Bachelor of Science, University of New Mexico (2006)
Doctor of Philosophy, University of New Mexico (2012)
Irving Weissman, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Where Hematopoietic Stem Cells Live: The Bone Marrow Niche
ANTIOXIDANTS & REDOX SIGNALING
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can sustain the production of blood throughout one's lifetime. However, for proper self-renewal of its own population and differentiation to blood, the HSC requires a specialized microenvironment called the "niche." Recent Advances: Recent studies using novel mouse models have shed new light on the cellular architecture and function of the HSC niche. Here, we review the different cells that constitute the HSC niche and the molecular mechanisms that underlie HSC and niche interaction. We discuss the evidence and potential features that distinguish the HSC niche from other microenvironments in the bone marrow. The relevance of the niche in malignant transformation of the HSCs and harboring cancer metastasis to the bone is also outlined. In addition, we address how the niche may regulate reactive oxygen species levels surrounding the HSCs. Critical Issues and Future Directions: We propose future directions and remaining challenges in investigating the niche of HSCs. We discuss how a better understanding of the HSC niche may help in restoring an aged hematopoietic system, fighting against malignancies, and transplanting purified HSCs safely and effectively into patients. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
View details for DOI 10.1089/ars.2017.7419
View details for Web of Science ID 000419559300001
View details for PubMedID 29113449
Normal and Neoplastic Stem Cells.
Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology
A stem cell is broadly defined as a cell that retains the capacity to self-renew, a feature that confers the ability to continuously make identical daughter cells or additional cells that will differentiate into downstream progeny. This highly regulated genetic program to retain "stemness" is under active investigation. Research in our laboratory has explored similarities and differences in embryonic, tissue-specific, and neoplastic stem cells and their terminally differentiated counterparts. In this review, we will focus on the contributions of our laboratory, in particular on the studies that identified the mouse hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and the human leukemic stem cell. These studies have led to significant improvements in both preclinical and clinical research, including improved clinical bone marrow transplantation protocols, isolation of nonleukemic HSCs, a cancer immunotherapy currently in clinical trials, and development of a HSC reporter mouse. These studies and the current follow-up research by us and others will continue to identify the properties, function, and regulation of both normal and neoplastic stem cells.
View details for DOI 10.1101/sqb.2016.81.030965
View details for PubMedID 28416577
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia with clinical debut as neurological involvement: a rare phenomenon and the need for better predictive markers.
2017; 17: 3-?
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in Western countries. The frequency of symptomatic central nervous system (CNS) involvement is unknown but thought to be a rare phenomenon. Currently there are no known risk factors for CNS involvement.We describe a clinically staged low-risk CLL case that presented with symptomatic CNS involvement and progressed rapidly to death. Evaluation of the surface adhesion molecules identified a markedly altered expression pattern of the integrin, CD49d, and the tetraspanin, CD82, in the index case when compared to similar low-risk CLL cases. We found that the early Rai clinical stage CLL patients showed linear correlation for the co-expression of CD82 and CD49d. In contrast, this unique index case with CNS involvement, which has the same Rai clinical stage, had a significantly lower expression of CD82 and higher expression of CD49d.These data suggest that the expression profile of CD49d and CD82 may represent potential biomarkers for patients with increased propensity of CNS involvement. Moreover, this study illustrates the critical need for a better mechanistic understanding of how specific adhesion proteins regulate the interactions between CLL cells and various tissue sites.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s12878-017-0073-0
View details for PubMedID 28174663
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5290634
Tetraspanin CD82 regulates bone marrow homing of acute myeloid leukemia by modulating the molecular organization of N-cadherin.
Communication between acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the bone marrow microenvironment is known to control disease progression. Therefore, regulation of AML cell trafficking and adhesion to the bone marrow is of significant interest. In this study, we demonstrate that differential expression of the membrane scaffold CD82 modulates the bone marrow homing of AML cells. By combining mutational analysis and super-resolution imaging, we identify membrane protein clustering by CD82 as a regulator of AML cell adhesion and bone marrow homing. Cluster analysis of super-resolution data indicates that N-linked glycosylation and palmitoylation of CD82 are both critical modifications that control the microdomain organization of CD82 as well as the nanoscale clustering of associated adhesion protein, N-cadherin. We demonstrate that the inhibition of CD82 glycosylation increases the molecular packing of N-cadherin and promotes the bone marrow homing of AML cells. In contrast, we find that the inhibition of CD82 palmitoylation disrupts the formation and organization of N-cadherin clusters and significantly diminishes bone marrow trafficking of AML. Taken together, these data establish a mechanism where the membrane organization of CD82, through specific posttranslational modifications, regulates N-cadherin clustering and membrane density, which impacts the in vivo trafficking of AML cells. As such, these observations provide an alternative model for targeting AML where modulation of protein organization within the membrane may be an effective treatment therapy to disrupt the bone marrow homing potential of AML cells.Oncogene advance online publication, 23 November 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.449.
View details for DOI 10.1038/onc.2015.449
View details for PubMedID 26592446
The membrane scaffold CD82 regulates cell adhesion by altering alpha 4 integrin stability and molecular density
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL
2014; 25 (10): 1560-1573
Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) interactions with the bone marrow microenvironment are important for maintaining HSPC self-renewal and differentiation. In recent work, we identified the tetraspanin protein, CD82, as a regulator of HPSC adhesion and homing to the bone marrow, although the mechanism by which CD82 mediated adhesion was unclear. In the present study, we determine that CD82 expression alters cell-matrix adhesion, as well as integrin surface expression. By combining the superresolution microscopy imaging technique, direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, with protein clustering algorithms, we identify a critical role for CD82 in regulating the membrane organization of α4 integrin subunits. Our data demonstrate that CD82 overexpression increases the molecular density of α4 within membrane clusters, thereby increasing cellular adhesion. Furthermore, we find that the tight packing of α4 into membrane clusters depend on CD82 palmitoylation and the presence of α4 integrin ligands. In combination, these results provide unique quantifiable evidence of CD82's contribution to the spatial arrangement of integrins within the plasma membrane and suggest that regulation of integrin density by tetraspanins is a critical component of cell adhesion.
View details for DOI 10.1091/mbc.E13-11-0660
View details for Web of Science ID 000339650800003
View details for PubMedID 24623721
Pentraxins and IgA share a binding hot-spot on Fc alpha RI
2014; 23 (4): 378-386
The pentraxins, C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum amyloid P component (SAP) have previously been shown to function as innate opsonins through interactions with Fcγ receptors. The molecular details of these interactions were elucidated by the crystal structure of SAP in complex with FcγRIIA. More recently, pentraxins were shown to bind and activate FcαRI (CD89), the receptor for IgA. Here, we used mutations of the receptor based on a docking model to further examine pentraxin recognition by FcαRI. The solution binding of pentraxins to six FcαRI alanine cluster mutants revealed that mutations Y35A and R82A, on the C-and F-strands of the D1 domain, respectively, markedly reduced receptor binding to CRP and SAP. These residues are in the IgA-binding site of the receptor, and thus, significantly affected receptor binding to IgA. The shared pentraxin and IgA-binding site on FcαRI is further supported by the results of a solution binding competition assay. In addition to the IgA-binding site, pentraxins appear to interact with a broader region of the receptor as the mutation in the C'-strand (R48A/E49A) enhanced pentraxin binding. Unlike Fcγ receptors, the H129A/I130A and R178A mutations on the BC- and FG-loops of D2 domain, respectively, had little effect on FcαRI binding to the pentraxins. In conclusion, our data suggest that the pentraxins recognize a similar site on FcαRI as IgA.
View details for DOI 10.1002/pro.2419
View details for Web of Science ID 000333143800005
View details for PubMedID 24407959
Measurement of Intercellular Transfer to Signaling Endosomes
ENDOSOME SIGNALING, PT A
2014; 534: 207-221
Cell-cell communication is essential for an abundance of physiological processes. As such, various mechanisms have evolved to regulate and ensure proper cell-to-cell signaling. Recently, a novel mechanism of cell communication has emerged which involves the physical transfer of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids between cells. Following this process termed intercellular transfer (ICT), the transferred molecules can signal within recipient cells by entering the endosomal system and trafficking to signaling endosomes. Signaling endosomes can modulate signal localization within the cell as well as the specificity of, and cross talk between, signaling pathways. As such, ICT into signaling endosomes has the potential to modify the signaling profile of the recipient cell. In this chapter, we describe the different methods of ICT as well as how transfer to signaling endosomes can be visualized and quantified.
View details for DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-397926-1.00012-3
View details for Web of Science ID 000331017300012
View details for PubMedID 24359956
Pentraxins and Fc receptors
2012; 250: 230-238
Pentraxins are innate pattern recognition molecules whose major function is to bind microbial pathogens or cellular debris during infection and inflammation and, by doing so, contribute to the clearance of necrotic cells as well as pathogens through complement activations. Fc receptors are the cellular mediators of antibody functions. Although conceptually separated, both pentraxins and antibodies are important factors in controlling acute and chronic inflammation and infections. In recent years, increasing experimental evidence suggests a direct link between the innate pentraxins and humoral Fc receptors. Specifically, both human and mouse pentraxins recognize major forms of Fc receptors in solution and on cell surfaces with affinities similar to antibodies binding to their low affinity Fc receptors. Like immune complex, pentraxin aggregation and opsonization of pathogen result in Fc receptor and macrophage activation. The recently published crystal structure of human serum amyloid P (SAP) in complex with FcγRIIA further illustrated similarities to antibody recognition. These recent findings implicate a much broader role than complement activation for pentraxins in immunity. This review summarizes the structural and functional work that bridge the innate pentraxins and the adaptive Fc receptor functions. In many ways, pentraxins can be regarded as innate antibodies.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2012.01162.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000309752300015
View details for PubMedID 23046133
Recognition and functional activation of the human IgA receptor (Fc alpha RI) by C-reactive protein
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2011; 108 (12): 4974-4979
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important biomarker for inflammatory diseases. However, its role in inflammation beyond complement-mediated pathogen clearance remains poorly defined. We identified the major IgA receptor, FcαRI, as a ligand for pentraxins. CRP recognized FcαRI both in solution and on cells, and the pentraxin binding site on the receptor appears distinct from that recognized by IgA. Further competitive binding and mutational analysis showed that FcαRI bound to the effector face of CRP in a region overlapping with complement C1q and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) binding sites. CRP cross-linking of FcαRI resulted in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, cytokine production, and degranulation in FcαRI-transfected RBL cells. In neutrophils, CRP induced FcαRI surface expression, phagocytosis, and TNF-α secretion. The ability of CRP to activate FcαRI defines a function for pentraxins in inflammatory responses involving neutrophils and macrophages. It also highlights the innate aspect of otherwise humoral immunity-associated antibody receptors.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1018369108
View details for Web of Science ID 000288712200055
View details for PubMedID 21383176
Macrophages Activated by C-Reactive Protein through Fc gamma RI Transfer Suppression of Immune Thrombocytopenia
JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY
2009; 182 (3): 1397-1403
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase protein with therapeutic activity in mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus and other inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. To determine the mechanism by which CRP suppresses immune complex disease, an adoptive transfer system was developed in a model of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Injection of 200 microg of CRP 24 h before induction of ITP markedly decreased thrombocytopenia induced by anti-CD41. CRP-treated splenocytes also provided protection from ITP in adoptive transfer. Splenocytes from C57BL/6 mice were treated with 200 microg/ml CRP for 30 min, washed, and injected into mice 24 h before induction of ITP. Injection of 10(6) CRP-treated splenocytes protected mice from thrombocytopenia, as did i.v. Ig-treated but not BSA-treated splenocytes. The suppressive cell induced by CRP was found to be a macrophage by depletion, enrichment, and the use of purified bone marrow-derived macrophages. The induction of protection by CRP-treated cells was dependent on FcRgamma-chain and Syk activation, indicating an activating effect of CRP on the donor cell. Suppression of ITP by CRP-treated splenocytes required Fc gamma RI on the donor cell and Fc gamma RIIb in the recipient mice. These findings suggest that CRP generates suppressive macrophages through Fc gamma RI, which then act through an Fc gamma RIIb-dependent pathway in the recipient to decrease platelet clearance. These results provide insight into the mechanism of CRP regulatory activity in autoimmunity and suggest a potential new therapeutic approach to ITP.
View details for Web of Science ID 000262842100023
View details for PubMedID 19155486
Structural recognition and functional activation of Fc gamma R by innate pentraxins
2008; 456 (7224): 989-U86
Pentraxins are a family of ancient innate immune mediators conserved throughout evolution. The classical pentraxins include serum amyloid P component (SAP) and C-reactive protein, which are two of the acute-phase proteins synthesized in response to infection. Both recognize microbial pathogens and activate the classical complement pathway through C1q (refs 3 and 4). More recently, members of the pentraxin family were found to interact with cell-surface Fcgamma receptors (FcgammaR) and activate leukocyte-mediated phagocytosis. Here we describe the structural mechanism for pentraxin's binding to FcgammaR and its functional activation of FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis and cytokine secretion. The complex structure between human SAP and FcgammaRIIa reveals a diagonally bound receptor on each SAP pentamer with both D1 and D2 domains of the receptor contacting the ridge helices from two SAP subunits. The 1:1 stoichiometry between SAP and FcgammaRIIa infers the requirement for multivalent pathogen binding for receptor aggregation. Mutational and binding studies show that pentraxins are diverse in their binding specificity for FcgammaR isoforms but conserved in their recognition structure. The shared binding site for SAP and IgG results in competition for FcgammaR binding and the inhibition of immune-complex-mediated phagocytosis by soluble pentraxins. These results establish antibody-like functions for pentraxins in the FcgammaR pathway, suggest an evolutionary overlap between the innate and adaptive immune systems, and have new therapeutic implications for autoimmune diseases.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature07468
View details for Web of Science ID 000261768300054
View details for PubMedID 19011614
Memory-influencing intra-basolateral amygdala drug infusions modulate expression of Arc protein in the hippocampus
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2005; 102 (30): 10718-10723
Activation of beta-adrenoceptors in the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) modulates memory storage processes and long-term potentiation in downstream targets of BLA efferents, including the hippocampus. Here, we show that this activation also increases hippocampal levels of activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein (Arc), an immediate-early gene (also termed Arg 3.1) implicated in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation processes. Infusions of the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist, clenbuterol, into the BLA immediately after training on an inhibitory avoidance task enhanced memory tested 48 h later. The same dose of clenbuterol significantly increased Arc protein levels in the dorsal hippocampus. Additionally, posttraining intra-BLA infusions of a memory-impairing dose of lidocaine significantly reduced Arc protein levels in the dorsal hippocampus. Increases in Arc protein levels were not accompanied by increases in Arc mRNA, suggesting that amygdala modulation of Arc protein and synaptic plasticity in efferent brain regions occurs at a posttranscriptional level. Finally, infusions of Arc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides into the dorsal hippocampus impaired performance of an inhibitory avoidance task, indicating that the changes in Arc protein expression are related to the observed changes in memory performance.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0504436102
View details for Web of Science ID 000230853300056
View details for PubMedID 16020527