Emeritus Faculty, Acad Council, Psychology
- The motive for support and the identification of responsive partners JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY 2010; 44 (3): 342-352
The Motive for Support and the Identification of Responsive Partners.
Journal of research in personality
2010; 44 (3): 342–52
To obtain support from others, a person must first identify responsive partners. One strategy for doing so is to use indicators of responsive partners. We argue that a person with a strong motive for support should rate all indicators highly useful-the "Elevated Motives Effect." Study 1 confirmed this hypothesis by correlating participants' total ratings with existing measures of motive-strength. Study 2 applied the Elevated Motives Effect to demonstrate that motive-strength (in interaction with knowledge of indicators) predicts performance on a laboratory task in which participants evaluated a person: Superior knowledge led to superior performance only when motive-strength was high. Study 3, an experience-sampling study, showed that in everyday life, motivated people more often seek support from others when distressed.
View details for PubMedID 20544011
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2882316
- Attachment Styles and Ethical Behavior: Their Relationship and Significance in the Marketplace JOURNAL OF BUSINESS ETHICS 2009; 87 (3): 299-316
Prototypes and Personal Templates: Collective Wisdom and Individual Differences
2008; 115 (4): 1054-1068
This article concerns individual differences in the associative meaning of psychological concepts. Associative meaning may be assessed with prototype methodology, which yields a list of features of the concept ordered according to their rated importance. Our theory concerns individual differences in a concept's associative meaning: A personal template reveals a person's idiosyncratic associative meaning. It is possible to assess the degree to which a personal template matches the corresponding prototype. The theory distinguishes among three types of concepts. One type, for example, specifies a particular behavior to be predicted, for example, a person who is likely to commit suicide, and features of the prototype would include predictors of suicidal behavior. According to the theory, the most prototypical features are (under specifiable conditions) valid predictors, and people with a strong template-to-prototype match possess more valid knowledge about the concept than do people with a weak template-to-prototype match. Other types of concepts cannot be validated (e.g., those describing subjective experiences). In that case, a strong template-to-prototype match does not reflect a person's degree of valid knowledge. The authors provide three applications of the theory.
View details for DOI 10.1037/a0013122
View details for Web of Science ID 000260210400010
View details for PubMedID 18954214
Can I count on you to be there for me? Individual differences in a knowledge structure
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
2007; 93 (3): 447-465
In Study 1, the authors applied the prototype methodology to identify indicators that people use to predict whether a potential partner will "be there" for them at future times of stress. Using these indicators, the authors constructed a new type of measure of individual differences, the Knowledge of Indicators (KNOWI) Scale. It assesses knowledge of indicators that lead to an expectation that a partner will be there when needed. This measure applies signal detection methods to assess each participant's ability to discriminate good from poor indicators. Two studies showed that the KNOWI Scale predicts performance on two laboratory tasks. In Study 2, participants interacted with a confederate who described a problem revealing subtle cues that another person will not be there when needed. High-scoring participants on the KNOWI Scale recognized the cues more readily. In Study 3, participants read stories about spouses that portrayed a "secure base script." They then read stories about the interaction of inanimate objects and judged which story best matched the human story. High-scoring participants on the KNOWI Scale made more correct matches. In Study 4, the KNOWI Scale was shown to possess convergent and discriminant validity.
View details for Web of Science ID 000248992100009
View details for PubMedID 17723059
- How interpersonal motives clarify the meaning of interpersonal behavior: A revised circumplex model Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 1, 67-86. 2006; 10 (1): 67-86
How interpersonal motives clarify the meaning of interpersonal behavior: a revised circumplex model.
Personality and social psychology review : an official journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc
2006; 10 (1): 67–86
Circumplex models have organized interpersonal behavior along 2 orthogonal dimensions--communion (which emphasizes connection between people) and agency (which emphasizes one person's influence over the other). However, many empirical studies have disconfirmed certain predictions from these models. We therefore revised the model in 4 ways that highlight interpersonal motives. In our revision: (a) the negative pole of communion is indifference, not hostility; (b) a given behavior invites (not evokes) a desired reaction from the partner; (c) the complement of a behavior is a reaction that would satisfy the motive behind that behavior; (d) noncomplementary reactions induce negative affect. If the motive is unclear, the meaning of the behavior is ambiguous. This ambiguity helps explain failures in social support, miscommunications in everyday life, and features of most personality disorders. The model emphasizes measurable individual differences: Reactions that are complementary for one person need not be complementary for another.
View details for PubMedID 16430329
The study of interpersonal problems: A Leary legacy
Symposium on Interpersonal Theory and the Interpersonal Circumplex - Timothy Learys Legacy, at the Meeting of the American-Psychological-Association
ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. 1996: 283–300
The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) is an instrument based on Leary's original theory that has been used to identify dysfunctional patterns in a person's interpersonal interactions. Interpersonal problems can be organized in 2 dimensions, and the 2-dimensional space can be divided into 8 equal sectors (octants). Subscales of the IIP describe problems in each of these octants. The instrument has been used to identify interpersonal problems that are discussed most often in a brief dynamic psychotherapy and problems that are treated most easily. The results show that problems in the "exploitable" octant improve most frequently, whereas problems in the "dominating," "vindictive," and "cold" octants do not improve as readily. We have also examined people's attachment styles in adulthood (following a model proposed by Bowlby) and found that different attachment styles correspond to different types of interpersonal problems.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996UB24900008
View details for PubMedID 8869572
THE PUZZLE OF NEGATIVE SELF-VIEWS - AN EXPLANATION USING THE SCHEMA CONCEPT
Meeting of the Western-Psychological-Association
AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC. 1995: 470–84
View details for Web of Science ID A1995QK44900009
SELF-DEROGATIONS AND THE INTERPERSONAL THEORY
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
1991; 61 (1): 68-79
The interpersonal theory of personality has been applied to explain depressed people's dilemma: The depressed person's submissive behavior invites dominating reactions from other people, and those reactions sustain the depressed person's depression. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that self-derogations connote submissiveness but are generally judged to be neutral in affiliation. Experiment 3 tested implications for the behavior of dysphoric and nondysphoric Ss as they interacted with a self-derogating, other-derogating, or nonderogating confederate partner. Ss selected a topic from a list and talked about it for 1 min: the confederate's script was fixed. The S's judgments of the confederate, choice of topics, satisfaction with the interaction, and actual responses were analyzed. Self-derogators were judged to be submissive, elicited dominating reactions, and selected more topics with negative content.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991FW17900006
View details for PubMedID 1890589
SATISFACTION IN INTERPERSONAL INTERACTIONS AS A FUNCTION OF SIMILARITY IN LEVEL OF DYSPHORIA
JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
1990; 58 (5): 823-831
This study compared dysphoric and nondysphoric male and female undergraduates as they conversed with dysphoric or nondysphoric undergraduates of the same sex. Subjects rated their satisfaction with the conversation after each turn. The results showed that people in homogeneous dyads (i.e., both partners were dysphoric or both partners were nondysphoric) were more satisfied with the interaction, and their satisfaction increased as the conversation proceeded. People in mixed dyads were less satisfied, perceived each other as colder, and spoke about increasingly negative topics. Thus, in accord with other research showing that similarity leads to liking, the crucial determinant of interactional satisfaction was neither the mood of the subject nor the mood of the partner, but their similarity in mood.
View details for Web of Science ID A1990DE49600007
View details for PubMedID 2348370
- INVENTORY OF INTERPERSONAL PROBLEMS - PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES AND CLINICAL-APPLICATIONS JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY 1988; 56 (6): 885-892
THE INTERPERSONAL BASIS OF PSYCHIATRIC-SYMPTOMS
CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
1986; 6 (5): 443-469
View details for Web of Science ID A1986E349900006
- THE PROTOTYPE AS A CONSTRUCT IN ABNORMAL-PSYCHOLOGY .2. CLARIFYING DISAGREEMENT IN PSYCHIATRIC JUDGMENTS JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY 1981; 90 (6): 575-585
- THE PROTOTYPE AS A CONSTRUCT IN ABNORMAL-PSYCHOLOGY .1. A METHOD FOR DERIVING PROTOTYPES JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY 1981; 90 (6): 568-574
- COGNITIVE STRUCTURE OF INTERPERSONAL PROBLEMS TREATED IN PSYCHOTHERAPY JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY 1979; 47 (1): 5-15
- AVERAGING JUDGES RATINGS TO INCREASE THEIR CORRELATION WITH AN EXTERNAL CRITERION JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY 1979; 47 (3): 453-458
- COHESIVE AND DISPERSAL BEHAVIORS - 2 CLASSES OF CONCOMITANT CHANGE IN PSYCHOTHERAPY JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY 1978; 46 (3): 556-564
- DISCOMFORTING TALK AND SPEECH DISRUPTIONS JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY 1977; 45 (6): 1036-1042
- IDENTIFICATION OF WARDED-OFF MENTAL CONTENTS - EMPIRICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTION JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY 1975; 84 (5): 545-558
RECOGNITION AND CUED RECALL OF IDIOMS AND PHRASES
JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
1973; 100 (2): 291-296
View details for Web of Science ID A1973R030400012