions would be recorded and timed. Seven of 13 groups were randomized to have a cognitive aid available.Twelve of 13 groups attempted to lower the blood pressure; however, only 7 of 12 groups used the correct first-line antihypertensive medication as per the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' guidelines. All groups requested and administered the correct bolus dose of magnesium (4-6 g intravenously). Only 2 of 13 groups took appropriate action to lower the blood pressure to a "safe range" before induction of general anesthesia, and 4 of the 13 anesthesiologists made drug modifications for induction of anesthesia. None of the 7 groups randomized to have a cognitive aid used it.Our results show widespread magnesium sulfate utilization; however, the use of antihypertensive medication is not universally administered in compliance with current guidelines. The importance of blood pressure management to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in the setting of pre-eclampsia needs to be emphasized. Interestingly, availability of a cognitive aid did not ensure its utilization in this scenario. Findings suggest that for cognitive aids to be effectively used, it is essential that staff has been trained and become familiar with them before an emergent event.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000125

    View details for PubMedID 26836465

  • The society for obstetric anesthesia and perinatology consensus statement on the management of cardiac arrest in pregnancy. Anesthesia and analgesia Lipman, S., Cohen, S., Einav, S., Jeejeebhoy, F., Mhyre, J. M., Morrison, L. J., Katz, V., Tsen, L. C., Daniels, K., Halamek, L. P., Suresh, M. S., Arafeh, J., Gauthier, D., Carvalho, J. C., Druzin, M., Carvalho, B. 2014; 118 (5): 1003-1016


    This consensus statement was commissioned in 2012 by the Board of Directors of the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology to improve maternal resuscitation by providing health care providers critical information (including point-of-care checklists) and operational strategies relevant to maternal cardiac arrest. The recommendations in this statement were designed to address the challenges of an actual event by emphasizing health care provider education, behavioral/communication strategies, latent systems errors, and periodic testing of performance. This statement also expands on, interprets, and discusses controversial aspects of material covered in the American Heart Association 2010 guidelines.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0000000000000171

    View details for PubMedID 24781570

  • Multidisciplinary simulation drills improve efficiency of emergency medication retrieval. Obstetrics and gynecology Daniels, K., Clark, A., Lipman, S., Puck, A., Arafeh, J., Chetty, S. 2014; 123: 143S-4S


    Postpartum hemorrhage resulting from uterine atony is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity. If initial treatment for atony is unsuccessful, second-line uterotonics must be administered immediately.A retrospective observational study was performed to evaluate barriers to the management of postpartum hemorrhage on our unit. Fourteen multidisciplinary teams participated in postpartum hemorrhage simulation drills. Actions in the labor room and the medication room were video-recorded for analysis. Postsimulation video review revealed multiple system errors delaying the process of obtaining the secondary uterotonics: 1) computer-generated delay in entering the patient's identification; and 2) multiple locations for the three medications. A "postpartum hemorrhage kit" was developed by pharmacy services, which included methylergonovine, carboprost, and misoprostol. All three medications were then placed in the refrigerator in an insulated box. These changes 1) allowed all medications to be removed in a kit in one step; 2) the kit could be retrieved more easily as a result of adjustments made in the identification process; and 3) the foam insulation kept the carboprost cooled as required. The postpartum hemorrhage simulation scenario was repeated to evaluate delivery of uterotonic medications with access to the postpartum hemorrhage kit.After the corrections, time to retrieval of all three uterotonic medications decreased significantly from 2 minutes and 16 seconds before use of the kit to 29 seconds with the kit.Simulated scenarios exposed correctable delays in the retrieval of emergency medications. Simulation drills can be used to detect system errors, improve system processes, and potentially reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/

    View details for PubMedID 24770020

  • Oral misoprostol versus vaginal dinoprostone for labor induction in nulliparous women at term. Journal of perinatology Faucett, A. M., Daniels, K., Lee, H. C., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Blumenfeld, Y. J. 2014; 34 (2): 95-99


    Objective:To compare the efficacy of oral misoprostol to vaginal dinoprostone for labor induction in nulliparous women.Study design:Admissions for labor induction from January 2008 to December 2010 were reviewed. Patients receiving oral misoprostol were compared with those receiving vaginal dinoprostone. The primary outcome was time from induction agent administration to vaginal delivery. Secondary outcomes included vaginal delivery within 24 h, mode of delivery and maternal and fetal outcomes.Result:A total of 680 women were included: 483 (71%) received vaginal dinoprostone and 197 (29%) received oral misoprostol. Women who received oral misoprostol had a shorter interval to vaginal delivery (27.2 vs 21.9 h, P<0.0001) and were more likely to deliver vaginally in <24 h (47% vs 64%, P=0.001). There was no increase in the rate of cesarean delivery or adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes.Conclusion:Labor induction with oral misoprostol resulted in shorter time to vaginal delivery without increased adverse outcomes in nulliparous women.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2013.133

    View details for PubMedID 24157494

  • Moving forward in patient safety: Multidisciplinary team training. Seminars in perinatology Daniels, K., Auguste, T. 2013; 37 (3): 146-150


    Communication and teamwork deficiencies have been identified as major contributors to poor clinical outcomes in the labor and delivery unit. In response to these findings, multidisciplinary simulation-based team training techniques have developed to focus specifically on skills training for teams. The evidence demonstrates that multidisciplinary simulation-based team training minimizes poor outcomes by perfecting the elusive teamwork skills that cannot be taught in a didactic setting. Multidisciplinary simulation-based team training is also being used to detect latent system errors in existing or new units, to rehearse complicated procedures (surgical dress rehearsal), and to identify knowledge gaps of labor and delivery teams. Multidisciplinary simulation-based team training should be an integral component of ongoing quality-improvement efforts to ultimately produce teams of experts that perform proficiently.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.semperi.2013.02.004

    View details for PubMedID 23721769

  • Response times for emergency cesarean delivery: use of simulation drills to assess and improve obstetric team performance JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Lipman, S. S., Carvalho, B., Cohen, S. E., Druzin, M. L., Daniels, K. 2013; 33 (4): 259-263


    We documented time to key milestones and determined reasons for transport-related delays during simulated emergency cesarean.Prospective, observational investigation of delivery of care processes by multidisciplinary teams of obstetric providers on the labor and delivery unit at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, CA, USA, during 14 simulated uterine rupture scenarios. The primary outcome measure was the total time from recognition of the emergency (time zero) to that of surgical incision.The median (interquartile range) from time zero until incision was 9 min 27 s (8:55 to 10:27 min:s).In this series of emergency cesarean drills, our teams required approximately nine and a half minutes to move from the labor room to the nearby operating room (OR) and make the surgical incision. Multiple barriers to efficient transport were identified. This study demonstrates the utility of simulation to identify and correct institution-specific barriers that delay transport to the OR and initiation of emergency cesarean delivery.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2012.98

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316833300002

    View details for PubMedID 22858890

  • Oral misoprostol vs vaginal dinoprostone for labor induction in nulliparous women at term Faucett, A., Daniels, K., El-Sayed, Y., Lee, H., Blumenfeld, Y. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2013: S53
  • Rectus muscle and visceral peritoneum closure at cesarean delivery and intraabdominal adhesions 78th Annual Meeting of the Pacific-Coast-Obstetrical-and-Gynecological-Society Lyell, D. J., Caughey, A. B., Hu, E., Blumenfeld, Y., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Daniels, K. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2012


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the rectus muscle and visceral peritoneum closure at cesarean delivery on adhesions.We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of women who underwent first repeat cesarean delivery. Surgeons scored the severity and location of adhesions. Records were abstracted to assess previous surgical techniques.The original cohort included 173 patients. Rectus muscle closure was associated with fewer combined filmy and dense adhesions overall (27.5% vs 46%; P = .04) and fewer dense adhesions overall (17.5% vs 46%; P = .001; adjusted odds ratio, [aOR], 0.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.65), particularly from fascia to omentum (aOR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.007-0.82). Visceral peritoneum closure was associated with increased dense fascia-to-omentum adhesions (aOR, 15.78; 95% CI, 1.81-137.24).Closure of the rectus muscles at cesarean delivery may reduce adhesions, and visceral peritoneum closure may increase them. Surgical techniques at cesarean delivery should be assessed independently, because they may have opposite effects on adhesion formation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.02.033

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304442900029

    View details for PubMedID 22463952

  • How we treat: transfusion medicine support of obstetric services TRANSFUSION Goodnough, L. T., Daniels, K., Wong, A. E., Viele, M., Fontaine, M. F., Butwick, A. J. 2011; 51 (12): 2540-2548


    Obstetric services depend on the transfusion service (TS) to provide diagnostic testing and blood component therapy for clinical care pathways.We describe three quality improvement (QI) initiatives implemented to improve TS support of obstetric services.We implemented a pathway for patients requiring an ABO/Rh order for every admission to obstetric services, along with reconciliation of the daily hospital birth manifest and TS umbilical cord log to identify every woman eligible for RhIG. After assessment over 6 months, 21 (1%) of 2041 women lacked an admission ABO/Rh; all subsequently had ABO/Rh determinations. Umbilical cords were missing for eight (0.4%) mothers; four were D- and received RhIG. We developed algorithms for diagnostic blood ordering for patients deemed at "low,"moderate," or "high" risk of blood transfusion. A 27% reduction in total diagnostic test volumes and 24% reduction in charges was documented after compared to before implementation. We analyzed the impact of our massive transfusion protocol (MTP) on blood inventory management for 31 (0.25%) women undergoing 12,945 deliveries, representing 11% of 286 MTPs for all clinical services over a 32-month interval. O- uncrossmatched red blood cells (RBCs) represented 103 (24%) of 421 RBC units issued. Wastage rates of RBCs, plasma, and platelets ordered and issued in the MTPs were 0.7, 16, and 3%, respectively.QI initiatives for RhIG prophylaxis, diagnostic blood test ordering, and MTP improve TS support of obstetric services.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2011.03152.x

    View details for PubMedID 21542850

  • Do adhesions at repeat cesarean delay delivery of the newborn? 31st Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society-of-Maternal-Fetal-Medicine (SMFM) Greenberg, M. B., Daniels, K., Blumenfeld, Y. J., Caughey, A. B., Lyell, D. J. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2011


    We sought to assess whether the presence and severity of adhesions at first repeat cesarean delivery are associated with delayed delivery of the newborn.We conducted secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of women undergoing first repeat cesarean. Severity and location of adhesions were reported by surgeons immediately postoperatively. We compared adhesion density scores with delivery data.Of 145 women analyzed, 92 (63.5%) had adhesions and 53 (36.5%) did not. Mean incision to delivery time in women with adhesion scores >3 was 19.8 minutes, compared to 15.6 minutes with scores ≤ 3 (P = .04). More women with adhesion scores >3 remained undelivered at 30 minutes after incision compared to scores ≤ 3 (17.9% vs 5.1%; odds ratio, 7.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-34.5), after controlling for potential confounders.Among women undergoing first repeat cesarean, severity of adhesions may delay delivery of the newborn. Study of techniques to reduce adhesions may be warranted to prevent delayed delivery at repeat cesarean.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2011.06.088

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296084600050

    View details for PubMedID 21864825

  • The Case for OBLS: A Simulation-based Obstetric Life Support Program SEMINARS IN PERINATOLOGY Lipman, S. S., Daniels, K. I., Arafeh, J., Halamek, L. P. 2011; 35 (2): 74-79


    Errors by health care professionals result in significant patient morbidity and mortality, and the labor and delivery ward is one of the highest risk areas in the hospital. Parturients today are of higher acuity than anytime previously, and maternal mortality is increasing. Obstetrical staff must therefore be familiar with emergency protocols geared to the maternal-fetal dyad. However, the medical literature suggests that obstetrical providers are not optimally trained to render care during maternal cardiopulmonary arrest. We describe the evolution of immersive learning and simulation in the Neonatal Resuscitation Program, and suggest the development of a multidisciplinary team, simulation-enhanced obstetric crisis training program (OBLS) may likewise benefit obstetrical health care professionals. OBLS would emphasize high quality basic life support, uterine displacement, use of an automatic external defibrillator, and delivery of the fetus within 5 minutes of maternal arrest should resuscitative efforts prove ineffective.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.semperi.2011.01.006

    View details for PubMedID 21440814

  • Introduction: Simulation in the Perinatal Environment SEMINARS IN PERINATOLOGY Sudikoff, S. N., Daniels, K. I. 2011; 35 (2): 45–46
  • Do adhesions at repeat cesarean delay delivery of the newborn? Caughey, A., Greenberg, M., Daniels, K., Blumenfeld, Y., Lyell, D. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2011: S267–S268
  • Deficits in the provision of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during simulated obstetric crises AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Lipman, S. S., Daniels, K. I., Carvalho, B., Arafeh, J., Harney, K., Puck, A., Cohen, S. E., Druzin, M. 2010; 203 (2)


    Previous work suggests the potential for suboptimal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the parturient but did not directly assess actual performance.We evaluated 18 videotaped simulations of maternal amniotic fluid embolus and resultant cardiac arrest. A checklist containing 10 current American Heart Association recommendations for advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) in obstetric patients was utilized. We evaluated which tasks were completed correctly and the time required to perform key actions.Proper compressions were delivered by our teams 56% of the time and ventilations 50% of the time. Critical interventions such as left uterine displacement and placing a firm back support prior to compressions were frequently neglected (in 44% and 22% of cases, respectively). The mean +/- SD overall composite score for the tasks was 45 +/- 12% (range, 20-60%). The neonatal team was called in a median (interquartile range) of 1:42 (0:44-2:18) minutes:seconds; 15 of 18 (83%) teams called only after the patient was completely unresponsive. Fifty percent of teams did not provide basic information to the neonatal teams as required by neonatal resuscitation provider guidelines.Multiple deficits were noted in the provision of CPR to parturients during simulated arrests, despite current ACLS certification for all participants. Current requirements for ACLS certification and training for obstetric staff may require revision.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2010.02.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280234500037

    View details for PubMedID 20417476

  • Single- versus double-layer hysterotomy closure at primary caesarean delivery and bladder adhesions BJOG-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY Blumenfeld, Y. J., Caughey, A. B., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Daniels, K., Lyell, D. J. 2010; 117 (6): 690-694


    To determine the association between single-layer (one running suture) and double-layer (second layer or imbricating suture) hysterotomy closure at primary caesarean delivery and subsequent adhesion formation.A secondary analysis from a prospective cohort study of women undergoing first repeat caesarean section.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.One hundred and twenty-seven pregnant women undergoing first repeat caesarean section.Patient records were reviewed to identify whether primary caesarean hysterotomies were closed with a single or double layer. Data were analysed by Fisher's exact tests and multivariable logistic regression.Prevalence rate of pelvic and abdominal adhesions.Of the 127 women, primary hysterotomy closure was single layer in 56 and double layer in 71. Single-layer hysterotomy closure was associated with bladder adhesions at the time of repeat caesarean (24% versus 7%, P = 0.01). Single-layer closure was associated in this study with a seven-fold increase in the odds of developing bladder adhesions (odds ratio, 6.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.72-28.1), regardless of other surgical techniques, previous labour, infection and age over 35 years. There was no association between single-layer closure and other pelvic or abdominal adhesions.Primary single-layer hysterotomy closure may be associated with more frequent bladder adhesions during repeat caesarean deliveries. The severity and clinical implications of these adhesions should be assessed in large prospective trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2010.02529.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276509100007

    View details for PubMedID 20236104

  • Use of Simulation Based Team Training for Obstetric Crises in Resident Education SIMULATION IN HEALTHCARE Daniels, K., Lipman, S., Harney, K., Arafeh, J., Druzin, M. 2008; 3 (3): 154-160


    Obstetric crises are unexpected and random. Traditionally, medical training for these acute events has included lectures combined with arbitrary clinical experiences. This educational paradigm has inherent limitations. During actual crises insufficient time exists for discussion and analysis of patient care. Our objective was to create a simulation program to fill this experiential gap.Ten L&D teams participated in high fidelity simulation training. A team consisted of two or three nurses, one anesthesia resident and one or two obstetric residents. Each team participated in two scenarios; epidural-induced hypotension followed by an amniotic fluid embolism. Each simulation was followed by a facilitated debriefing. All simulations were videotaped. Clinical performances of the obstetric residents were graded by two reviewers using the videotapes and a faculty-developed checklist. Recurrent errors were analyzed and graded using Health Failure Modes Effects Analysis. All team members completed a course evaluation.Performance deficiencies of the obstetric residents were identified by an expert team of reviewers. From this list of errors, the "most valuable lessons" requiring further focused teaching were identified and included 1) Poor communication with the pediatric team, 2) Not assuming a leadership role during the code, 3) Poor distribution of workload, and 4) Lack of proper use of low/outlet forceps. Participants reported the simulation course allowed them to learn new skills needed by teams during a crisis.Simulated obstetric crises training offers the opportunity for educators to identify specific performance deficits of their residents and the subsequent development of teaching modules to address these weaknesses.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SIH.0b013e31818187d9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000207536200005

    View details for PubMedID 19088659

  • Antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of postpartum perineal wound complications - A randomized controlled trial 27th Annual Meeting of the Society-of-Maternal-Fetal-Medicine Duggal, N., Mercado, C., Daniels, K., Bujor, A., Caughey, A. B., El-Sayed, Y. Y. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2008: 1268–73


    To estimate whether prophylactic antibiotics at the time of repair of third- or fourth-degree perineal tears after vaginal delivery prevent wound infection and breakdown.This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Patients who sustained third- or fourth-degree perineal tears after a vaginal delivery were recruited for the study. Each patient was given a single intravenous dose of a second-generation cephalosporin (cefotetan or cefoxitin) or placebo before repair of third- or fourth-degree perineal tears. Obstetricians and patients were blinded to study drug. The perineum was inspected for evidence of infection or breakdown at discharge from the hospital and at 2 weeks postpartum. Primary end points were gross disruption or purulent discharge at site of perineal repair by 2 weeks postpartum.One hundred forty-seven patients were recruited for the study. Of these, 83 patients received placebo and 64 patients received antibiotics. Forty patients (27.2%) did not return for their 2-week appointment. Of the patients seen at 2 weeks postpartum, 4 of 49 (8.2%) patients who received antibiotics and 14 of 58 (24.1%) patients who received placebo developed a perineal wound complication (P=.037). There were no differences between groups in parity, incidence of diabetes, operative delivery, or third-degree compared with fourth-degree lacerations.By 2 weeks postpartum, patients who received prophylactic antibiotics at the time of third- or fourth-degree laceration repair had a lower rate of perineal wound complications than patients who received,, NCT00186082.I.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256191400003

    View details for PubMedID 18515507

  • Single- vs. double-layer uterine incision closure at primary cesarean section and adhesion formation Blumenfeld, Y., Caughey, A., El-Sayed, Y., Daniels, K., Lyell, D. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2007: S77
  • Cesarean delivery outcomes after a prolonged second stage of labor 27th Annual Meeting of the Society-of-Maternal-Fetal-Medicine Sung, J. F., Daniels, K. I., Brodzinsky, L., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Caughey, A. B., Lyell, D. J. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2007


    We hypothesized that prolonged second stage of labor increases the incidence of unintentional hysterotomy extensions at cesarean delivery.A retrospective cohort of term pregnant women who underwent primary cesarean delivery after failed second stage of labor at Stanford University was assessed for hysterotomy extensions and other maternal and neonatal morbidities. Groups included second stage length of 1-3 hours and >4 hours. Data were analyzed with the use of chi-square and Fisher's exact tests.Of the 239 women who were studied, the second stage of labor lasted 1-3 hours in 82 patients and >4 hours in 157 patients. Prolonged second stage of labor was associated with unintentional hysterotomy extensions (40% vs 26%; P = .03), particularly to the cervix (29% vs 5%; P = .005), and with surgery that lasted >90 minutes (9% vs 1%; P = .01). The incidence of hysterotomy extensions was associated positively with the length of the second stage. Other maternal and neonatal morbidities were similar between groups.Prolonged second stage of labor is associated with an increase in unintentional hysterotomy extensions at cesarean delivery and prolonged operative time. The future risk of hysterotomy extensions merits further investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2007.07.005

    View details for PubMedID 17826431

  • Use of a community mobile health van to increase early access to prenatal care MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH JOURNAL Edgerley, L. P., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Druzin, M. L., Kiernan, M., Daniels, K. I. 2007; 11 (3): 235-239


    To examine whether the use of a community mobile health van (the Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital Women's Health Van) in an underserved population allows for earlier access to prenatal care and increased rate of adequate prenatal care, as compared to prenatal care initiated in community clinics.We studied 108 patients who initiated prenatal care on the van and delivered their babies at our University Hospital from September 1999 to July 2004. One hundred and twenty-seven patients who initiated prenatal care in sites other than the Women's Health Van, had the same city of residence and source of payment as the study group, and also delivered their babies at our hospital during the same time period, were selected as the comparison group. Gestational age at which prenatal care was initiated and the adequacy of prenatal care - as defined by Revised Graduated Index of Prenatal Care Utilization (RGINDEX) - were compared between cases and comparisons.Underserved women utilizing the van services for prenatal care initiated care three weeks earlier than women using other services (10.2 +/- 6.9 weeks vs. 13.2 +/- 6.9 weeks, P = 0.001). In addition, the data showed that van patients and non-van patients were equally likely to receive adequate prenatal care as defined by R-GINDEX (P = 0.125).Women who initiated prenatal care on the Women's Health Van achieved earlier access to prenatal care when compared to women initiating care at other community health clinics.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10995-006-0174-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246578900005

    View details for PubMedID 17243022

  • Maximized learning in limited time: Using health failure modes effects analysis (HFMEA) in simulated obstetric crisis drills poor communication is the highest ranking team deficiency 39th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Obstetric-Anesthesia-and-Perinatology Lipman, S., Daniels, K., Valdez, B., Lopez, D., Druzin, M. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2007: B13–B13
  • Cesarean delivery outcomes following prolonged second stage 27th Annual Meeting of the Society-of-Maternal-Fetal-Medicine Fu, J., Daniels, K., Brodzinsky, L., Caughey, A., Lyell, D. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2006: S101–S101
  • Prophylactic antibiotics for prevention of postpartum perineal wound complications Duggal, N., Mercado, C., Daniels, K., Bujor, A., Caughey, A., El-Sayed, Y. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2006: S49
  • Perinatal outcomes among Asian American and Pacific Islander women 26th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Maternal-Fetal-Medicine Rao, A. K., Daniels, K., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Moshesh, M. K., Caughey, A. B. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2006: 834–38


    The purpose of this study was to examine perinatal outcomes between Asian American and Pacific Islander subgroups.This is a retrospective study of all Asian American/Pacific Islander women who were delivered at Stanford University Medical Center from 1998 to 2003. Asian American women were subdivided into the following groups: Indian/Pakistani, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Pacific Islanders (individuals from Tonga, Samoa, Guam, or Polynesia), and Vietnamese. Perinatal outcomes included gestational hypertension/preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, cesarean delivery, birthweight <2500 g, and birthweight >4000 g.In the study population of 3779 Asian American women, there were statistically significant differences (P < .01) between most of the outcomes that were examined. Filipina women had the highest risk of gestational hypertension/preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.21); Indian/Pakistani women had the highest risk of preterm delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 1.67), gestational diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio, 1.39), and low birthweight at term (adjusted odds ratio, 2.30); and Pacific Islander women had the highest risk of macrosomia (adjusted odds ratio, 3.67).Significant differences in perinatal outcomes exist between subgroups of the Asian American and Pacific Islander community. Future research on race/ethnicity and perinatal outcomes should examine heterogeneity among these groups before collapsing these individual subgroups into the larger group "Asian." Individuals should be counseled regarding perinatal risk according to their specific Asian subgroup.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2006.06.079

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240473500031

    View details for PubMedID 16949421

  • Perinatal outcomes among Asian Americans/Pacific islanders 26th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Maternal-Fetal-Medicine Rao, A. K., Daniels, K., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Moshesh, M. K., Caughey, A. B. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2005: S182–S182
  • Peritoneal closure at primary cesarean delivery and adhesions 24th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Maternal-Fetal-Medicine Lyell, D. J., Caughey, A. B., Hu, E., Daniels, K. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2005: 275–80


    To evaluate the effect of parietal peritoneal closure at cesarean delivery on adhesion formation.A prospective cohort study of women undergoing first repeat cesarean delivery was designed. All surgeons were asked immediately after surgery to score the severity and location of adhesions. Patient records were then abstracted to assess prior surgical technique, including parietal peritoneal closure, other attributes of first surgery, and patient characteristics. Exclusion criteria included adhesions, other surgery, or use of permanent suture at the first cesarean, unavailable first postoperative note and course, wound infection or breakdown following first surgery, intervening pelvic surgery, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and steroid-dependent disease. The chi2 test and multivariable logistic regression were used for statistical comparison and analysis. A total of 128 patients was required to have 80% power to detect a 50% reduction in adhesions when the parietal peritoneum was left open.One hundred seventy-three patients were enrolled. Prior parietal peritoneal closure was associated with significantly fewer dense and filmy adhesions (52% versus 73%, P = .006) and significantly fewer dense adhesions (30% versus 45%, P = .043). When controlling for potential confounding variables, including prior infection, visceral peritoneal closure, rectus muscle closure, payor status, ethnicity, maternal age, gestational diabetes, and labor, parietal peritoneal closure at primary cesarean delivery was 5-fold protective against all adhesions (odds ratio 0.20, 95% confidence interval 0.08-0.49), and 3-fold protective against dense adhesions (odds ratio 0.32, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.79). Omental-fascial adhesions were decreased most consistently.Parietal peritoneal closure at primary cesarean delivery was associated with significantly fewer dense and filmy adhesions. The practice of nonclosure of the parietal peritoneum at cesarean delivery should be questioned.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230717800010

    View details for PubMedID 16055575

  • Peritoneal closure at primary cesarean section decreases adhesion formation Lyell, D., Caughey, A., Hu, E., Daniels, K. MOSBY, INC. 2003: S61