Understanding and controlling white-light emission from halide perovskites
AMER CHEMICAL SOC. 2019
View details for Web of Science ID 000525061503723
Tuning the bandgap of Cs2AgBiBr6 through dilute tin alloying.
2019; 10 (45): 10620–28
The promise of lead halide hybrid perovskites for optoelectronic applications makes finding less-toxic alternatives a priority. The double perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6 (1) represents one such alternative, offering long carrier lifetimes and greater stability under ambient conditions. However, the large and indirect 1.95 eV bandgap hinders its potential as a solar absorber. Here we report that alloying crystals of 1 with up to 1 atom% Sn results in a bandgap reduction of up to ca. 0.5 eV while maintaining low toxicity. Crystals can be alloyed with up to 1 atom% Sn and the predominant substitution pathway appears to be a ∼2 : 1 substitution of Sn2+ and Sn4+ for Ag+ and Bi3+, respectively, with Ag+ vacancies providing charge compensation. Spincoated films of 1 accommodate a higher Sn loading, up to 4 atom% Sn, where we see mostly Sn2+ substitution for both Ag+ and Bi3+. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations ascribe the bandgap redshift to the introduction of Sn impurity bands below the conduction band minimum of the host lattice. Using optical absorption spectroscopy, photothermal deflection spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, 119Sn NMR, redox titration, single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, multiple elemental analysis and imaging techniques, and DFT calculations, we provide a detailed analysis of the Sn content and oxidation state, dominant substitution sites, and charge-compensating defects in Sn-alloyed Cs2AgBiBr6 (1:Sn) crystals and films. An understanding of heterovalent alloying in halide double perovskites opens the door to a wider breadth of potential alloying agents for manipulating their band structures in a predictable manner.
View details for DOI 10.1039/c9sc02581b
View details for PubMedID 32110348
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7020786
Dynamically Disordered Lattice in a Layered Pb-I-SCN Perovskite Thin Film Probed by Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy.
Journal of the American Chemical Society
The dynamically flexible lattices in lead halide perovskites may play important roles in extending carrier recombination lifetime in 3D perovskite solar-cell absorbers and in exciton self-trapping in 2D perovskite white-light phosphors. Two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy was applied to study a recently reported Pb-I-SCN layered perovskite. The Pb-I-SCN perovskite was spin-coated on a SiO2 surface as a thin film, with a thickness of 100 nm, where the S12CN- anions were isotopically diluted with the ratio of S12CN:S13CN = 5:95 to avoid vibrational coupling and excitation transfer between adjacent SCN- anions. The 12CN stretch mode of the minor S12CN- component was the principal vibrational probe that reported on the structural evolution through 2D IR spectroscopy. Spectral diffusion was observed with a time constant of 4.1 ± 0.3 ps. Spectral diffusion arises from small structural changes that result in sampling of frequencies within the distribution of frequencies comprising the inhomogeneously broadened infrared absorption band. These transitions among discrete local structures are distinct from oscillatory phonon motions of the lattice. To accurately evaluate the structural dynamics through measurement of spectral diffusion, the vibrational coupling between adjacent SCN- anions had to be carefully treated. Although the inorganic layers of typical 2D perovskites are structurally isolated from each other, the 2D IR data demonstrated that the layers of the Pb-I-SCN perovskite are vibrationally coupled. When both S12CN- and S13CN- were pumped simultaneously, cross-peaks between S12CN and S13CN vibrations and an oscillating 2D band shape of the S12CN- vibration were observed. Both observables demonstrate vibrational coupling between the closest SCN- anions, which reside in different inorganic layers. The thin films and the isotopic dilution produced exceedingly small vibrational echo signal fields; measurements were made possible using the near-Brewster's angle reflection pump-probe geometry.
View details for PubMedID 30024160