- Emergency Medicine
Clinical Assistant Professor, Emergency Medicine
Board Certification: American Board of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine (2019)
Medical Education: University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine (2015) AL
Residency: University of Alabama at Birmingham Emergency Medicine Residency (2018) AL
Fellowship, University of Alabama at Birmingham Simulation Fellowship, AL (2019)
Masters of Science, University of Alabama School of Health Professions, Healthcare Simulation (2019)
The Current State of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Training in Emergency Medicine Residencies.
Pediatric emergency care
BACKGROUND: Several studies show that emergency medicine (EM) physicians are less comfortable caring for pediatric patients than adults. The state of pediatric training has not been comprehensively evaluated since 2000.OBJECTIVES: We sought to describe current pediatric education in EM residencies and to evaluate EM Program Director (PD) confidence in graduating trainees' abilities to care for pediatric patients.METHODS: We conducted an anonymous, cross-sectional survey study of EM PDs in August 2020. We collected program demographics, clinical rotations, and didactic methods. We used Likert scales to measure PD confidence in graduating residents' competence to care for pediatric and adult patients.RESULTS: We found e-mail addresses for 249 (93%) of 268 EM programs. One hundred nineteen (48%) PDs completed the survey. We include denominators to account for unanswered questions. Sixty-eight (59%) of 116 programs spend 10% to 20% of clinical time seeing pediatric patients. One hundred ten (91%) of 119 require a pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) rotation, 88/119 (83%) require pediatric intensive care, and 34/119 (29%) require neonatal intensive care. Seventy (62%) of 113 have curricula designed by PEM-trained faculty, 96/113 (85%) have PEM attendings teach lectures, and 77/113 (68%) spend 10% to 20% of didactic time on pediatric topics. Twenty-three (23%) of 106 PDs stated not all residents graduate with competence in pediatric resuscitation compared with 2/106 (2%) for adult resuscitation (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Program directors report less confidence in graduating residents' competence in caring for pediatric patients compared with adult patients. We propose ideas to strengthen the quality of pediatric education in EM residencies.
View details for DOI 10.1097/PEC.0000000000002819
View details for PubMedID 36018727
The OSSE: Development and validation of an "Objective Structured Supervision Evaluation".
AEM education and training
2022; 6 (4): e10784
Trainee supervision and teaching are distinct skills that both require faculty physician competence to ensure patient safety. No standard approach exists to teach physician supervisory competence, resulting in variable trainee oversight and safety threats. The Objective Structured Teaching Evaluation (OSTE) does not adequately incorporate the specific skills required for effective supervision. To address this continuing medical education gap, the authors aimed to develop and identify validity evidence for an "Objective Structured Supervision Evaluation" (OSSE) for attending physicians, conceptually modeled on the historic OSTE.An expert panel used an iterative process to create an OSSE instrument, which was a checklist of key supervision items to be evaluated during a simulated endotracheal intubation scenario. Three trained "standardized residents" scored faculty participants' performance using the instrument. Validity testing modeled a contemporary approach using Kane's framework. Participants underwent simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) with deliberate practice until meeting a minimum passing standard (MPS).The final instrument contained 19 items, including three global rating measures. Testing domains included supervision climate, participant control of patient care, trainee evaluation, instructional skills, case-specific measures, and overall supervisor rating. Reliability of the assessment tool was excellent (ICC range 0.84-0.89). The assessment tool had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.813). Out of 24 faculty participants, 17 (70.8%) met the MPS on initial assessment. All met the MPS after SBML and average score increased by 19.5% (95% CI of the difference 10.3%-28.8%, p = 0.002).
View details for DOI 10.1002/aet2.10784
View details for PubMedID 35903423
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC9305721
- The OSSE: Development and validation of an "Objective Structured Supervision Evaluation" AEM EDUCATION AND TRAINING 2022; 6 (4)
Simulation-Based Mastery Learning Improves the Performance of Donning and Doffing of Personal Protective Equipment by Medical Students.
The western journal of emergency medicine
2022; 23 (3): 318-323
Medical students lack adequate training on how to correctly don and doff personal protective equipment (PPE). Simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) is an effective technique for procedural education. The aim of this study was to determine whether SBML improves proper PPE donning and doffing by medical students.This was a prospective, pre-test/post-test study of 155 medical students on demonstration of correct PPE use before and after a SBML intervention. Subjects completed standard hospital training by viewing a US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention training video on proper PPE use prior to the intervention. They then participated in a SBML training session that included baseline testing, deliberate practice with expert feedback, and post-testing until mastery was achieved. Students were assessed using a previously developed 21-item checklist on donning and doffing PPE with a minimum passing standard (MPS) of 21/21 items. We analyzed differences between pre-test and post-test scores using paired t-tests. Students at preclinical and clinical levels of training were compared with an independent t-test.Two participants (1.3%) met the MPS on pre-test. Of the remaining 153 subjects who participated in the intervention, 151 (98.7%) reached mastery. Comparison of mean scores from pre-test to final post-test significantly improved from an average raw score of 12.55/21 (standard deviation [SD] = 2.86), to 21/21(SD = 0), t(150) = 36.3, P <0.001. There was no difference between pre-test scores of pre-clinical and clinical students.Simulation-based mastery learning improves medical student performance in PPE donning and doffing in a simulated environment. This approach standardizes PPE training for students in advance of clinical experiences.
View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2022.2.54748
View details for PubMedID 35679489
- Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice in Virtual Reality: Teaching Transvenous Pacemaker Insertion to Emergency Medicine Residents CUREUS 2021; 13 (10)
Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice in Virtual Reality: Teaching Transvenous Pacemaker Insertion to Emergency Medicine Residents.
2021; 13 (10): e18503
Introduction Transvenous pacemaker insertion is a critical life-saving procedure that is infrequently performed. Traditional mannequin-based training paradigms are resource intensive and sometimes inadequate due to time constraints. Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice (RCDP) is an effective teaching modality for highly scripted procedures. We propose using a simulation-based technique of RCDP in virtual reality (VR) to teach this procedure. Methods Sixteen emergency medicine residents were recruited. A pre-survey was administered at the start of the session, followed by a baseline task trainer checklist-based assessment. This checklist was created based on expert consensus. Participants then underwent the RCDP VR intervention with a subsequent repeat checklist-based assessment as well as a post-survey. Results Post-test scores were found to be significantly higher than pre-test scores after residents completed VR deliberate practice simulation (19.5±3.5 vs 24.1±2.0; p<0.001). Subanalysis did not reveal any significant difference based on post-graduate year, previous performance of procedure on a live patient, or previous VR experience. The experience increased participant feelings of preparedness and comfort in performing the procedure (2-disagree vs 4-agree) based on a 5-point Likert scale. Conclusions Virtual reality using RCDP to teach transvenous pacemaker insertion demonstrated an improvement in task trainer performance. Further investigation into whether this translates into better patient outcomes or can be generalized to other procedures needs to be considered.
View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.18503
View details for PubMedID 34754663
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8569655
A Scoping Literature Review of Simulation Training Program Curriculum Standards.
Simulation in healthcare : journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
SUMMARY STATEMENT: Simulation educator training is well supported in the literature and endorsed by the Society of Simulation in Healthcare as well as the International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning. Despite growth of domestic and international training programs, there is a lack of consensus regarding curriculum standards. Our aim was to identify core curricular components of comprehensive simulation training programs. A scoping literature review of all relevant publications from 2000 to 2020 was conducted using a 6-step design. A team of 10 multidisciplinary, international simulation educators independently reviewed all citations with discrepancies resolved by third-person review. Of the initial 320 identified unique publications, a total of 15 articles were included, all published within the last 6 years. Four themes were identified: domains (n = 6), competencies (n = 3), objectives (n = 8), and other characteristics (n = 3). The findings support a greater understanding of the core curricular content across simulation training programs to support standardization.
View details for DOI 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000606
View details for PubMedID 34468420
Mastery learning improves simulated central venous catheter insertion by emergency medicine teaching faculty.
AEM education and training
2021; 5 (4): e10703
Routine competency assessments of procedure skills, such as central venous catheter (CVC) insertion, do not occur beyond residency training. Evidence suggests variable, suboptimal attending physician procedure skills. Our study aimed to assess CVC insertion skill by academic emergency physicians, determine whether a simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) intervention improves performance and investigate for variables that predict competence.This is a pretest-posttest study that evaluated simulated CVC insertion by emergency medicine (EM) faculty physicians. We assessed 44 volunteer participants at a large academic medical center over a 1-month period using a published 29-item checklist. Our primary outcome was the difference in assessment score before and after a SBML intervention. A secondary analysis evaluated predictors of pretest performance.A total of 44 subjects participated. Only four of 44 (9.1%) of subjects met a predefined minimum passing score on pretest. Mean assessment scores increased by 21.5% following the SBML intervention (95% confidence interval [CI] of the difference = 18.1% to 24.8%, p < 0.001). In a regression model, pretest scores increased by 10.8% (95% CI = 2.9 to 18.7%, p = 0.009) if subjects completed postgraduate training within 5 years. Frequency of CVC insertion did not predict performance, but 25 of 44 (56.8%) faculty members had no documented performance or supervision of a CVC insertion within 1 year of assessment.SBML is a promising method to assess and improve CVC insertion performance by EM faculty physicians. Recent completion of postgraduate training was a significant predictor of CVC insertion performance. Our results require validation in larger cohorts of EM physicians across other academic institutions.
View details for DOI 10.1002/aet2.10703
View details for PubMedID 34723048
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC8541755
An Investigation on the Perceptions of Practicing Interdisciplinary Health Professionals on Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice Simulation.
Simulation in healthcare : journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
INTRODUCTION: Rapid cycle deliberate practice (RCDP) is a relatively new method for delivering simulation for a structured algorithm-based clinical content. We sought to understand how a group of practicing emergency medicine healthcare professionals would perceive RCDP as a learning method.METHODS: This was a qualitative study of participants' reactions to RCDP simulation during an orientation process to a new freestanding emergency department using grounded theory. Focus groups were held after simulation sessions to investigate the participants reactions to RCDP as well as the experience of multiple professions participating. Two investigators independently coded the focus group transcripts to detect themes and developed a list of codes, which were then confirmed by consensus. Data were organized into themes with contributing codes.RESULTS: Thirty-one individuals participated in the focus groups including physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses, respiratory therapists, and patient care technicians. Four themes were detected: the procedural components of RCDP, the behavioral response to RCDP, learning through RCDP, and RCDP as interprofessional experience. The participants view of emotions and interruptions and pauses had discrepant interpretation.CONCLUSIONS: Participants received RCDP simulation positively. Initial negative reactions to the interruptions and pauses of RCDP dissipated as the simulation progressed. Ultimately, learners agreed that RCDP was extremely effective as compared with traditional simulation for medical resuscitation training because of the authenticity of the multidisciplinary aspect. This suggests that RCDP may be an effective tool for continuing education of practicing healthcare professionals.
View details for DOI 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000577
View details for PubMedID 34009916
- Improving Emergency Department Airway Preparedness in the Era of COVID-19: An Interprofessional, In Situ Simulation Journal of Education and Teaching in Emergency Medicine. JETem. 2020
- Boerhaave Syndrome Simulation Scenario The Sim Book. 2019
- Trade Secrets: Human Sex Trafficking Critical Decisions in Emergency Medicine 2018; 32 (12)
A Screen for Modifiers of Cilia Phenotypes Reveals Novel MKS Alleles and Uncovers a Specific Genetic Interaction between osm-3 and nphp-4
2016; 12 (2): e1005841
Nephronophthisis (NPHP) is a ciliopathy in which genetic modifiers may underlie the variable penetrance of clinical features. To identify modifiers, a screen was conducted on C. elegans nphp-4(tm925) mutants. Mutations in ten loci exacerbating nphp-4(tm925) ciliary defects were obtained. Four loci have been identified, three of which are established ciliopathy genes mks-1, mks-2, and mks-5. The fourth allele (yhw66) is a missense mutation (S316F) in OSM-3, a kinesin required for cilia distal segment assembly. While osm-3(yhw66) mutants alone have no overt cilia phenotype, nphp-4(tm925);osm-3(yhw66) double mutants lack distal segments and are dye-filling (Dyf) and osmotic avoidance (Osm) defective, similar to osm-3(mn357) null mutants. In osm-3(yhw66) mutants anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) velocity is reduced. Furthermore, expression of OSM-3(S316F)::GFP reduced IFT velocities in nphp-4(tm925) mutants, but not in wild type animals. In silico analysis indicates the S316F mutation may affect a phosphorylation site. Putative phospho-null OSM-3(S316F) and phospho-mimetic OSM-3(S316D) proteins accumulate at the cilia base and tip respectively. FRAP analysis indicates that the cilia entry rate of OSM-3(S316F) is slower than OSM-3 and that in the presence of OSM-3(S316F), OSM-3 and OSM-3(S316D) rates decrease. In the presence OSM-3::GFP or OSM-3(S316D)::GFP, OSM-3(S316F)::tdTomato redistributes along the cilium and accumulates in the cilia tip. OSM-3(S316F) and OSM-3(S316D) are functional as they restore cilia distal segment formation in osm-3(mn357) null mutants; however, only OSM-3(S316F) rescues the osm-3(mn357) null Dyf phenotype. Despite rescue of cilia length in osm-3(mn357) null mutants, neither OSM-3(S316F) nor OSM-3(S316D) restores ciliary defects in nphp-4(tm925);osm-3(yhw66) double mutants. Thus, these OSM-3 mutations cause NPHP-4 dependent and independent phenotypes. These data indicate that in addition to regulating cilia protein entry or exit, NPHP-4 influences localization and function of a distal ciliary kinesin. Moreover, data suggest human OSM-3 homolog (Kif17) could act as a modifying locus affecting disease penetrance or expressivity in NPHP patients.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005841
View details for Web of Science ID 000372554100030
View details for PubMedID 26863025
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4749664