MHPE, University of Illinois at Chicago
General Surgery Residency, Howard University Hospital
Doctor of Medicine, Howard University (2018)
Bachelor of Science, University of Maryland College Park (2014)
James Korndorffer, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion: A Current Analysis of General Surgery Residency Programs.
The American surgeon
BACKGROUND: Local, regional, and national diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) initiatives have been established to combat barriers to entry and promote retention in surgery residency programs. Our study evaluates changes in diversity in general surgery residency programs. We hypothesize that diversity trends have remained stable nationally and regionally.MATERIALS AND METHODS: General surgery residents in all postgraduate years were queried regarding their self-reported sex, race, and ethnicity following the 2020 ABSITE. Residents were then grouped into geographic regions. Data were analyzed utilizing descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis test, and chi-square analyses.RESULTS: A total of 9276 residents responded. Nationally, increases in female residents were noted from 38.0 to 46.0% (P < .001) and in Hispanic or Latinx residents from 7.3 to 8.3% (P = .031). Across geographic regions, a significant increase in female residents was noted in the Northwest (51.9 to 58.3%, P = .039), Midwest (36.9 to 43.3%, P = .006), and Southwest (35.8 to 47.5%, P = .027). A significant increase in black residents was only noted in the Northwest (0 to 15.8%, P = .031). The proportion of white residents decreased nationally by 8.9% and in the Mid-Atlantic, Southeast, and Southwest between 5.5 and 15.9% (P < .05).DISCUSSION: In an increasingly diverse society, expanding the numbers of underrepresented surgeons in training, and ultimately in practice, is a necessity. This study shows that there are region-specific increases in diversity, despite minimal change on a national level. This finding may suggest the need for region-specific DEI strategies and initiatives. Future studies will seek to evaluate individual programs with DEI plans and determine if there is a correlation to changing demographics.
View details for DOI 10.1177/00031348211048824
View details for PubMedID 34730421
American Board of Surgery Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs): Assessing Graduating Residents' Perception of Preoperative Entrustment.
Journal of surgical education
OBJECTIVE: To determine if graduating surgical residents are achieving entrustment of surgical entrustable professional activities (EPAs). We hypothesize that postgraduate year 5 (PGY5) residents are achieving evaluation and management entrustment in the selected EPAs.DESIGN: In January 2020, surgical residents completed a survey following the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) to measure their levels of entrustment in 4 of the 5 ABS-selected EPAs. A Resident Entrustability Index (REI) score was developed to ascertain PGY5 residents' levels of entrustment (range 1-5). Residents indicated how often their assessments and operative plans were modified in the prior 6 months for each EPA (1=Always, 2=Frequently, 3=Occasionally, 4=Rarely, 5=Never). An independent clinical decision-making score (ICDM) was developed with subsequent evaluation of its relationships to intrinsic, resident-related and extrinsic, program-dependent factors.SETTING: A national post-ABSITE survey.PARTICIPANTS: All general surgery residents participating in ABSITE were invited to participate. Of the 1367 PGY5 residents that completed the survey, 1049 residents (76.7%) responded to the surgical EPA items.RESULTS: Residents achieved an average REI of 4, indicating rare modification of assessments and operative plans for the 4 EPAs assessed. Complete entrustment was reported for inguinal hernias and penetrating abdominal trauma (Median REI = 5, IQR 4, 5) indicating assessments and operative plans were never modified. Lack of entrustment (REI ≤3) was reported by a minority of residents (ranging from 8.6% for operative plan of right lower quadrant pathology to 12.8% for operative plan of blunt abdominal trauma). Significant resident-related and program-dependent factors associated with achievement of expected ICDM was socializing with a co-resident (p = 0.001), while training in one's hometown (p < 0.001) and policies that mandate attendings be scrubbed in (p = 0.022) were associated with decreased achievement of expected ICDM. Overall, 89.2% and 90.3% of PGY5 residents are attaining appropriate levels of entrustment and ICDM abilities, respectively, within 6 months of graduating.CONCLUSIONS: Of the EPAs evaluated, PGY5 residents are achieving appropriate levels of entrustment in evaluation and management. Although this is the case for a vast majority of PGY5 residents, there is still work to be done to ensure that all PGY5 residents are attaining entrustment prior to graduation. Our study also provides content validity for the surgical EPAs in assessing levels of entrustment in PGY5 residents.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jsurg.2021.09.004
View details for PubMedID 34602378
Validity Evidence for Vascular Skills Assessment: The Feasibility of Fundamentals of Vascular Surgery in General Surgery Residency.
Journal of surgical education
OBJECTIVE: As the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) and Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery (FES) have been used for general surgery assessment, the Fundamentals of Vascular Surgery (FVS) has recently been developed to evaluate core operative skills for vascular trainees. This study examines the 3 year implementation of FVS for general surgery residents and it gathers validity evidence using Messick's framework. We hypothesized that the curriculum and assessment tool enhance general surgery resident training and assessment.DESIGN: This is a retrospective review of FVS assessments of residents using descriptive and multivariate analyses.SETTING: This study was conducted at an academic institution, where simulation-based teaching sessions occur in coordination between the general surgery and the integrated vascular surgery residency programs.PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen general surgery residents were assessed in FVS skills by an expert rater from 2018 to 2020.RESULTS: Overall, 86 assessments were completed.CONTENT: Assessment focuses on 3 open vascular skills (End-to-Side Anastomosis, Patch Angioplasty and Clockface Suturing). Response Process: 7 items comprise a graded rating for a skills score. Additionally, a global summary score is designated. Internal Structure: The assessment tool has a Cronbach's alpha of 0.87, demonstrating good internal consistency. Addition of the second rater correlated with Cohen's kappa -0.69 (p < 0.001), indicating poor interrater reliability. Relationships to other variables: The most significant improvement occurred in total scores between PGY2s (17.4 ± 2.37) and PGY4s (23.2 ± 3.00), p < 0.001, indicating adequate level discernment.CONCLUSIONS: The validity evidence of FVS assessment in this study supports its use in general surgery residency at a time when opportunities for open vascular skills assessment may be decreasing due to case availability and shifting paradigms. Further study into quality rater training is needed to optimize national implementation of FVS and ensure consistency in grading.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jsurg.2021.07.009
View details for PubMedID 34446383
Performance assessment using sensor technology.
Journal of surgical oncology
2021; 124 (2): 200-215
Over the past 30 years, there have been numerous, noteworthy successes in the development, validation, and implementation of clinical skills assessments. Despite this progress, the medical profession has barely scratched the surface towards developing assessments that capture the true complexity of hands-on skills in procedural medicine. This paper highlights the development implementation and new discoveries in performance metrics when using sensor technology to assess cognitive and technical aspects of hands-on skills.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.26519
View details for PubMedID 34245582
A 20-year review of surgical training case logs: Is general surgery still general?
BACKGROUND: Surgical training has undergone many facets of restructuring over the most recent decades, with critiques of the quality and variability of training as well as the competency of recent graduates. This study examines the changes in surgical training in operative volume and breadth in the past 2 decades.METHODS: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Case Log Statistics Reports from 1999 to 2019 were reviewed. Case logs were grouped into defined case categories and group levels of postgraduate training. Descriptive analyses and multiple linear regressions were performed.RESULTS: General surgery residents are graduating with 10.7% more cases, owing to increases in mostly junior year cases (P < .001). The breadth of specialty cases has decreased, while there was an increase in alimentary and abdominal cases to 58.4% from 47.2% 20 years ago. A decrease in vascular surgery cases from 19.9% to 10.7% of all cases was noted. Analysis of the distribution of defined categories showed right skewness in many categories with mode being much lower than reported mean.CONCLUSION: Evaluation of trends, despite residents graduating with higher case volume than the minimum required, shows that the breadth and variety of cases has narrowed significantly in the past 20 years, providing a case for general surgery training restructuring.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2021.03.062
View details for PubMedID 33975730
Defining the Deficit in US Surgical Training: The Trainee?s Perspective
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS
2021; 232 (4): 623–27
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2020.11.029623ISSN1072-7515/20
View details for Web of Science ID 000632610800057
Isolating steps instead of learners: Use of deliberate practice and validity evidence in coronavirus disease (COVID)-era procedural assessment.
In surgical training, assessment tools based on strong validity evidence allow for standardized evaluation despite changing external circumstances. At a large academic institution, surgical interns undergo a multimodal curriculum for central line placement that uses a 31-item binary assessment at the start of each academic year. This study evaluated this practice within increased in-person learning restrictions. We hypothesized that external constraints would not affect resident performance nor assessment due to a robust curriculum and assessment checklist.From 2018 to 2020, 81 residents completed central line training and assessment. In 2020, this curriculum was modified to conform to in-person restrictions and social distancing guidelines. Resident score reports were analyzed using multivariate analyses to compare performance, objective scoring parameters, and subjective assessments among "precoronavirus disease" years (2018 and 2019) and 2020.There were no significant differences in average scores or objective pass rates over 3 years. Significant differences between 2020 and precoronavirus disease years occurred in subjective pass rates and in first-time success for 4 checklist items: patient positioning, draping, sterile ultrasound probe cover placement, and needle positioning before venipuncture.Modifications to procedural training within current restrictions did not adversely affect residents' overall performance. However, our data suggest that in 2020, expert trainers may not have ensured learner acquisition of automated procedural steps. Additionally, although 2020 raters could have been influenced by logistical barriers leading to more lenient grading, the assessment tool ensured training and assessment integrity.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2021.06.010
View details for PubMedID 34272045
Can Deep Learning Algorithms Help Identify Surgical Workflow and Techniques?
The Journal of surgical research
2021; 268: 318-325
Surgical videos are now being used for performance review and educational purposes; however, broad use is still limited due to time constraints. To make video review more efficient, we implemented Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms to detect surgical workflow and technical approaches.Participants (N = 200) performed a simulated open bowel repair. The operation included two major phases: (1) Injury Identification and (2) Suture Repair. Accordingly, a phase detection algorithm (MobileNetV2+GRU) was implemented to automatically detect the two phases using video data. In addition, participants were noted to use three different technical approaches when running the bowel: (1) use of both hands, (2) use of one hand and one tool, or (3) use of two tools. To discern the three technical approaches, an object detection (YOLOv3) algorithm was implemented to recognize objects that were commonly used during the Injury Identification phase (hands versus tools).The phase detection algorithm achieved high precision (recall) when segmenting the two phases: Injury Identification (86 ± 9% [81 ± 12%]) and Suture Repair (81 ± 6% [81 ± 16%]). When evaluating three technical approaches in running the bowel, the object detection algorithm achieved high average precisions (Hands [99.32%] and Tools [94.47%]). The three technical approaches showed no difference in execution time (Kruskal-Wallis Test: P= 0.062) or injury identification (not missing an injury) (Chi-squared: P= 0.998).The AI algorithms showed high precision when segmenting surgical workflow and identifying technical approaches. Automation of these techniques for surgical video databases has great potential to facilitate efficient performance review.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jss.2021.07.003
View details for PubMedID 34399354
Outcomes after Cholecystectomy in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease: Does Acuity of Presentation Play a Role?
Journal of the American College of Surgeons
2020; 230 (6): 1020–24
Cholecystectomy is the most commonly performed procedure in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients, but outcomes after cholecystectomy have not been well studied. Our aim was to explore the characteristics and outcomes of cholecystectomy in patients with SCD compared with patients without SCD, and assess whether acuity of presentation played a role.Patients younger than age 35, with the primary diagnosis of gallbladder disease, who underwent cholecystectomy, were identified in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2005 to 2014). Patients were grouped into treatment groups by sickle cell status and acuity of surgery. Patient demographics, length of stay, hospital charges, and complications were evaluated. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare these groups.There were 149,415 patients analyzed; 1,225 (0.82%) had SCD. SCD was associated with higher complication rates (2.69% vs 1.12%), longer lengths of stay (3 days vs 2 days), and higher median hospital charge ($29,170 vs $25,438) (all p < 0.01). Stratified by level of acuity, comparing the SCD group with the non-SCD group, higher complication rates were seen in the acute presentation group (3.92% vs 1.00%, p < 0.01), but were not demonstrated in the elective group (0.98% vs 1.95%, p = 0.114).SCD patients appear to have a longer length of stay, higher hospital spending, and increased complication rates compared with non-SCD patients undergoing cholecystectomy. This difference is pronounced among patients who underwent surgery in the acute setting. The data suggest that planned cholecystectomy may be beneficial in improving postoperative outcomes in SCD patients.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2020.02.046
View details for PubMedID 32240772