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  • The motive for support and the identification of responsive partners JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY Turan, B., Horowitz, L. M. 2010; 44 (3): 342-352
  • Attachment Styles and Ethical Behavior: Their Relationship and Significance in the Marketplace JOURNAL OF BUSINESS ETHICS Albert, L. S., Horowitz, L. M. 2009; 87 (3): 299-316
  • Prototypes and Personal Templates: Collective Wisdom and Individual Differences PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW Horowitz, L. M., Turan, B. 2008; 115 (4): 1054-1068

    Abstract

    This article concerns individual differences in the associative meaning of psychological concepts. Associative meaning may be assessed with prototype methodology, which yields a list of features of the concept ordered according to their rated importance. Our theory concerns individual differences in a concept's associative meaning: A personal template reveals a person's idiosyncratic associative meaning. It is possible to assess the degree to which a personal template matches the corresponding prototype. The theory distinguishes among three types of concepts. One type, for example, specifies a particular behavior to be predicted, for example, a person who is likely to commit suicide, and features of the prototype would include predictors of suicidal behavior. According to the theory, the most prototypical features are (under specifiable conditions) valid predictors, and people with a strong template-to-prototype match possess more valid knowledge about the concept than do people with a weak template-to-prototype match. Other types of concepts cannot be validated (e.g., those describing subjective experiences). In that case, a strong template-to-prototype match does not reflect a person's degree of valid knowledge. The authors provide three applications of the theory.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0013122

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260210400010

    View details for PubMedID 18954214

  • Can I count on you to be there for me? Individual differences in a knowledge structure JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Turan, B., Horowitz, L. A. 2007; 93 (3): 447-465

    Abstract

    In Study 1, the authors applied the prototype methodology to identify indicators that people use to predict whether a potential partner will "be there" for them at future times of stress. Using these indicators, the authors constructed a new type of measure of individual differences, the Knowledge of Indicators (KNOWI) Scale. It assesses knowledge of indicators that lead to an expectation that a partner will be there when needed. This measure applies signal detection methods to assess each participant's ability to discriminate good from poor indicators. Two studies showed that the KNOWI Scale predicts performance on two laboratory tasks. In Study 2, participants interacted with a confederate who described a problem revealing subtle cues that another person will not be there when needed. High-scoring participants on the KNOWI Scale recognized the cues more readily. In Study 3, participants read stories about spouses that portrayed a "secure base script." They then read stories about the interaction of inanimate objects and judged which story best matched the human story. High-scoring participants on the KNOWI Scale made more correct matches. In Study 4, the KNOWI Scale was shown to possess convergent and discriminant validity.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248992100009

    View details for PubMedID 17723059

  • How interpersonal motives clarify the meaning of interpersonal behavior: A revised circumplex model Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 1, 67-86. Horowitz, L. M., Wilson, K. R., Turan, B., Zolotsev, P., Constantino, M. J., Henderson, L. 2006; 10 (1): 67-86
  • The study of interpersonal problems: A Leary legacy JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT Horowitz, L. M. 1996; 66 (2): 283-300

    Abstract

    The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) is an instrument based on Leary's original theory that has been used to identify dysfunctional patterns in a person's interpersonal interactions. Interpersonal problems can be organized in 2 dimensions, and the 2-dimensional space can be divided into 8 equal sectors (octants). Subscales of the IIP describe problems in each of these octants. The instrument has been used to identify interpersonal problems that are discussed most often in a brief dynamic psychotherapy and problems that are treated most easily. The results show that problems in the "exploitable" octant improve most frequently, whereas problems in the "dominating," "vindictive," and "cold" octants do not improve as readily. We have also examined people's attachment styles in adulthood (following a model proposed by Bowlby) and found that different attachment styles correspond to different types of interpersonal problems.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UB24900008

    View details for PubMedID 8869572

  • THE PUZZLE OF NEGATIVE SELF-VIEWS - AN EXPLANATION USING THE SCHEMA CONCEPT JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Malle, B. F., Horowitz, L. M. 1995; 68 (3): 470-484
  • SELF-DEROGATIONS AND THE INTERPERSONAL THEORY JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Horowitz, L. M., Locke, K. D., Morse, M. B., WAIKAR, S. V., Dryer, D. C., Tarnow, E., Ghannam, J. 1991; 61 (1): 68-79

    Abstract

    The interpersonal theory of personality has been applied to explain depressed people's dilemma: The depressed person's submissive behavior invites dominating reactions from other people, and those reactions sustain the depressed person's depression. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that self-derogations connote submissiveness but are generally judged to be neutral in affiliation. Experiment 3 tested implications for the behavior of dysphoric and nondysphoric Ss as they interacted with a self-derogating, other-derogating, or nonderogating confederate partner. Ss selected a topic from a list and talked about it for 1 min: the confederate's script was fixed. The S's judgments of the confederate, choice of topics, satisfaction with the interaction, and actual responses were analyzed. Self-derogators were judged to be submissive, elicited dominating reactions, and selected more topics with negative content.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FW17900006

    View details for PubMedID 1890589

  • SATISFACTION IN INTERPERSONAL INTERACTIONS AS A FUNCTION OF SIMILARITY IN LEVEL OF DYSPHORIA JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Locke, K. D., Horowitz, L. M. 1990; 58 (5): 823-831

    Abstract

    This study compared dysphoric and nondysphoric male and female undergraduates as they conversed with dysphoric or nondysphoric undergraduates of the same sex. Subjects rated their satisfaction with the conversation after each turn. The results showed that people in homogeneous dyads (i.e., both partners were dysphoric or both partners were nondysphoric) were more satisfied with the interaction, and their satisfaction increased as the conversation proceeded. People in mixed dyads were less satisfied, perceived each other as colder, and spoke about increasingly negative topics. Thus, in accord with other research showing that similarity leads to liking, the crucial determinant of interactional satisfaction was neither the mood of the subject nor the mood of the partner, but their similarity in mood.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DE49600007

    View details for PubMedID 2348370

  • INVENTORY OF INTERPERSONAL PROBLEMS - PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES AND CLINICAL-APPLICATIONS JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Horowitz, L. M., Rosenberg, S. E., Baer, B. A., URENO, G., VILLASENOR, V. S. 1988; 56 (6): 885-892

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988R143600016

    View details for PubMedID 3204198

  • THE INTERPERSONAL BASIS OF PSYCHIATRIC-SYMPTOMS CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW Horowitz, L. M., Vitkus, J. 1986; 6 (5): 443-469
  • THE PROTOTYPE AS A CONSTRUCT IN ABNORMAL-PSYCHOLOGY .1. A METHOD FOR DERIVING PROTOTYPES JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Horowitz, L. M., Wright, J. C., Lowenstein, E., Parad, H. W. 1981; 90 (6): 568-574

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981MU03900009

    View details for PubMedID 7320326

  • THE PROTOTYPE AS A CONSTRUCT IN ABNORMAL-PSYCHOLOGY .2. CLARIFYING DISAGREEMENT IN PSYCHIATRIC JUDGMENTS JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Horowitz, L. M., Post, D. L., French, R. D., WALLIS, K. D., SIEGELMAN, E. Y. 1981; 90 (6): 575-585

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981MU03900010

    View details for PubMedID 7320327

  • COGNITIVE STRUCTURE OF INTERPERSONAL PROBLEMS TREATED IN PSYCHOTHERAPY JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Horowitz, L. M. 1979; 47 (1): 5-15

    View details for Web of Science ID A1979GJ95900001

    View details for PubMedID 429667

  • AVERAGING JUDGES RATINGS TO INCREASE THEIR CORRELATION WITH AN EXTERNAL CRITERION JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Horowitz, L. M., Inouye, D., SIEGELMAN, E. Y. 1979; 47 (3): 453-458

    View details for Web of Science ID A1979HC92600003

    View details for PubMedID 528713

  • COHESIVE AND DISPERSAL BEHAVIORS - 2 CLASSES OF CONCOMITANT CHANGE IN PSYCHOTHERAPY JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Horowitz, L. M., Sampson, H., SIEGELMAN, E. Y., Weiss, J., GOODFRIEND, S. 1978; 46 (3): 556-564

    View details for Web of Science ID A1978FC55800020

    View details for PubMedID 670498

  • DISCOMFORTING TALK AND SPEECH DISRUPTIONS JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Horowitz, L. M., WECKLER, D., Saxon, A., LIVAUDAIS, J. D., BOUTACOFF, L. I. 1977; 45 (6): 1036-1042

    View details for Web of Science ID A1977EC23600010

    View details for PubMedID 925213

  • IDENTIFICATION OF WARDED-OFF MENTAL CONTENTS - EMPIRICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTION JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Horowitz, L. M., Sampson, H., SIEGELMAN, E. Y., Wolfson, A., Weiss, J. 1975; 84 (5): 545-558

    View details for Web of Science ID A1975AS63400015

    View details for PubMedID 1194515

  • RECOGNITION AND CUED RECALL OF IDIOMS AND PHRASES JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Horowitz, L. M., MANELIS, L. 1973; 100 (2): 291-296