Having completed my medical training in UK, I have been practicing anesthesia at Stanford since 1995, with a particular interest in regional anesthesia.

Clinical Focus

  • Anesthesia
  • Regional anesthesia

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Medical Education:University of Bristol School Of Medicine Registrar (1981) United Kingdom
  • Board Certification: Anesthesia, Royal College of Anasthetists of Ireland (1989)
  • Residency:Manchester Teaching Hospitals (1984) England
  • Internship:Queen Elizabeth Hospital/Eng (1982)

2017-18 Courses

Graduate and Fellowship Programs

All Publications

  • Isosulfan blue affects pulse oximetry ANESTHESIOLOGY Vokach-Brodsky, L., Jeffrey, S. S., Lemmens, H. J., Brock-Utne, J. G. 2000; 93 (4): 1002-1003


    Certain vital dyes are known to cause pulse oximetry (Spo2) desaturation. The authors studied the effect of isosulfan blue (IB) on Spo2.Thirty-three women, aged 34-81 yr, who were undergoing surgery for breast cancer were studied. IB, 5 ml (50 mg), was injected intraparenchymally around the tumor area by the surgeon. A pulse oximeter was used to continuously record Spo2 values up to 130 min after IB injection. Friedman repeated-measures analysis of ranks was used to analyze the baseline Spo2 and values at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min.Spo2 values were significantly different from baseline values at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min (P < 0.05). In a typical patient, a maximum Spo2 decrease of 3% can be anticipated 25 min after injection of IB.After peritumoral administration of IB, 50 mg, a significant interference with Spo2 will occur.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000089671900017

    View details for PubMedID 11020754